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their own bounds, they might questionlesse haue possibility of discovering a North-West Pasing. But when the seruant presumes to controlle sage. The opening, words of his statement the Mistrisse, the house seemes much out of order." are interesting (book ii. p. 122) :

“ Hitherto haue we treated of other passages, It is interesting to note such personal allu- either effected or attempted to Cathay and the East sions as the following (book i. p. 247):- Indies. The last and most desired and sought in

“This way I first found in Mr. Purchas his rela- our time, is that by the North-west. This way tion of Halls discouery of Groenland, written by hath bin often atten,pted, as by Cabot, Dauis, FroWilliam Baffin since this Chapter came vnder the bisher, Hudson, Sr Thomas Button and others, but Presse : the expression of which, being as I suppose the industry of Marriners, then the wit of Schollers.”

as yet not found out. Neither hath it more troubled shorter and easier then in the Author, I doo owe for the most part to my worthy Chamberfellow, Mr. Speaking of mountainous countries and Nathanael Norrington, to whose learned conference, their inhabitants, he mentions, among others, I confesse my selfe to owe some fruits of my labours the Scottish Highlanders (book ii. p. 258) :in this kinde, and all the offices of friendship.”

" The like ought to be spoken of the Welch and Serpents not found in Ireland (book ii. Cornish people amongst vs, as of the Scottish p. 24):

Highlanders : all which liuing in mountanous “Some Beasts and Serpents are in some places countries haue withstood the violence of forraigners, seldome knowne to breed or liue, wherewith not- and for many yeares preserued their owne liberty. withstanding other Regions swarme in abundance :

A. S. as for exaniple, Ireland, wherein no Serpent or

(To be continued.) worme hath beene knowne to liue, whereby Africa and many other Countries finde no small molestation."

THE CHURCHYARD OF ST. MARGARET'S, There is something droll in the coupling of WESTMINSTER, AND ITS IMPROVEMENT. authorities in the next extract (book ii. p. 76):

For many years this interesting, little " That Sea Water strained through clay, will

“God's acre had been in a most deplorable turne fresh : as likewise powdred flesh being 'layed condition, and was noted as being a public to soake in salt water, will soone turne sweet : The scandal. The gravestones were not level, former is verified by Baptista Porta : of the other, many were broken, and on nearly all (or at euery kitchin' maide on the Sea side will informe vs.' least a great proportion) of them the inscrip

Carpenter refers to the possibility of a canal tions had become unreadable, owing to the between the Mediterranean and Red Seas, constant traffic over them, there being a which, as we all know, is now an accom- right of way through the churchyard from plished fact. The passage in his book need end to end, and also to a point nearly opposite not therefore be quoted.

the building now rebuilt as the Middlesex Edmund Bolton, in his Nero Cæsar,' County Hall

, but then known as the West1627 (first published in 1624), has a reference minster Sessions House. The ground, where to the Isthmus of Panama. Carpenter re- there were no stones, was in great holes and cords a conjectural reason why a canal had ruts, which held the water in wet seasons, not been cut through it, probably long before and at all periods of the year presented both his day (book ii. p. 112):

difficulties and dangers to those who had to “ Moreouer it is obserued that the sea on the cross it. Many attempts were made to put west part of America commonly called Mare Del it into something like decent order, but Zur, is much higher then the Atlantick Şea which without anything like permanent good way to the coniecture of some, that the Isthmus resulting; consequently as time went on bad betwixt Panama and Nombre De Dios had bin long became worse, and the dangers and difficulsince cut through to haue made a passage into the ties were intensified. Pacifick Sea, without sayling so farre about by the Among the many proposals for improvestraits of Magellane; had not many inconveniences ment, the most notable was one made by bin feared out of the inæquality in the hight of the Mr. Austen H. Layard, M.P., who at the time Water."

