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ABBOT, And to be somewhat particular, he charged him with popery, Abp. Cant.

Arminianism, and other heterodoxies, for which his books had Exceptions been censured in the former parliament. But Dr. Thomas Montaque in Rives, who then officiated for Brent, the vicar-general, disaphis confirma

pointed this challenge; for Jones had made some material omissions in the manner, and not offered his objections in form of law. For instance, the exceptions were neither given in writing, nor signed by an advocate, nor presented by any proc

tor of the court. Upon the failure of these circumstances, the 746. confirmation went on. And to set Montague out of the reach

of these cavils, he was consecrated two days after at Croydon.

After the murder of the duke of Buckingham, who was stabbed at Portsmouth by one John Felton, a lieutenant, Laud seemed to fill his room in the king's esteem, and had a considerable direction of affairs both in Church and State. To give an instance: This prelate, for silencing the controversy between the Calvinists and Arminians, procured the reprinting of the Nine-and-thirty Articles, with the king's declaration prefixed at the head of them. This was conceived the best expedient to lay the Predestinarian disputes asleep. For by the statutes of the realm, all incumbents were obliged to read the book of Articles at church soon after their institution; and by the canons, all that took orders were bound to subscribe them. As to the king's declaration at the head of the Articles, the design of it was to guard them from misconstruction, and prevent their being wrested out of the obvious and literal sense. The declaration runs thus :


By the King. The king's

Being by God's ordinance, according to our just title, declaration defender of the faith, and supreme governor of the Church prefixed to the Nine

within these our dominions, we hold it most agreeable to our and-thirty Articles. kingly office, and our own religious zeal, to conserve and main

tain the Church committed to our charge in the unity of true religion, and in the bond of peace; and not to suffer unnecessary disputations, alterations, and questions to be raised which may nourish faction both in Church and common-wealth. We have therefore, upon mature deliberation, and with the advice of so many of our bishops as might be conveniently called together, thought fit to make this declaration following: That the Articles of the Church of England (which had been


allowed and authorized heretofore, and which our clergy gene- CHARLES rally have subscribed unto) do contain the true doctrine of the Church of England, agreeable to God's Word; which we do therefore ratify and confirm, requiring all our loving subjects to continue in the uniform profession thereof, and prohibiting the least difference from the said articles; which to that end we command to be reprinted, and this our declaration to be published therewith.

“ That we are supreme governor of the Church of England, and that if any differences arise about the external policy concerning injunctions, canons, or other constitutions whatsoever thereunto belonging; the clergy in their convocation are to order and settle them, having first obtained leave under our broad seal so to do: and we approving their said ordinances and constitutions, provided that none be made contrary to the laws and customs of the land. That out of our princely care, that the churchmen may do the work which is proper unto them; the bishops and clergy, from time to time, in convocation, upon their humble desire, shall have licence under our broad seal, to deliberate of, and to do all such things as, being made plain by them, and assented to by us, shall concern the settled continuance of the doctrine and discipline of the Church of England established ; from which we shall not endure any variation or departing in the least degree. That for the present, though some differences have been ill raised, we take comfort in this, that all clergymen within our realm have always most willingly subscribed to the Articles established, which is an argument to us, that they all agree in the true usual literal meaning of the said Articles, and that even in those curious points in which the differences lie, men of all sorts take the Articles of the Church of England to be for them ; which is an argument, again, that none of them intend any desertion of the Articles established. That therefore, in these both curious and unhappy differences, which have for many years, in different times and places, exercised the Church of Christ, we will that all further curious search be laid aside, and these disputes be shut up in God's promises, as they be generally set forth in holy Scriptures, and the general meaning of the Articles of the Church of England, according to them. And that no man hereafter shall either print or preach to draw the Article aside any way, but shall submit to it in the plain

num. 4.
The Calvin-

and prepare

ABBOT, and full meaning thereof; and shall not put his own sense or Abp. Cant. comment to the meaning of the Article, but shall take it in the

literal and grammatical sense. That if any public reader in either of our universities, or any head or master of a college, or any other person respectively in either of them, shall affix any new sense to any Article, or shall publicly read, determine, or hold any public disputation, or suffer any such to be held either way, in either the universities or colleges respectively; or if any divine in the universities shall preach or print any thing either way, other than is established in convocation with our royal assent, he or they the offenders shall be liable to our displeasure, and the Church's censure in our commission ecclesias

tical, as well as any other ; and we will see there shall be due Bibliotheca execution


them.” Regia, sec.3.

