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Majorcans, on the subject, and, and princes failed him, and he sai amongst others, with the works of into poverty and contempt, still Raymond Lull.

put his trust in his crucified Savioi Though Dr. Chalmers says his and at the age of 79 journeyed in works are not worth reading, Ray- Africa to preach the gospel. Whi mond Lull was a remarkable man ever he was, his motto seemed and a benefactor to mankind. One be that of the writer of the hyn cannot but admire the self-denial “In Laudismo Sanctæ Civicis :" with which he gave up his position

Tecum volo vulnerari, and property, no mean ones, after

Te libenter amplexari his confession; his untiring energy

Tu cruce desidero. and unflagging zeal in the furtherance of his cause, and when people



Years make not age; the head may gleam in white,

Yet youth twine verdure round the heart; below

The drift may smile the flowers; the genial glow
Of Spring-tide melting even the Winter's might.
White hairs may come in youth; the heart be old;
No blossoms deck the early-frozen mould.
Keep the heart young! the conscience crystal-clear !
So shall sweet Summer smile throughout the year !
Faint not because of trouble ! let the sun
Be present to thy thought, the clouds though black,

To-morrow haply from the present's track
Shall glide, and radiance and thy life be one !
Were pleasure but thy handmaid, all thy hours
Her smile would pall! the couch soon sickens piled with flowers !


FROM A.D. 1189 TO 1870. (105) A.D. 1767.-LORD Lif- and 53, when the country was disFORD, (James Hewitt.)' The Hewitts turbed by many riotous assemblages, were a family of humble position in caused by the passing of an act alterthe north of England, until the ing the Kalendar as it was then remiddle of the last century. Their ceived by the English people. To the first introduction into mercantile vulgar the alteration appeared to be a society was through William Hewitt, dark and deadly sin ; no less, in fact, a silk mercer and drapers in the than the relapsing of the whole councounty of Cumberland, who, in try into the errors of the Church of 1744, attained the summit of his Rome. To the anxious inquirer into ambition in becoming Mayor of the the records of past ages, nothis ig can. city of Coventry. His eldest son, be more perplexing than an erroJames, the subject of this memoir, neous system of chronology. It was. was born in 1709, and gave, from plain that the legal years in the old his earliest years, assurances of style, as century succeeded century, those abilities which were destined, were falling away from the true astrolater on, to win for him a coronet nomical year ; for the "Julian Kalenand the woolsack. His father, see- dar," in fixing the year at 365 days. ing his partiality for “the law," six hours, had given to it eleven bound him, as an apprentice, to an minutes and eleven seconds more attorney, at whose desk he laboured than the true astronomical year, which for several years. The drudgery consists of 365 days, five hours, fortyof this branch of the profession was, eight-minutes, and forty-nine seconds.. however, not suited to his tastes. This error was so manifest in the sixHaving acquired much practical in- teenth century, that the Council of formation in the attorney's office, Trent recommended a reformation he was enabled the more readily to of the Kalendar, which Pope Gregory comprehend the mysteries of the XIII. accordingly caused to be law; to become a barrister was to carried into effect. Had he not enter, perhaps, on the path to pro- done so, the ist of January would, motion; and having enrolled his in the course of ages, by reason. name accordingly as a law student of the annual errors of eleven. on the books of the Middle Temple, minutes, fall on the longest day he was called to the bar in 1742, be- in the year. The pontiff entrusted. ing then, thirty-three years of age. the complicated and perplexing His first act was to join his circuit, work of correcting those errors to upon which he soon took a leading the great Jesuit astronomer, Claplace. Nothing beyond the ordinary vius." circuit business occurred until 1752 By the statute of the 24 Geo. II.,

I Note, that although in the period of Lord Lifford's chancellorship, which extended from 1767. to 1789, were comprised the most startling events of Irish history, yet as the great discussions which took place thereon were confined to the House of Commons, of which Lord Clare was then a member, the consideration of these subjects is postponed to his life, which we expect, in our August number, in great part to give.

