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which his studies were scandalized.” Dr. and declared his warrant to be from the Dee's methods must have been highly mighty God, calling the king but God's silly approved of by these two long-headed com- vassal, and, taking him by the sleeve, told missioners, for the queen afterwards sent him, in no measured language, that there Dee 100 marks by the hands of Sir Thomas were two kings and two kingdoms in ScotGorges.

THORNE GEORGE. land. There was Christ Jesus the King and CROWNS IN TOWER OR SPIRE OF CHURCH James was, and of which kingdom he was

his kingdom the Kirk, whose subject King (9th S. xii. 485). -The spire of St. Nicholas's, not a king, nor a lord, nor a head, but a mere Newcastle (a cathedral since 1882), built in member. "He also told the king that when 1474, is 200 ft. high, and, being supported by he was in his “swadling-cloutes" the Kirk flying buttresses, is a unique feature in English cathedral churches. It seems to have over looked after his welfare, and would not

permit him now to be drawn to his own inspired the similar spires at St. Giles's, destruction by the devillische and maist perEdinburgh ; the Tron Church, Glasgow; nicius Counsall” he had about him ; and much King's College, Aberdeen ; and Wren's poor more to the like effect. In the end the king copy at St. Dunstan's-in-the-East, London. The still existing towers of Linlithgow and and protested that the lords would get no

gave way, and dismissed them pleasantly, Haddington once possessed other editions of this Newcastle crown. The south-western Kirk.

grace at his hands till they had satisfied the

J. L. ANDERSOX. tower of Rouen Cathedral, the Tour de Beurre, is surmounted by an octagonal lan

See P. Hume Brown's Hist. of Scotland, tern, which in its turn is finished by a carved ii. 224, and J. R. Green's 'Short History,

C. S. WARD. parapet, said to represent the ducal coronet sec. v. chap. viii. of Normandy. A beautiful drawing of this [Replies also from MR. T. P. ARMSTRONG and tower exists, made by Ruskin in 1835 under G. H. W.) the influence of Prout. Begun in 1487 BEADNELL (9th S. xii. 469). – I suggest that and completed in 1507 by Jacques le Me. SANDFORD should write to the members Roux the Tour de Beurre contained the great of the Beadnell family whose names he bell “Georges d'Amboise," the largest out- already possesses.

Other references are : side Russia, which cracked with grief in 1786 William H. Beadnell, picture-frame maker, at being called upon to ring for Louis XVI.

Glasgow; James Beadnell, tailor, Leeds A. R. BAYLEY.

William Ernest Beadnell, mechanic, Leeds; [R. B-æ mentions the spires at Newcastle and Charles Marsh Beadnell, M.R.C.S. Eng., Aberdeen.)

L.R.C.P. Lond., L.S.A. (1895), surgeon in the “God's siLLY VASSAL" (9th S. xii. 447). In Royal Navy; and George David Beadnell, September, 1593, when, after the Reforma- M.R.C.S. Eng., L.R.C.P. Edin. (1872), in praction, things were unsettled, the Provincial tice at Denman Island, British Columbia. Assembly of the Church of Scotland met Chas. F. FORSHAW, LL.D., F.R Hist.S. at St. Andrews and excommunicated the This name does not occur in any directory Catholic lords, who a year afterwards fled I have been able to consult before 1839. from Scotland, but were recalled in 1596. In the • Royal Blue Books' for the years The General Assembly, suspecting that 1839 to 1842 are these entries :James VI. favoured the lords, resolved to “Beadnell, John, Esq. 2 Lombard S?; Tottenlearn the truth from himself, and in Sep- ham, Middx.; Castel-y-Dale, near Newtown, Monttember commissioned Andrew Melville (Rec-gomeryshire." tor of the University of St. Andrews) and " Beadnell, George, Esq. 2 Lombard St; Myfod,

Montgomeryshire. others to appear before his Majesty at Falkland Palace. The king received them, but

In the 'Royal Blue Books' for 1813 and plainly showed he was in no mood to brook 1844 George Beadnell appears as above, but interference, and declared their coming to be John Beadnell's only address is Tottenham. without warrant and seditious. This was

In 1845 neither name occurs.

