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Every ill child presents certain well-defined alterations in the manner of performance of the various functions of his body. Thus, the pulse and respiration may be altered in character and frequency; the surface temperature may be elevated; the color and condition of the skin may be changed; the appetite may be diminished; weight may be lost, and so on. These alterations from the normal state are termed symptoms.

Healthy children, on the other hand, as uniformly show evidences of their well-being, which, for want of a better name, may be called the features of health. Of these, every mother should have a full knowledge, so that by appreciating variations she may anticipate the complete development of disease, and early summon skilled aid, at the time when it is of most service.

Early life must be divided into two periods, namely, infancy and childhood. Infancy is the

time elapsing between birth and the complete eruption of the milk teeth, an event that transpires about the end of the second year of life. Childhood extends from this age to the development of puberty, or to the age of thirteen or fifteen years. It is important to remember these two divisions, as frequent reference will be made to them in the subsequent pages.

With this brief preparation, the study of the features of health may be entered upon.

1. The Face.—The face of a healthy, sleeping child wears an expression of absolute repose. The eyelids are completely closed, the lips very slightly parted, and, though a faint sound of rhythmical breathing may be heard, there is no visible movement of the nostrils. When awake and undisturbed, the healthy infant's face has a look of wondering observation of whatever is going on about it. As age advances, intelligence gradually supplants the wondering gaze, and no one can be unfamiliar with the bright, round, happy face of perfect childhood, so indicative of careless contentment, and so mobile in response to emotions.

Examples of Variations in Disease.—Incomplete closure of the eyelids, rendering the whites of the eyes visible during sleep, is a symptom in all acute and chronic diseases of a severe type; it is also to be observed when rest is rendered unsound by pain, wherever seated. Twitching of the eyelids, associated with oscillation of the eyeballs or squinting, herald the visit of convulsions. Widening of the orifices of the nose with movements of the nostrils to and fro, point to embarrassed breathing from disease of the lungs or their pleural investment. Contraction of the brows indicates pain in the head; sharpness of the nostrils, pain in the chest, and a drawn upper lip, pain in the abdomen. To make a general rule, it may be stated, that the

third of the face is altered in expression in affections of the brain; the middle third in diseases of the chest, and the lower third in diseases of the organs contained in the abdominal cavity.

2. The Skin and General Appearance. In the new-born infant the color of the skin varies from a deep to a light shade of red. After the first week this redness fades away, leaving the surface yellowish-white. At times this yellow color is so marked that it might be mistaken for jaundice were it not that the whites of the eyes remain perfectly pearly, which is never the case in the disease mentioned. After the second week all discoloration disappears and the skin assumes its typical appearance.

With certain well-known natural variations in complexion the skin of a healthy child is beautifully white and transparent. The cheeks, palms of the hands and soles of the feet have a delicate pink color, while the general surface is rosy in a warm atmosphere and marbled with faint blue spots or lines in a cold one. As age advances the coloring becomes more pronounced, and until the completion of childhood the complexion is much fresher than in adult life.

Other characters of the healthy skin are, a velvety smoothness and softness, a scarcely perceptible moisture, and a great degree of elasticity.

If an infant be stripped the large size of the head and trunk, and the relatively short arms and even shorter legs, will strike the observer at once. This disproportion, especially noticeable in the head, is an actual one. For if in a child of one year, for example, the distance from the lower edge of the chin to the top of the head be measured, it will be found to be equal to one-fourth of the entire length of the body. The vertical length of the head, too, falls but little short of that of the trunk, and the latter in turn is nearly as long as the legs.

Again, the abdomen is full and prominent, making the chest look, in comparison, rather contracted and narrow, and the navel is less deeply sunken than in adults.

These features, which will be referred to more minutely in a later section, are most marked in young infants, and undergo gradual alterations as

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