1 Vide Playfair's Family Antiquities ; Lodge's Peerage

3 Histoire de la Compagnie de Jesus, par Creteneau Joly, vol. ii. pp. 320, 321. For the fullest information on this most interesting of subjects, vide Alban Butler's Lives vol. x. p. 364, note to St. Teresa's day. Also Wheatley on the Book of Common Prayer, chap. i.

chap. 23, it was enacted that the leader, Mr. Pitt, " that America ! year, which before that time, in En- resisted : three millions of people gland and Ireland, had commenced dead to all feelings of liberty on the 21st March, was thencefor voluntarily to submit to be slay ward to be computed to begin on would have been fit to make slai the ist January, and the error of of all the rest.” eleven days was swept away. The Meanwhile, a question was ni change caused great rioting in En- brought under public discussic gland, and, as we may well believe, involving one of the most importa those who denounced the alteration points relative to the liberty of t did not confine their scientific and subject which had been agitat theological arguments to idle words. since the Revolution, namely, t The bar profited by the excitement, legality of general warrants. I indictments were multiplied, and the Wilkes, M.P. for Aylesbury, h old adage may have been brought to attacked in a series of papers, call the minds of the strollers” on cir- the “North Briton," all the measui cuit, that “it is a bad wind that blows of the Government. The langua nobody good.”

was full of coarse invective and sci Hewitt was now (1754) ambitious rilous ribaldry. A general warra of parliamentary honours; but having was issued on the 26th April, 176 been unsuccessful in a contest for by Lord Halifax, one of the prin the city of Coventry, he confined pal Secretaries of State, commandii himself for some years to the prac- the apprehension of the autho tice of his profession. He was ap- printers, and publishers, of the pointed sergeant in 1755, and once seditious papers; and the house again stood for Coventry, in 1761, Mr. Wilkes was, in consequence, e and was returned. A follower of tered in the night by three king Mr. Pitt, Hewitt was opposed to the messengers, who seized his pape ministry, whose policy deprived En- and his person. gland of her North-American colo- On the 13th February, 1764, nies. It was in March, 1764, that motion was brought before t Mr. Grenville, then First Lord of the House of Commons, to the effect th Treasury,' submitted to the House the general warrant, just describe of Commons various resolutions re- was illegal. Mr. Pitt denounced specting new duties to be levied on as such, while the administrati« foreign goods imported into the colo- opposed the consideration of tl nies. These were followed by an- question, on the grounds that t] other and fatal resolution for raising House was about deciding a poi a “ direct” revenue from the colo- of law just then at argument in t] nies, by imposing a stamp duty, with courts of justice. A division w the offer, however, of substituting taken, and the motion rejected ? any other equally productive tax a majority of 232 against 218, M which the colony might prefer. This Pitt and Serjeant Hewitt voting intimation was resented as a menace, the minority.3 and the measures proposed by the The next question in which tl minister were resisted by the Ameri- Serjeant, who, it appears, was cans. But the Stamp Act was car- miserable debater, took part w ried, notwithstanding their resistance. concerning the practice of the Atto Serjeant Hewitt voted against the ney general filing informations measure. “I rejoice," said his officio, instead of proceeding by tł

1 Jones's History of England, vol. i. chap. ii. p. 35, 37, 38.
> State Trials; Jones's History of England, vol. i. p. 33.
3 Parliamentary Debates (England) from 1764, p. 175.

ordinary process of indictment. The Lifford, for the purpose of enlisting, motion, which was lost, had been before he should have crossed over moved in the house by Mr. Calvert, to Ireland, his sympathies in their and seconded by Serjeant Hewitt, behalf. He had long been hostile who stated the abuse and the dan- to the oppressive policy adopted ger of filing informations ex officio, by England towards her North * but (the reporter sarcastically adds) American colonies, and it was bein so cold a manner that the mo- lieved that he was equally opposed tion may be said to have received no to the penal code. On the 19th material support from his speech." of December 1767, Dr. Carpenter,

In 1766, Mr. Pitt, who had been then in London, wrote to the created Earl of Chatham, took office Catholic Committee in Dublin as in the coalition ministry as Lord follows:3: Privy Seal. In the same year, “I have the express command Hewitt, a vacancy occurring, was from his lordship (Lord Taaffe), to appointed one of the Puisne Judges communicate the steps he has taken of the King's Bench, and some montirs since the 12th. The next day he after, through the powerful interest waited on your new Chancellor, Lord of the Earl, was created Chancellor Lifford, with whom he conversed of Ireland (on the death of Lord for a considerable time on the affairs, Bowers), and he was also raised to of Ireland. He (Lord Taaffe) asthe peerage by the title of Baron sured him with his usual plainness. Lifford, to which the dignity of Vis- and sincerity, that he had quitted count was added in 1781. The his family and friends, and underPrime Minister (the Duke of Graf- taken, at this advanced time of his ton), in speaking of this appoint- life, a long and toilsome journey, ment, says, that Lord Lifford “ac- with no other view than to obtain cepts the seal with very good dis- some relief for his poor distressed position to discharge properly the countrymen. He spoke very freely, great trust put into his hands. His as well as feelingly, to the Chanlearning as a lawyer sanctioned our cellor of the rigour of the penal expectations. He was a true Whig, laws, and of the refusal given to the and bore a character to which all Elegit bill, and dwelt a good deal parties gave their assent of respect, upon some facts to which he hapand though his speeches in parlia- pens to be a witness in the south, ment were long, and without elo- the fatal effects of those troubles, quence, they were replete with ex- and the violent party rage which cellent matter and learning in the had been the cause of them. He