The Calvinian party complained loudly of this declaration. ists complain of the de- They gave out the design of it was chiefly for the suppressing claration,

orthodox books, for the discouraging godly ministers from an address preaching the comfortable doctrines of man's election to eternal against it.

happiness, and for promoting the growth of Arminianism. And to give these jealousies an appearance of probability, a letter, pretended to be written to the rector of the Jesuits’college in Brussels, is industriously dispersed. And here his correspondents acquaint him what care they had taken to plant the “sovereign drug," as they call it, of Arminianism ; that this would purge off the Protestant heresy; that they began to find the effects of it already; and that, for preventing disappointment on the Puritan side, the Arminians had possessed themselves of the duke. The letter goes on in a resembling strain of confidence, and was looked on by men of sense as no better than a piece of forgery. However, notwithstanding its romantic air, the paper gained belief, and helped to do busi

For now the Calvinists in and about London drew an address to the king, which they intended to present for recalling his declaration. The petition sets forth “ what a

restraint was laid upon them from preaching the saving doc747. trines of God's free grace in election and predestination; that

this had brought them under a very uncomfortable dilemma, either of falling under the Divine displeasure, if they did not execute their commission in declaring the whole counsel of God, or of being censured for opposition to his majesty's




mons sur

authority in case they preached the received doctrines of the CHARLES Church, and attacked the Pelagian and Arminian heresies, both boldly published from pulpit and press.” That therefore they humbly intreat his majesty would be pleased to take the fore

mentioned evils and grievances into his princely consideration: and, as a wise physician, apply such speedy remedies as may both cure the present distempers, and preserve the Church and State from those plagues with which their neighbours had not been a little distressed.

bury's But this address was stopped in its passage, and never Doom. reached the king: however, when the parliament met, something of this kind was resolved as the sense of the house : but of this by and by. To proceed; in the interval between the two sessions, Dr. Manwar

» ing's serManwaring's sermons, entitled, “ Religion and Allegiance, were suppressed by proclamation; in which the king declared, pressed by that though the grounds of the discourse were rightly laid to tim, and persuade the subject to obedience for conscience sake, there * Appello were notwithstanding several exceptionable passages : that called in.

Cæsarem" some of the doctor's inferences and applications clashed with the laws of the land, and the proceedings of parliaments : that the doctor's ignorance of the constitution had misled him to that degree, that he had justly drawn upon himself the censure of the high court of parliament. That his majesty being desirous to remove occasions of scandal, had thought fit those sermons should be wholly suppressed. About the same Rushworth's time bishop Montague's “ Appello Cæsarem” was called in. vol. 1. The order sets forth, that this book had been the first occasion of those disputes and differences, which had disturbed the repose of the Church. His majesty therefore commands all persons who had


of those books in their hands to deliver them to the bishop of the diocese, or to the chancellor or vicechancellor of the universities, provided that they were found in either of those societies. And that if any person by preaching, reading, or printing, should revive those unnecessary disputes, his majesty was resolved to make them repent their presumption. On the other side, to secure bishop Montague from further trouble, and relieve Manwaring a little under the parliamentary sentence, they had both of them his majesty's pardon for all errors formerly committed in speaking, writing, or printing. Montague's preferment, since his being harassed by the commons, has been mentioned already: and as for

both pre

ABBOT, Manwaring, notwithstanding the sentence of the lords had Abp. Cant. disabled him from promotion, he was presented to the rectory They are of Stamford Rivers in Essex, with a dispensation to hold it ferred. with his living of St. Giles's fin the Fields, and was afterwards

made bishop of St. David's. The preferring this gentleman, who had recanted in form, and owned himself so remarkable a criminal, was no serviceable conduct: this countenance looked something like a partiality for the prerogative, made the parliament more warm at their next meeting, and the king lose ground in the affection of his subjects.

But to give satisfaction another way, a proclamation was issued for proceeding against popish recusants, and directions sent to his majesty's commissioners for taking the forfeitures of two thirds of their estates. But the rigour of the statutes is said to have been mitigated by favourable composition. This proclamation was seconded with another for apprehending

all priests and Jesuits, and committing them to gaol without Proclama- bail or mainprize. And here Richard Smith, bishop of Chaltown against cedon, was particularly mentioned. He was sent hither by of Chalce- the pope, with episcopal jurisdiction over the English Roman don, dic.

Catholics. He wrote a book entitled, the “Prudential Balance," and was a person well esteemed by the laity and seculars. But his character was by no means acceptable to the regulars, who appeared strongly against him, and particularly one Nicholas Smith. This titular bishop of Chalcedon finding the country unfriendly, retired to France, and was kindly received by cardinal Richelieu.

About Christmas this year, archbishop Abbot was restored to his liberty and jurisdiction : he was sent for to court, kissed the king's hand, and was ordered not to fail being at the council board twice a week : after this he was no more put

under any restraint, but enjoyed the privilege of his station as Examen long as he lived.

At the next meeting the commons concerned themselves Rushworth's

with controversies of religion, pronounced upon the sense of the Nine-and-thirty Articles, and seem to clash with the king's late declaration. This vow of the house of commons, as Rushworth calls it, stands thus :


Collect. vol. 1.

“We the commons in parliament assembled, do claim, protest, and avow for truth, the sense of the articles of religion, which were established by parliament in the thirteenth year of

The Commons' declaration

upon the

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