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to generals, who were wont to create knights bannerets after or before an engagement. Even so late as the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Essex highly offended his jealous sovereign by the indiscriminate exertion of this privilege. Amongst others, he knighted the witty Sir John Harrington, whose favour at court was by no means enhanced by his new honours. See the Nug<e Antique, edited by Mr Park. But probably the latest instance of knighthood, conferred by a subject, was in the case of Thomas Ker, knighted by the Earl of Huntley, after the defeat of the Earl of Argyle in the battle of Belrinnes. The fact is attested, both by a poetical and prose account of the engagement, contained in a MS. in the Advocates' library, and lately edited by Mr Dalyell, in Godly Sangs and Ballets, Edin. 1802.

When English blood swelled Ancramford.

St. XXIII. p. 122. The battle of Ancram Moor, or Peniel-heuch, was fought A. D. 1545. The English, commanded by Sir Ralph Evers and Sir Brian Latoun, were totally routed, and both their leaders slain in the action. The Scottish army was commanded by Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus, assisted by the laird of Buccleuch and Norman Lesly.

The blanche Hon.—St. XXVII. p. 125. This was the cognisance of the noble house of Howard in all its branches. The crest, or bearing, of a warrior, was often used as a nomme de guerre. Thus Richard III. acquired his well-known epithet, the Boar of York. In the violent satire on Cardinal Wolsey, commonly, but erroneously, imputed to Dr Bull, the Duke of Buckingham is'called the Beautiful Swan, and the Duke of Norfolk, or Earl of Surrey, the White Lion. As the book is extremely rare, and the whole passage relates to the emblematical interpretation of heraldry, it shall be here given at length.

The Description of the Armes.

Of the proud Cardinall this is the shelde,
Borne up betwene two angels of Sathan;
The sixe blouddy axes in a bare telde,
Sheweth the cruelte of the red man.
Which hath devoured the Beautifull Swau,
Mortal! enemy unto the Whyte Liou,
Carter of Yorke, the vyle butcher's sonne.

The six bulles heddes in a felde blacke,
. ^ Betokeneth his stordy furiousues,

Wherfore, the godly lyght to put abacke,
He bryngeth in his dyvlish darcnes;
The bandog in the middes doth expresse
The mastif curre bred in Ypswich towne,
Gnawyngc with his teth a kinges crowne.

The cloubbe signifieth playne his tiranny,
Covered over with a Cardinal's hatt,
Wherein shal be fulfilled the prophecy,
Aryse up Jacke, and put on thy salatt,
For the tyme is come of bagge and walatt.
The temporall chevalry thus throwen doune,
Wherlor prest take hede, and beware thy crowne.

There are two copies of this very scarce satire in the library of the late John, Duke of Roxburghe.

Let Musgrave meet fierce Deloraine
In single fight. St. XXVII. p. 126.

It may easily be supposed, that trial by single combat, so peculiar to the feudal system, was common on the Borders. The following indenture will shew at how late a period it was there resorted to, as a proof of guilt or innocence.

"It is agreed between Thomas Musgrave and Lancelot Carleton, for the true trial of such controversies as are betwixt them, to have it openly tried, by way of combat, before God and the face of the world, to try it in Canonby-holme, before England and Scotland, upon Thursday in Easter-week, being the eight day of April next ensuing, A. D. 1602, betwixt nine of the clock, and one of the same day, to fight on foot, to be armed with jack, steel cap, plaite sleeves, plaite breeches plaite sockes, two baslaerd swords, the blades to be one yard and half a quarter of length, two Scotch daggers or dorks at their girdles, and either of them to provide armour and weapons for themselves, according to this indenture. Two gentlemen to be appointed on the field to view both the parties, to see that they both be equal in arms and weapons, according to this indenture; and being so viewed by the gentlemen, the gentlemen to ride to the rest of the company, and to leave them but two boys viewed by the gentlemen, to be under 16 years of age, to hold their horses. In testimony of this our

agreement, we have both set our hands to this indenture, of intent all matters shall be made so plain, as there shall be no question to stick upon that day. Which indenture, as a witness, shall be delivered to two gentlemen. And for that it is convenient the world should be privy to every particular of the grounds of the quarrel, we have agreed to set it down in this indenture betwixt us, that, knowing the quarrel, their eyes may be witness of the trial.

The Grounds of the Quarrel.

"1. Lancelot Carleton did charge Thomas Musgrave before the lords of her majesty's privy council, that Lancelot Carleton was told by a gentleman, one of her majesty's sworn servants, that Thomas Musgrave had offered to deliver her majesty's castle of Bewcastle to the king of Scots; and to witness the same, Lancelot Carleton had a letter under the gentleman's own hand for his discharge.

"2. He chargeth him, that whereas her majesty doth yearly bestow a great fee upon him, as captain of Bewcastle, to aid and defend her majesty's subjects therein; Thomas Musgrave hath neglected his duty, for that her majesty's castle of Bewcastle was by him. made a den of thieves, and an harbour and receipt for murderers, felons, and all sorts of misdemeanors. The precedent was Quinten Whitehead and Bunion Blackburne.

"3. He chargeth him, that his office of Bewcastle is open

for the Scotch to ride in and through, and small resistance made by him to the contrary.

"Thomas Musgrave doth deny all this charge; and saith, that he will prove that Lancelot Carleton doth falsely bely him, and will prove the same by way of combat, according to this indenture. Lancelot Carleton hath entertained the challenge; and so, by God's permission, will prove it true as before, and hath set his hand to the same.

(Signed) Thomas Musgrave.

Lancelot Carleton."

He, the jovial harper.—St. XXXI. p. 129. The person, here alluded to, is one of our ancient Border niins trels, called Rattling Roaring Willie. This soubriquet was probably derived from his bullying disposition; being, it would seem, such a roaring boy, as is frequently mentioned in old plays. While drinking at Newmill, upon Teviot, about five miles above Hawick, Willie chanced to quarrel with one of his own profession, who was usually distinguished by the odd name of Sweet Milk, from a place on Rule water so called. They retired to a meadow on the opposite side of the Teviot, to decide the contest with their swords, and Sweet Milk was killed on the spot. A thorn-tree marks the scene of the murder, which is still called Sweet Milk Thorn. Willie was taken and executed at Jedburgh, bequeathing his name to the beautiful Scotch air, called "Rattling Roaring Willie." Ramsay, who set no value on traditionary lore, published a few verses

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