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THE

HISTORY AND CONQUESTS

OF

THE SARACENS.

Six Lectures

DELIVERED BEFORE THE EDINBURGH PHILOSOPHICAL

INSTITUTIOV.

EDWARD A FREEMAN, D.C.L., LL.D.,

LATE FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, OXFORD,
KNIGHT COMMANDER OF THE GREEK ORDER OF THE SAVIOUR.

SECOND EDITION WITH NEW PREFACE.

London:
MACMILLAN AND CO.

1876.

[The Right of Translation and Reproduction is Reserved.]

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THE HISTORIAN OF CONSTANTINOPLE AND MEDIÆT'AL GREECE,

THIS RECORD OF THE RIVAL EMPIRE

s Inscribed

WITH FEELINGS OF GRATITUDE AND ADMIRATION.

PREFACE

TO THE SECOND EDITION.

THESE Lectures, first published twenty years ago, have been for some time out of print. They are now reprinted with very slight changes. I have not attempted to improve the language, though I find many uses of words, phrases, names, which a maturer taste would have led me to alter, I have merely made about a dozen verbal changes where I thought that the expressions used were either lacking in clearness or likely to mislead.

In reading what I wrote twenty years ago, I cannot but be struck with the way in which the lessons which I attempted to enforce then are still needed word for word now. The subject prescribed for me did not take in the history of the Ottoman Turks, and, in a course of historical lectures given while the madness of the Crimean war was still raging, it was not my business to treat directly of the immediate politics of the time. But the general history of Mahometanism, its character and its workings, did form part of my subject. And from them I drew some

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