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Mutavit mentem populus levis, "et calet uno
Scribendi studio : puerique patresque severi
Fronde comas vincti cænant, et carmina dictant.
Ipse ego, qui nullos me affirmo scribere versus,
Invenior 'Parthis mendacior; et priùs orto
Sole, vigil, calamum et chartas et scrinia posco.

Navem agere ignarus navis timet: abrotonum ægro Non audet, nisi qui didicit, dare: quod medicorum

est, Promittunt 'medici : tractant fabrilia fabri: mSeribimus indocti doctique poëmata passim:

"Hic error tamen et levis hæc insania, quantas Virtutes habeat, sic collige: vatis ° avarus


Ver. 172. Our wives read Milton,] Our age deserves rather to be congratulated than satirized, for the general diffusion of knowledge and literature that has taken place, particularly among the fair sex; among whom may be found, not only many intelligent readers, but also able judges of poetry. See Mrs. Montagu's Essay on Shakespear.

Warton. A further alteration has now taken place, and our wives and daughters not only read and judge, but write poetry, in such a manner as to call for no little exertion on the part of the Lords of the creation, if they wish to avoid a literary Gynocracy.

Ver. 180. Ward) A famous, empirie, whose pill and drop had several surprising effects, and were one of the principal subjects of writing and conversation at this time.

Pope. Ver. 186. Should Ripley venture,] Politics and partiality, says Lord Orford, in his Anecdotes on Painting, concurred to help on this censure. Ripley was employed by the minister, and had not the countenance of Lord Burlington, the patron of Pope. It is no less true, that the Admiralty, is a most ugly edifice, and deservedly veiled by Mr. Adams's handsome screen. Yet Ripley in the mechanic part, and in the disposition of apartments and conveniences, was, unluckily, superior to the Earl himself. Lord Or

ford's fence 'tor

To prove that luxury could never hold;
And place, on good "security, his gold.
Now times are changed, and one poetic itch
Has seized the court and city, poor and rich : 170
Sons, sires, and grandsires, all will wear the bays,
Our wives read Milton, and our daughters plays,
To theatres, and to rehearsals throng,
And all our grace at table is a song.
I, who so oft renounce the Muses, 'lie, 175
Not - 's self e'er tells more fibs than I;
When sick of Muse, our follies we deplore,
And promise our best friends to rhyme no more;
We wake next morning in a raging fit,
And call for pen and ink to show our wit. 180

"He served a 'prenticeship who sets up shop; Ward tried on puppies, and the poor, his drop; Even 'Radcliff's doctors travel first to France, Nor dare to practise till they've learn'd to dance. Who builds a bridge that never drove a pile ? 185 Should Ripley venture, all the world would smile; But those who cannot write, and those who can, All rhyme, and scrawl, and scribble, to a man.

Yet, Sir, "reflect, the mischief is not great; These madmen never hurt the church or state: 190 Sometimes the folly benefits mankind; And rarely oavarice taints the tuneful mind.


ford's at Houghton, and Lord Walpole's at Woollerton, one of the best houses of the size in England, will; as long as they remain, acquit this artist of the charge of ignorance.

**Warton. --Ver. 191. the folly benefits mankind;] For the honour and deNon temerè est animus; Pversus amat, hoc studet



fence of our favourite art, We must here add Dr. Hurd's note on

this passage:

“ This apology for poets, and, in them, for poetry itself, though delivered with much apparent negligence and unconcern, yet, if considered, will be found to comprize in it every thing, that any, or all, of its most zealous advocates have aver pretended in its behalf.

“For it comprehends: I. [From Ver. 118 to 124.] The personal good qualities of the Poet. Nothing is more insisted on by those, who take upon themselves the patronage and recommendation of any art, than that it tends to raise in the professor of it all those virtues which contribute most to his own proper enjoyment, and render him most agreeable to others. Now this it seems may be urged on the side of poetry, with a peculiar force. For not only the study of this art hath a direct tendency to produce a neglect or disregard of worldly honours and emoluments (from the too eager appetite of which almost all the calamities, as well as the more unfriendly vices, of men arise), but he, whom the benign aspect of the muse hath glanced upon and destined for her peculiar service, is, by constitution, which is ever the best security, fortified against the attacks of them. Thus his raptures in the enjoyment of his muse, make him overlook the common accidents of life: (ver. 121.) he is generous, open, and undesigning by nature: (ver. 122.) to which we must not forget to add, that he iş temperate, that is to say, poor by profession.