John B. WAINEWRIGHT. more than the redoubtable Andrew could submit to. James Melville, who was present, I remember a Mr. Henry Beadnell, a proofsays in his “Autobiography and "Diary' reader in the office of Messrs. Cox & Wyman, (Edinburgh, 1842) that thereupon Mr. Great Queen Street, printers to the East Andrew brak out upon the king in sa India Company:,. He was a man of some zealus and unresistible a maner, that, how- culture, and published some works on typobeit the king used his authority in a most graphy, and a small volume of original verse colerik maner, Mr. Andrew bore him down,” and translations. There is a Mr. H. J.

Llewellyn Beadnell in the Ministry of push or press one's own claims forward, it Public Works, Egypt, Geological Survey seems worth while to consider, among the Department.

JOHN HEBB. possible progenitors of English boost, the

verb boster, recorded by Frédéric Godefroy EPIGRAM ON MADAME DE POMPADOUR (9th S. as a variant of the medieval French bouter, xii. 447).--It has been suggested that a line which he translates as meaning "frapper, of Frederic the Great against the Abbé de heurter, renverser, presser, pousser.". GodeBernis caused France to go against Prussia. froy gives only one quotation showing the If an epigram on Madame de Pompadour use of this variant of the verb. To continue cannot be found, it may be worth while to the Baskish vein, one may point to boz= quote the following; for it is possible that glad, rejoiced, in Leiçarraga's New TestaCarlyle made a mistake, and confounded ment, 1 Cor. xvi. 17. It is certain that Baskish Madame de Pompadour with her ally, the - had, and still sometimes has, the sound of Abbé de Bernis :

tz as in German. Salaberry in his dictionary “Frédéric, à la fin d'une Epître au comte Gotter, notes botz as meaning "voiz, suffrage.” Casoù il décrit les détails infinis du travail et de tilian voz = voice would be baskonized by l'industrie humaine, avait dit:

boz. Je n'ai pas tout dépeint, la matière est immense,

Prof. W. W. SKEAT connects Gothic Et je laisse à Bernis sa stérile abondance. On a supposé que Bernis connaissait cette Epitre, Dutch hop (A Meso-Gothic Glossary, Lon

hwopan=to boast with English whoop and seiller à Versailles d'abandonner le roi de Prusse et don, 1868). This strengthens the tendency de s'allier avec l'Impératrice. Turgot, dans des vers to take boast for a derivative of vox. The satiriques anonymes qui coururent tout Paris, et word for boast in Romans xi. 18, 1 Cor. iv. 7, qui étalaient au vif les désastres flétrissants dont la 2 Cor. v. 12, which are quoted by Prof. guerre de Sept Ans affligeait la France, s'écriait:

SKEAT under hwopan, is gloria in the Baskish Bernis, est-ce assez de victimes ?

version of 1571. In '1 Cor. xiii. 3 Leiçarraga Et les mépris d'un roi pour vos petites rimes Vous seniblent-ils assez vengés ?"

did not, like Ulfilas, read kavxhowman, but Sainte-Beuve, 'Causeries du Lundi, L'Abbé de kavonowmai.

E. S. DODGSON. Bernis.'

E. YARDLEY. BIRCH-SAP WINE (9th S. xi. 467; xii. 50, BANNS OF MARRIAGE (9th S. xii. 107, 215, 1296). - John Evelyn in his 'Sylva' (book i. 375). – It is also allowable, though by no chap. xviii, $ 8) gives a receipt for birch-sap means a general custom, to publish the banns wine, to which he attributes valuable mediof marriage after the Nicene Creed, and on cinal properties. It is interesting to observe my last visit to Oxford I heard the publica- that in the samo work he recommends sycation in this place at the church of St. Peter-more-sap for brewing (chap. xiii. $ 2), and, in-the-East. John PICKFORD, M.A.

writing of the mountain-ash (chap. xvi. $'2), Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.


