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while in the present instance a totally new substance is found, in tissues where a priori we should have been most unprepared to expect it.
Mr. Gulliver, who has confirmed these observations, informs me that the earthy material disseminated through the epithelium cells, is principally phosphate of lime, with a trace of carbonate of the same earth.
Fig. 1.—A represents a section of the tumour of its natural size, show- Fig. 1.
ing the concentric lamellae.
B, a portion of one of the lamellae, magnified about 450 diameters. The epithelial scales of which each layer is composed are here distinctly seen; they are agglutinated to each other, and firmly adherent.
Fig. 2.—c, a single epithelium scale with its nucleus magnified 460 Fig. 2. diameters. Instead, however, of the scale being flat and transparent, as in the ordinary state, it is thickened, slightly bi-con
vex, and contains granules of earthy deposit, phosphate, and a trace of carbonate of lime.
D, a cluster of epithelium scales, semi-trans
parent, and showing thin nuclei, with here and there a nucleolus. These scales are irregular in shape, as they were obtained by pounding a portion of the laminae, and diffusing the powder in water.
THE ANATOMICAL CHARACTERS
BEING AN ATTEMPT TO POINT OUT THE RELATION BETWEEN
THE MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERS AND THOSE WHICH
ARE DISCERNIBLE BY THE NAKED EYE.
By THOMAS HODGKIN, M.D.
READ JUNE 13th, 1843.
In the spring of 1829, I had the honour of laying before this Society the result of an inquiry in which I had then been for some years engaged, respecting the anatomical characters of a large and important group of adventitious structures. From that period to the present time, I have not ceased to embrace the opportunities which presented themselves, for continuing the same kind of research.
As I have already published some of the results which I have obtained, in my lectures on the morbid anatomy of the serous and mucous membranes, it is not my intention to trespass on the Society by a repetition of the details which may be found there.
My object, on the present occasion, is rather to endeavour to demonstrate the relation which some of the phenomena connected with these structures, which have been pointed out by able and distinguished observers, bear to those which have been noticed and described by myself, and to show that whilst our observations have been in some respects dissimilar in their kind, they are not, in their general results, to be regarded as clashing, or mutually opposed to each other, but that having been directed to different parts of the subject, they require to be united in order to render it complete.
In the course of this attempt, I shall, however, take the opportunity to reply to some objections which have been urged against my previous statements, and to record some further facts which have fallen under my observation.
My former communication merely claimed to be the announcement of the anatomical character of some of the structures referred to; the main object being to show their assumption of the type of compound serous cysts, the modifications of which I described as a preliminary step. I endeavoured to show, that whilst possessing this type, variously modified by the forms of the cysts, and the relative proportion of the solid to the fluid parts, there likewise existed great and important differences dependent on the material by which this form or type may be assumed, and the character and degree of vascular organisation which it receives. At that period, the very curious and important researches regarding the function and development of nucleated cells had either not been made, or were generally unknown in this country; and microscopic inquiry, not being necessary to that part of the subject with which I was engaged, had not been undertaken by myself.
Shortly after, that learned and well-practised pathologist, Dr. Carswell, then Professor at the London University College, published, with illustrated plates, his views regarding the production of carcimonia, in which he subscribed his adhesion to that group of pathologists who refer the production of the adventitious structures in question to an error in the blood or lymph, and he adduced some remarkable instances in which a material, resembling that of the adventitious structure, was discovered in the interior of vessels. According to this view, as employed by the Professor to explain the formation of adventitious structures, the necessity for cysts, whether simple or compound, is dispensed with; and he employs an argument against their agency in the production, which makes it evident that my view has not been clearly understood. On this point he is followed by the learned Professor Grose, of the United States.
Perhaps the most laborious and longest sustained inquiry connected with this subject, has been that of my friend Francis Kiernan, whose practised eye and delicate manipulation must attach the greatest value to his researches. Their results have not yet been made public, but it is well known that they are