Vivit siliquis et pane secundo. “ II. (From ver. 124 to 139.) The Utility of the Poet to the State: and this both on a Civil and Moral Account. For, 1, the poets, whom we read in our younger years, and from whom we learn the power of words, and hidden harmony of numbers, that is, as a profound Scotchman teaches, the first and most essential principles of eloquence, enable, by degrees, and instruct their pupil to appear with advantage in that extensively useful capacity of a public speaker. " And, indeed, graver writers than our poet have sent the ora

Allow him but his Pplaything of a pen, · He ne'er rebels, or plots, like other men : .


tor to this school. But the pretensions of poetry go on much farther. It delights (from ver. 130 to 132,) to immortalize the triumphs of virtue; to record or feign illustrious examples of heroic worth, for the service of the rising age: and, which is the last and best fruit of philosophy itself, it can relieve even the languor of ill health, and sustain poverty herself under the scorn and insult of contumelious opulence.

“ 2. In a moral view its services are not less considerable ; (for it may be observed the poet was so far of a mind with the philosopher, to give no quarter to immoral poets ;) and to this end it serves, 1. (ver. 127) in turning the ear of youth from that early corruptor of its innocence, the seducement of a loose and impure communication.

“ 2. Next, (ver. 128) in forming our riper age, (which it does with all the address and tenderness of friendship, Amicis præceptis) by the sanctity and wisdom of its precepts. And, 3, which is the

proper office of tragedy, in correcting the excesses of the natural passions (ver. 122).

“ The reader who doth not turn himself to the original, will be apt to mistake this detail of the virtues of poetry, for an account of the policy and legislation of ancient and modern times ; whose proudest boast, when the philanthropy of their enthusiastic projectors ran at the highest, was but to prevent the impressions of vice, to form the mind to habits of virtue, and to curb and regu. late the passions.

“III. His Services to Religion. This might well enough be said, whether by religion we understand an internal reverence of the Gods, which poetry first and principally intended, or their popular adorations and worship, which by its fictions, as of necessity conforming to the received fancies of superstition, it must greatly tend to promote and establish; but the Poet, artfully seizing a circumstance, which supposes and concludes in it both these respects, renders his defence vastly interesting.

“ All the customary addresses of heathenism to its gods, more especially on any great and solemn emergency, were the work of


Detrimenta, fugas servorum, incendiu' ridet;
Non 'fraudem socio, puerove incogitat ullam
Pupillo; vivit siliquis, et pane secundo';


the Poet. For nature, it seems, had taught the Pagan world, what the Hebrew Prophets themselves did not disdain to practise, that to lift the imagination, and, with it, the sluggish affections of human nature, to Heaven, it was expedient to lay hold on every assistance of art. They therefore presented their supplications to the Divinity in the richest and brightest dress of eloquence, which is poetry. Not to insist, that devotion, when sincere and ardent, from its very nature, enkindles a glow of thought which communicates strongly with the transports of poetry. Hence the language of the Gods (for so was poetry accounted, as well from its being the divinest species of communication our rude conceptions can well frame, even for superior intelligences, as for that it was the fittest vehicle of our applications to them) became not the ornament only, but an essential in the ceremonial of Paganism. And this, together with an allusion to a form of public prayer (for such was his secular ode), composed by himself, gives, at once, a grace and sublimity to this part of the apology, which are perfectly inimitable.

Thus hath the great Poet, in the compass of a few lines, drawn together a complete defence of his art; for what more could the warmest admirer of poetry, or, because zeal is quickened by opposition, what more could the vehement declaimer against Plato (who proscribed it) urge in its behalf, than that it furnishes, to the Poet himself, the surest means of solitary and social enjoyment; and further serves to the most important civil, moral, and religious purposes."

Warton. Ver. 195. Flight of Cashiers,] Alluding to Mr. Knight's (one of the Cashiers of the South Sea Company) flying into France on the failure of that bubble, by which Pope was a considerable sufferer.

Warton. Ver. 195. Flight of Cashiers,] See in Coxe's interesting Memoirs of Sir Robert Walpole, an account of the panic of the nation, the extreme violence of the people against the Directors of the South Sea Company, and the flight of Knight, the Cashier :

“ A committee

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