“Some highly commend the juice of the berries, “PAPERS” (9th S. xii. 387). - Here are which, fermenting of itself, if well preserved, makes examples of the use of the word “papers, an excellent drink against the spleen or scurvy: the extracts being made from Newton For-Ale and beer brewed with them, being ripe, is an ster,' by Marryat, published in Paris, Bau- incomparable drink familiar in Wales." dry's European Library, 1834, though the

John B. WAINEWRIGHT, edition is not given :

“I will just speak a word or two to my father, and be on board in less than half an hour.' I

will meet you there,' said Hilton, “and bring your
papers.'”-Chap. vii.


NOTES ON BOOKS, &c. “Newton......made all haste to obtain his clearance and other papers from the custom-house...... London in the Time of the Stuarts. By Sir Walter With his papers carefully buttoned in his coat, Besant. (A. & C. Black.) he was proceeding to the boat at the jetty."

This handsome volume is a companion to the Chap. ix. p. 63. "? There are my papers, sir, my clearance from author, for which see gth S. xi. 98

"London in the Eighteenth Century' of the same

In our notice of the custom house, and my bill of lading....... I ob- the previous volume we described the scheme of the serve," replied the captain, examining the papers, undertaking to which both works belong, but

were they appear to be all correct.'”--Chap. xi. p. 73.

far from conjecturing the exteut of the materials. MAUD CALLWELL. which had been collected. Jointly the volumes in “ Boast”: Its ETYMOLOGY (9th S. x. 444).

question embrace the period between the accession

of James I. and the passage of the Reform Bill. As to boast is to some extent to “boss it,” to Should enough matter remain, as seems to be the

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case, to cover the reign of the Tudors, with the phesied -- from the personal interference of the close of the Wars of the Roses, the suppression of sovereign. the monasteries, the Pilgrimage of Grace, the alter- It is not in connexion with the greatest politica nate persecutions of Lutherans and Catholics, the events that the volume is most edifying. These are defeat of the Spanish Armada, and the intellectual dealt with at full length in the histories to which and social upheaval under the reign of Elizabeth, ono ordinarily has recourse. Sir Walter is a pleasant we shall be content and thankful. Of this we hear companion, however, when he is moved to indignanothing, however, at present, our immediate duty tion over the judicial murder of Alderman Henry not extending beyond a welconie to the volume Cornish or the burning alive of Elizabeth Gaunt, before us. Sufficiently varied and stimulating is the which, if performed centuries earlier, might have period dealt with to satisfy the most exorbitant brought additional infamy on the executioners of appetite. Beginning with the Gunpowder Plot, Joan of Arc. A curious satirical print from the the record includes the deaths, among others, of British Museum, given p. 115, illustrates the arrest Walter Raleigh, Buckingham, Strafford, Laud, of Jeffreys. Among the subjects discussed is witchMonmouth, Lord Russell, and Algernon Sidney; craft, which appears, naturally, under the head the growth of difficulties between Charles I. Superstition. In the sanie chapter may be found and the civic authorities; the defeat, trial, and many strange instances of credulity, some of which death of the king; the Commonwealth ; thé Pro- our author is disposed to regard as imposture. tectorate, with all its attendant troubles; the 'Sanctuaries' should be read in connexion with Restoration; the great visitation of the plague; The Squire of Alsatia' and 'The Fortunes of the Fire of London; the Titus Oates plot thé Nigel.'. In the chapters on The Plague' and The persecutions of Jeffreys; the trial of the bishops; Fire of London' we naturally come upon traces of the fight of James II.; and the accession of Pepys, Evelyn, and Defoe. In the case of the former Willian and Mary, ending with the rule, out- a strange and little-known tract, entitled "The wardly placid, of Queen Anne. Here alone, without Wonderful Yeare 1603,' is cited. A picture by descending to events of secondary importance, is Mr. F. W. W Topham, showing ‘A Rescue from "ample space and verge enough." It would ob- the Plague,' is reproduced by the author's per. viously be impossible, but for the limitations Sir mission. As a rule it is to the less-known autho. Walter had imposed on his scheme, to comprehend rities and treatises that Sir Walter turns, and within a single volume any sumnjary, even the much of what he says will be new to the vast most condensed, of all the matters opened out by majority of readers. Once more the illustrations these things. The limitations in question include, add greatly to the value of the work and to the however, the enforced avoidance of all historical delight of the reader. These are often from the treatment and the omission of all literary record. Crace and the Gardner collections, and from the Such mention, accordingly, as is made of Milton is British Museum generally. Among the portraits rein connexion with religion, and not with literature, produced is one of James I., after Paul van Somer, whilo names such as Donne, Cowley, Cleveland, showing a wonderfully sensual and repulsive face, Vanbrugh, and Farquhar are not to be found in the bearing out, apparently, the scandalous suggestion index. Differing in some respects from those in the of Raleigh, which is said to have cost that great volume on the eighteenth century, the divisions in man dear. As in the previous volume, the matter the present book begin with the Stuart sovereigns, is of varied interest and value, and the book of each of whom--with, in the majority of instances, may, be read with unending edification and their consorts, mistresses, descendants, favourites, delight. That the third, and presumably con. or counsellors-portraits are supplied. A second cluding, portion will be called for is not to be division includes religion, government, &c., and a doubted, and the owner of the perfect work will third, manners and customs. Between the second be able to boast of an illustrated chronicle such as and third divisions is intercalated an account of has only become possible during the last decade. the great Plague and Fire, which is likely to prove What we regarded as a wild dream of Sir Walterthe most generally interesting portion of the volume; to show in a connected form the evolution of the and at the close comes a series of valuable appen world of Victoria out of that of Elizabeth or her dixes. In what is virtually the seventeenth cen- sire-seems on the point of realization. tury. Sir Walter finds the City of London at the height of its political importance, and he advances The Bloo:l Royal of Britain. Being a Roll of the the opinion that not even “when London deposed