held the office of First Commissioner of Discussing the possibility of a North-East Works, and under whose auspices the imPassage, our author interpolates the follow

provement in the adjoining St. Margaret's ing (book ii. p. 121):“Lastly, there is a fish which hath a Horne in his mental railings by which the square is sur

Square was made. The extremely ornaFrobisher found one on the coast of Newfoundland, rounded, and the very fine granite columns and gaue it to Queene Elizabeth, which was said to upon which the lamps at the angles are be put into her Wardrobe : But whether it be the mounted, we owe to the fine taste of that same which is at this day to be seene at Windsor gentleman, who desired that the churchyard Castle, (I] cannot tell."

should be improved in a like manner, as it He also discusses at considerable length the was thought the cost could be included in the funds to be voted by Parliament for that minutes of this committee, and as they have purpose. The rector, church wardens, and passed into private hands, and may, and not others were called together, and the pro- improbably will, in the course of time get posals submitted were agreed to, it being further alienated, I think it advisable that then thought that better days were in store some portions of them should be preserved in for this somewhat desolate-looking spot. But the pages of 'N. & Q.' a change in the Government was made, and The General Committee was as here given : Mr. Layard became Ambassador at Madrid, Canon Farrar, Chairman; the Dukes of Bucand at the Office of Works Mr. Acton Smee cleuch and Westminster, the Lord Chancellor, Ayrton reigned in his stead. It is common the Speaker, Lord Richard Grosvenor, M.P. knowledge that the ideas of the latter gentle Lord Henry Scott, M.P., the Right Hon. W. H. man upon the subject of art and embellish. Smith, M.P., Sir Rutherford Alcock, Sir Henry ments generally, were, to say the least of Hunt, the Dean of Westminster, Archdeacon them, peculiar, the ultimate outcome of the Jennings, and Canon Prothero; Messrs. J. H. negotiations being that the plan as proposed Puleston, M.P., Herbert Gladstone, M.P., by his predecessor was indefinitely shelved, Edward Easton, J. F. Bateman, F.R.S., G. and the place remained, to the annoyance of Brown, W. D. Barnett, J. M. Hora, Stewart all interested in the matter, just as it was Helder, Harry W. Lee, J. L. Pearson, R.A., before. No one was more vexed at the turn G. F. Trollope, T. J. White, and J. Hockridge; things had taken than Dr. Farrar, who in the Rev. E. A. Browne, the senior curate of one of his best-remembered sermons spoke St. Margaret's, Hon. Secretary. The first in no measured terms of the iniquity of the meeting was held ou 18 June, 1881, in the offence of leaving in such a neglected state vestry room of the church, the rector being what might be a beautiful and restful spot, in the chair. A proposition was made by and pointedly asked if it were not time the Speaker, and seconded by Sir Rutherford that something should be done, so that the Alcock, that “the concession of ground (as

generations of Westminster people might indicated on a plan laid before the Comrest again under the green turf." There were mittee) be made to the Metropolitan Board some people who, in advocating the restora- of Works." The next proposition was moved tion of the churchyard to something like by Mr. W. H. Smith and seconded by Mr. order and decency, wished the stone pyra- J. F. Bateman, that “Sir Rutherford Alcock mids placed at intervals between the railings and Messrs. Helder, Easton, Barnett, White, to be removed. I am pleased to be able to Trollope, and Lee do constitute a sub-comput upon record that one powerful voice mittee to draw up a petition for a faculty to was raised for their retention. Sir Reginald carry out improvements in the churchyard, Palgrave protested against any removal, and to consider details to be laid before the declaring that they had remained landmarks next meeting of the General Committee.” through a long, series of years, and should Further propositions were made that subcontinue to mark the boundary of the church- scriptions be invited to supplement the grant yard, no matter what was done in the way of H.M. Office of Works, and that a special of beautifying or improvement.

appeal be inade to members of both Houses The late Mr. T. C. Noble, a well-known of Parliament to contribute to the Improveand frequent contributor to 'N. & Q.,' wrote ment Fund. in the Builder of 27 August, 1881, as follows: The report of the sub-committee appointed