concluded with an earnest request The new Chancellor was about to that he (the Chancellor), would use enter on the duties of office at a very possible means of informing time when the Catholics of Ireland himself of the true state of the were making great struggles to country (Ireland). lighten the load with which they “The substance of what the had been weighed down for cen- Chancellor said during the long turies. A Catholic committee hay. conversation was, that he was fully ing been formed, one of their body, determined to open his ears to any Lord Taaffe, accompanied by the information necessary for the imparRev. John Carpenter, D.D., a Roman tial adminstration of justice ; that Catholic priest (afterwards Arch- the refusal of granting, any other bishop of Dublin), waited on Lord security to Catholics for money lent


i Parliamentary Debates.

3 Journal of the Duke of Graftov. 3 O'Conncr's MSS., continuation of the History of the Irish Catholics; Dal on's Archbishops of Dublin, p. 474-476.

but a personal and precarious one, rent as shall be agreed upon bewas both unreasonable and cruel; tween him and the owner of such and that a mitigation of the rigour bog, for any term of years not exceedof some penal laws already seemed ing sixty-one years, the law made to to be intended, from the late deter- prevent the further growth of Popery mination of the Chancellor here, in to the contrary notwithstanding" the case of Hobson v. Marsh. (sec. 5, “Provided always ....

“Lord Taaffe was extremely well that this act shall not extend to any pleased with his visit, and went bog lying within one mile of a town.” directly to court. Here the Queen In the same year the Chancellor took particular notice of him ; she was appointed, by 11 and 12 George congratulated him on his recovery III. chap. xiii., a commissioner for from the gout, told him the King the improvement of the new street had spoken to her of him, and con- " called, in the whole or in part, tinued for some time conversing to Sackville-street (in the city of Dubhim in German.

lin), and sometimes called, in the “At this time he again met with whole or in part, The Mall." Lord Lifford, by whom he was In 1773, he presided in the House accosted in a very friendly manner. of Lords, when a bill was brought From the acquaintance with the into parliament for the purpose of Chancellor, which he will endeavour laying a tax of two shillings in the to improve, my lord has great ex- pound on the income of Irish absenpectations. He is now abroad every tee landlords, who would not reside day from morning until night, and in Ireland at least six months in is determined to omit no opportunity each year. The measure was exof engaging the interest of the great ceedingly popular, and the governwhile he remains here. Besides the ment, supporting it as an open quesvisits he makes, he regularly attendstion rose greatly in public favour; at the levées of the court, and at but the violent opposition of the the assemblies of the several ambas- great landowners, many of whom sadors, so that I shall hereafter en- lived altogether in England, prejoy but very little of his company. vailed, and the bill was rejected.' This account of his progress here. This was not the first absentee-tax he still positively asserts, must not attempted to be imposed in Irebe communicated by you to any land. Lord Coke thus alludes to a except the three persons he men- statute which, though never printed, tioned in a former letter."

is nevertheless on the roll of the Acts The Chancellor left, soon after of Parliament::_" There is an Act this interview with Lord Taaffe, for made in England, in 3rd Richard II. Dublin, and yet so dismal was the [nu. 42, Rot. Par.] worthy of rememfeeling of prejudice, at the time, brance, which never was yet printed, against the Catholics, that nothing It is enacted, that all manner of per: was done in their favour until 1771, sons whatsoever, who have lands oi when an act was passed (11 and 12 tenements, offices or other livings George III. chap. xxi. secs. 1-5) ena- ecclesiasticall or temporall, withir bling a Catholic to take a long lease Ireland, shall reside or dwell upoi of fifty acres of bog, "and one half the same. And that all such as hav an acre of arable land as a site for there any castles or forts, shall fortifi a house, or for the purpose of the same, and furnish it with me delving for gravel, or limestone, able for defence, and thereupon als for manure, next adjoining to such dwell. And if they at any time d bog, and to hold the same at such part, then, during their absence, 1

1 Haverty's History of Ireland, 704.
3 Coke's Institutes, book iv, chap. Ixxvi., p. 356.

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