Living Descendants of Edward IV. and Henry Richard II. and set up Henry IV. was the City so

VII., Kings of England, and James III. of Scotclosely involved in all the events of the time as in land. By the Marquis of Ruvigny and Raineval. the seventeenth century.” It is also obvious that (T. C. & E. C. Jack.) between the beginning of the century and its close There is no subject on which the opinions of is a vast breach, in which are included the Civil men have changed more than family history War, the Commonwealth, the Restoration, the and pedigree lore. In the eighteenth and earlier Fire, and the final rejection of James II. and abso- part of the nineteenth century such studies lute rule, which events cover half the entire period. were held to form about the lowest stratum of It is to a great extent true that the first half of the useless knowledge. Sneers at them are met with century is a continuation of the sixteenth, while, in continually in the literature of those days, and are a sense, the second half is a preparation for the generally pointless and stupid. A notable Welsheighteenth. These things only bear out what we man once said, and was admired for the sentiment, have affirmed in connexion with the volume pre. that "family pedigrees were but a web woven by viously issued, that divisions such as are ordinarily nature in which the spider of pride lurked”; and used are purely arbitrary. In favour of the seven Sir Walter Scott was sometimes made fun of, and teenth century Sir Walter claims that it secured at others denounced, because his verse and prose the country for two hundred years - and for an alike had a tendency to direct the thoughts of his indefinite period beyond, so far as can be pro readers to family history, heraldry, and allied subjects. In its early days the Surtees Society was dream - figures -- is as unimpeachable as that of ridiculed in influential quarters for publishing royalty itself. The Marquis mentions a butcher, ancient wills, which were regarded as quite useless a gamekeeper, a glass-cutter, an exciseman, a toll for those who possessed even a litile conmon bar-keeper, a baker, and a tailor who are descendsense; and the reverence shown for illustrious ants, through the Seymours, of Mary, the younger descent by Sir Francis Palgrave in more than daughter of King Henry VII. one passage in his History of Normandy and In almost every direction care has been taken to England', was said,, at the time of publica. make the work as complete as possible. Thus we tion, to have injured the sale of the work. A have a little shield put against those persons who happy change has, however, taken place, înd in have a right to quarter the royal arms of the Plansome degree, at least, we ought to thank our tagenets. It has often been assumed that all who American cousins for the improvement. The inherit the blood have a right to the arnis also; but educated classes of that great democracy were this is a mistake, in order to guard against which we always free from some of those prejudices which wish the author had explained what are the prinovershadowed us, and were therefore anxious to çiples by which this right is protected. There is .connect themselves, not only in imagination, but in but one family--that of the Duke of Athol and his fact, with the families of the old land; so a large cousin Miss Caroline F. Murray-who have a right number of race histories have been produced--some, to this a unique distinction" three times over. at is true, executed on wrong lines, but others based This great compilation is well worthy of an on the soundest principles of modern research. We extended commentary. We hope it will excite may safely say that no work of the nature of the others to imitate it in directions which might be oue before us could possibly have come into exist indicated. It must become a necessity for every ence half a century ago. The times were not ripe one studying the history, and especially the local for it, nor was there a fitting architect to plan nor history, of the last four centuries. workmen to execute. It is the first book we have ever encountered wherein even an endeavour has