“After a long series of years there is some chance at the first meeting was duly presented, and now of its being made a more pleasing place to look as it is of much interest and of some imat than it has hitherto been. About an acre in portance, it is here given in extenso :.extent, its dilapidated appearance has long been an eyesore both to the church and the Abbey au. That it appeared to them that the simplest thorities; but as the only way of remedying the plan for carrying out the proposed improveevil was by obtaining something like 3,0001., the ment is-amount required to plant and ornament the grounds, Firstly: To sink the gravestones in situ suffi. that step could not be readily taken.'

ciently deep to admit of the ground over them This was certainly the position of affairs, to the level of the north entrance to the Abbey,

being covered with turf, the surface being reduced but in that year Dr. Farrar, the rector of and to deposit the surplus within the boundaries of St. Margaret's, decided to make a great the churchyard. For this purpose levels have been effort to improve matters, and an influential taken, so as to have an accurate profile of the committee was formed to take the matter churchyard, and some of the stones have been raised in hand, and it is pleasing to record that The sub-committee have the pleasure to report that

to ascertain the condition of the ground underneath. its labours in the end were crowned with the conditions were found to be most favourable to success. I have been permitted to see the the undertaking, both in the churchyard generally

seen.

and in that small portion which the General Com- 2. Smaller copy, by Cesare Magnis, also mittee have already agreed to make over to the showing the feet of Christ. Not a pleasing therefore recommend (?) that an exact plan of the copy. It is gross, and lacks sublimity. Drinkchurchyard be made, showing the present position ing glasses half full of red wine. of the gravestones, and that such plan be kept in 3. Copy by Marco d'Oggiono. The table some part of the church ; (2) that a copy be made is bare. No plates, glasses, or edibles. Although of the inscriptions on the gravestones, to be re: the doorway had not been pierced in 1510, that the churchyard be laid down with grass in the when, presumably, this copy was made, the manner already indicated (without the addition of feet of Christ are not depicted. If we assume any trees or shrubs).

that this copy was made in presence of the Secondly: That, aware of the importance of original, my italicized words are significant. ing out this worl. hey have secured the services the fresco after Leonardo's departure. obtaining the very best professional advice in carry. Possibly important additions were made to of J. L. Pearson, Esq., R.A., Architect to the Abbey, and have entrusted to Mr. Wills, of the

4. Photograph of the fresco at Ponte Floricultural Hall, Regent Street, the laying out Capriasca (Canton Ticino). Here the feet of of the ground under his superintendence. The Christ (as in No. 2) are Drinking sub-committee recommend for the approval of the glasses void of wine. In the background we General Committee the plans for the laying out of behold the sacrifice of Jacob; also Christ the ground (and for the railings with which it is proposed to surround it) as prepared by Mr. Pear. praying in the garden. On the lower portion son, which are submitted herewith.

of the frame the Apostles are thus named, “'Thirdly: That, in accordance with the resolu- from left to right as they appear in the tion of the General Committee, the following letter, original : _St. Bartholomew, St. James the as written by the chairman, and approved by the Less, St. Peter, Judas, St. John, St. James, both Houses of Parliament. [I would note that a St. Thomas, St. Philip, St. Matthew, St. Tad copy of the letter alluded to does not appear to have deus, St. Simon. Henry Beyle (De Stendhal) been attached to the minutes.]

says in his 'History of Painting in Italy,' “Fourthly: That, with a view to immediate referring to the fresco at Ponte Capriasca : action, arrangements have been made to bold a meeting of vestrymen and other parishioners on the date when a brilliant youth from Milan' came

“In spite of local tradition-which fixes 1520 as Friday next, 8th of July, in the vestry room of there to escape from the turmoils of that great city, St. Margaret's Church, for them to receive the plans and, in gratitude for the protection afforded to as approved by the General Committee, and to

him, painted th *Cenacolo'-I am of opinion that sanction an application to the Bishop's Court for a faculty authorizing the proposed improvements in this picture was executed by Pietro Luini, son of the burial-ground

and the widening of the footway. the celebrated Bernardino, and was not painted "Fifthly: That the following petition to the prior to 1565." Chancellor of the Diocese has been drawn up by It is especially noteworthy that in the picHarry Lee, Esq., and is now submitted for the ture there is no wine on the table. Possibly approval of the General Committee,

the monks, more nearly to approach the (Signed) “Y. W. FARRAR, Chairman."

Roman formula in administering the SacraThere was no copy of the petition attached. ment, removed all traces of wine from the W. E. HARLAND-OXLEY.

glasses. Only the figures representing Christ C2, The Almshouses, Rochester Row, S.W.

and the Apostles Peter, Thomas, Bartholo(To be continued.)

mew, and James the Less pretend to be copies

of Leonardo's 'Last Supper. The others LEONARDO DA VINCI : THE LAST SUPPER. are purely fanciful. The features of Judas (See gth S. vii. 488;. viii. 136.) – Frequent are remarkable. reference to this subject in the columns of 5. Etching, by Rembrandt, in matita rossa, ‘N. &Q.' prompts me to supplement previous lent by George, the present King of Saxony. contributions by some notes made on a recent It has no pretensions to be a copy of the visit to Milan. Since my last visit the fol- masterpiece. It is merely a fanciful sketch. lowing copies of the Cenacolo' have been 6. A terrible performance by Antonio de affixed to the walls of the refectory.

Glaxiate, now almost entirely defaced. 1. Copy of Leonardo's 'Last Supper' by

RICHARD EDGCUMBE. Andrea Solari. Painted on canvas. The feet 33, Tedworth Square, Chelsea. of Christ portrayed. Drinking, glasses on the table , empty. It is alleged that Leo- Chronicle of the 1st inst. had the following

JAPANESE NEW YEAR'S DAY.-The Daily nardo's

fresco was mutilated by the Domini: interesting notice :cans in 1652, a door having been placed at the centre of the wall. If the lower portion Day is a religious rite. No ordinary dishes are con

“To a devout Japanese breakfast on New Year's of the central figure was thus removed, this sumed. The tea must be made with water drawn copy is interesting.

from the well when the first ray of sun strikes it, a

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pot-pourri of materials specified by law forms the ments in the archives of Milan show that staple dish, at the finish a measure of special saké, the painter was established there in 1487, from a red lacquer cup must be drained by who: 1490, and 1492 (Leon. da Vinci, English In the room is placed an elysian stand, or red edition, 1898, i. 86). lacquer tray, covered with evergreen leaves, and Mrs. Ady has recently suggested ( Beatrice bearing a rice dumpling, a lobster, oranges, per. d'Este,' London, 1899, p. 136) that he simmons, chestnuts, dried sardines, and herring was the painter referred to, but not named,

All these dishes have a special signification in the Duke of Milan's instruction issued to The names of, some are homonymous with words of happy omen; the others have an allegorical meaning. Maffei of Treviglio, his ambassador going The lobster's curved back and long claws typify life to King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary, in prolonged till the frame is bent and the beard is April, 1485. In order not to run any risk of long; the sardines, which always swim in pairs, infringing any copyrights held by Sigņor express conjugal bliss; the herring is symbolical of a Alessandro Luzio and Prof. Rodolfo Renier, consumption, although in niost cases the appetite is I will quote the passage in question in its fairly keeu. The orthodox Japanese not only sees original text from a collection published by the old year out; he rises at four to welcome the the Hungarian Academy in 1877. The Duke newcomer, and performs many ceremonies before he of Milan, and not Lodovico il Moro, states breaks his fast.

therein that: N. S. S.