MESSRS. ARROWSMITU, of Bristol, publish A been made to carry out on an extended and sys. Palience Pocket-Book, compiled by Mrs. Theodore tematic scale the royal descents of the British

Bent. people. The Marquis of Ruvigny does not go back beyond Edward IV. and Henry VII. He thus gives

Notices to Correspondents. the families dependent from the Houses of York and Lancaster in the female lines, so far as un. We must call special atlention to the following wearied research and hard work have enabled him notices :to collect and arrange them. A like course has

On all communications must be written the name been pursued with regard to the descendants of and address of the sender, not necessarily for pubJames III. of Scotland Many families inherit the lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. blood of the Plantagenets and Stuarts without being aware of the fact ; but the Marquis's labours

We cannot undertake to answer queries privately. will be of special advantage to those who, while To secure insertion of communications corre.aware of their royal ancestry, do not know the spondents must observe the following rules. Let intervening links between themselves and their each note, query, or reply be written on a separate

Jistinguished progenitors. We wish it had been slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and possible for the author to begin his work at an such address as he wishes to appear. When answerearlier period-say with Henry II. Human life ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous and energy have, however, their limitations; we entries in the paper, contributors are requested to therefore dare not complain. We are too glad put in parentheses, immediately after the exact that so large an instalment has been carried out heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to and done so well. The author tells us in the preface which they refer. Correspondents who repeat some facts which we are sure are unrecognized by queries are requested to head the second con. many who have a special interest in knowing them. niunication “ Duplicate.” He enumerates, for example, some of the world- Sir E. T. BEWLEY,-"Heardlome" shall appear renowned heroes, with all of whom the descendants next week. of Henry VII. count kinship. He might have added others; but as it stands the catalogue is highly

P. P. A. (“ They sa. Quhat sa the? Lat them instructive. Among them occur Alfred the Great,

sa").-In its familiar form, “They say," &c., it is St. Louis of France, Roderigo Diaz de Bivar (con the motto of Aberdeen University. monly known in England as the Cid), the Em- S. PEARCE.--The death of “Henry Seton Merriperors of the East (Isaac II. and Alexius I.), and, man was noticed in the Atheneum of 28 November by far the greatest of all, Charlemagne, to whom last. we owe the redemption of the greater part of the European continent from barbarism, and its return

J. ELIOT HODGKIX.- Please forward new address. to such civilization as has been found attainable.

A proof sent was returned through the Dead Letter It has been commonly assumed by those who have


NOTICE. never given attention to such subjects that royal descent is very uncommon, and that when it does

Editorial communications should be addressed occur it is found almost solely in the families of our

to “The Editor of 'Notes and Queries' "-Adver. older aristocracy, whose existence is well - nightisements and Business Letters to “The Pub. hidden in the crowded pages of the modern peerage. lisher"-at the Office, Brean’s Buildings, Chancery This is a strange mistake. We have personally Lane, E.C. known men and women in a very humble class of We beg leave to state that we decline to return life whose descent from Alfred-and, indeed, from communications which, for any reason, we do not Odin and Arthur, if these latter be anything beyond print; and to this rule we can make no exception.

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