" perche havemo inteso, che la Sua Maesta (the BERLIOZ AND SWEDENBORG.–To the new King of Hungary) se delecta multo de belle picture, and revised edition of Hector Berlioz's, presertim, che habino in se qualche devotione, “dramatic legend • Faust,' published by ritrovandose de presente qua uno optimo pictore, al Messrs. Novello & Co., are prefixed 'His- quale havendo veduto experientia del ingenio suo, torical Notes,' signed F. G. Edwards. From pictore, che ne facia una figura de Nostra Donna these one learns that the greater part of the quanto bella excellente et devota la sapia piu fare, libretto of Faust' was written by the com- senza sparagno de spesa alcuna, et se accinga ad poser himself.

Among the portions so lopera de presente, ne facia altro lavoro finche specified is, apparently, "Scene xix. Pande- l'abia finita la quale poi mandarenio ad donare alla monium,” which opens with a “Chorus of prefata Sua Maesta. Datum Mediolani die 13

Monumenta Hung. Historica, Devils (in snarling tones).” In earlier editions, Acta Extera,' iii. (on British Museum copy vi.) 44. but not in this of Messrs. Novello, the Mrs. Ady is probably right in her surmise "gibberish” which follows is ascribed, pre- that the painter who in the Duke of Milan's sumably by the librettist, to Emanuel Sweden-estimation had no equal was no other than borg. He, however, had been dead for Leonardo da Vinci. The passage quoted upwards of seventy years when the libretto above has, however, hitherto escaped the first appeared, and certainly his voluminous notice of his biographers. L. L. K. writings will be searched in vain for such stuff or for any suggestion of it. The writer CaUl.—The following advertisement apof the 'Argument' furnished in the pro-peared in the Globe of 24 July, 1903 :gramme of the performance of Faust by “CAUL.-Large Male Caul for Sale ; no reasonable the Dulwich Philharmonic Society at the offer refused.- Address Mrs. S. Harris, Broadlane, Crystal Palace on 12 December, 1903-I note Bracknell, Berks.” the fact with pleasure-is careful to inform Surely the name should be Gamp, not his readers that this "unearthly language

"Harris.

J. T. F. is "wrongly ascribed to Swedenborg.

Winterton, Doncaster. CHARLES HIGHAM. CURIOUS CHRISTIAN NAMES.-No collection LEONARDO DA VINCI IN MILAN.—The modern of these having lately appeared in ‘N. & Q.,' biographers of Leonardo, after having dis- I venture to send a few, noted at various missed as purely imaginary his travels in the times : East, have not yet been able to fill up the Abdiel, Times, 23 June, 1882 (?). gap in his life-story between 1482 and 1487. Abednego.-Authority uncertain. They are, however, all agreed on the point Abiezer, Standard, 12 June, 1901. that there is no documentary proof forth- Adiganz, Standard, 17 March, 1903, p. 5, coming of his residence in Milan before 1487, col. 7. although one of them, Adolf Rosenberg tó Almyra, Times, 7 January, 1882. wit, mentions "several testimonies by con- Aquila, Times, 7 February, 1882. temporaries” which make it probable that Asenath, borne by a patient in the CheltenLeonardo went to live at Milan not later ham Hospital, and also found in Standard, than 1483 (Leonardo da Vinci,' Bielefeld, 23 May, 1897. 1898). According to Eugène Müntz, docu- Asphodel, Morning Post, 1 March, 1888.

Bion, 25 June, 1894.-Authority uncertain.

Queries.
Cindiniah.-Ditto.
Cuckoo, Standard, 9 May, 1898.

We must request correspondents desiring 'in

formation on family matters of only private interest Cymbeline, Standard, 25 November, 1903.

to affix their names and addresses to their queries, Darius, Guardian, 2 July, 1884.

in order that the answers may be addressed to them Demosthenes, Times, 30 January, 1882. direct. Donatilla, Standard, 2 June, 1903. Dorinda Cassandra, Times, 12 February,

St. BRIDGET's Bower.-In Spenser's 'Shep1895.

heards Calender, Julye,' occur the lines Evacustes, Standard, 4 September, 1890, (37-44) :p. 2, col. 8 (foot).

In evill houre thou hentest in hond Gam, Times, 6 January, 1882.

Thus holy hylles to blame, Idonea, Times, 4 February, 1882.

For sacred unto saints they stond,

And of them han theyr name. Jugurtha, Standard, 2 August, 1897, and

St. Michels Mount who does not know, 21 October, 1898.

That wardes the Westerne coste? Kenaz, Times, 9 August, 1898.

And of St. Brigets bowre, I trow, Kerenhappuch, Times, 28 November, 1884.

All Kent can rightly boaste. Lois, Morning Post, 1 March, 1888.

Where is, or was, St. Briget's Bowre? From Lysander, Times, 6 or 7 August, 1900. the context it was evidently a hill well Marmion, Standard, 21 April, 1900. known to all Kent, either from its conspicuous

Neptune, given as having been born atness or from some other distinction. For the sea, Gloucestershire Echo, 10 December, 1903. mere fact that it bore the name of a saint

Oriana, Standard, 3 November, 1903. would hardly justify the statement here

Othniel, between 14 and 19 May, 1894.— made of it. So far as I see, no editor of Authority uncertain.

Spenser has commented on the name, and Pamela, name of a patient at the Chelten- some distinguished local antiquaries and hisham Hospital.

torians have confessed their ignorance of the Parmenas, borne by an artisan at Henbury, locality. Is the name, then, quite lost? And Bristol.

if so, can conjecture adduce any hill to Phosphor, Standard, 29 June, 1903.

which the name St. Briget's Bowre would Puah. --Authority uncertain

be for any reason applicable ? Bower is, of Venice, Morning Post, 1 March, 1888. course, not necessarily a place overarched Zelpa, Times, 31 December, 1880.

with shrubs or foliage; the word has also There was once a patient in the Chelten- signified a cottage, dwelling, or abode, a ham Hospital with the name of Omega ; also booth, and a chamber. But it would seem one with that of Therinuthias. I have a slight to follow that a hill so named must have acquaintance with a lady, one of whose Chris- been distinguished by a bower of some kind tian names is Alpha. A man named Deborah dedicated to St. Bridget. Perhaps it was a Haris appeared at Worship Street Police sacred spot, dismantled or abandoned at the Court, 8 November, 1894. A female with Reformation, the very name of which has the name of Peter is noted by myself. Also since been forgotten, although it was eviThalia appears in the Cheltenham Free Press, dently very well known in 1579. But in this 19 October, 1899. But Ohe iam satis ! case there would surely be other references

P. J. F. GANTILLON. to it, in sixteenth-century or earlier literature ACERBATIVE.”—I see this word is not in or records. I venture to ask "all Kent” to the ‘N.E.D.' It was used by the late Lord shall be satisfied if even one man or maid of

aid in the identification of the locality, but Salisbury some years back in a public speech Kent furnishes a certain answer. with reference to the hostile tone of some of

J. A. H. MURRAY. our continental critics. I have not got the reference by me, but no doubt some reader

MEMOIRS OF A STOMACH.' can supply it.

Α. Τ. Κ. reader know the authorship of a humorous

little book, which was published anonymously, “TUNNELIST": "TUNNELISM.”—These words I think, about forty-five years ago, with the occur in a rare tract entitled 'Observations title “ Memoirs of ă Stomach. Edited by a on the Intended Tunnel beneath the River Minister of the Interior”? It is brought to Thames,' by Charles Clark, F.S.A. (Graves- mind by the fact that, in the pantomime end, 1799). They are to be found in the at Drury Lane, the king's cook is called following expressions : "the tunnelist and “Minister of the Interior” as well as "Little his friends” and “a complete system of Mary," a very obvious association. tunnelism." L. L. K.

W. R. G.

- Does any

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