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chap. 160. “If perchance, O Lord, after his death by all who knew Thou deniest to me a martyr's death, him or read his numerous works. at least I beg that Thou mayest grant The Genoese arrived at Palma, and me grace to die in tears, and with anchored in the bay, in order to get regret at dying, for love of Thee, my some supplies before proceeding on Lord and my Creator."
their journey. Proud to be the posAnd so Raymond arrived at Bu- sessors of the body of the blessed gia; but he did not stay there long, Raymond, they said nothing of it to for he went over to Tunis, where he the citizens, but wished to convey went about preaching, and at the the corpse to Genoa. As they, same time wrote many works, such however, prepared to depart, the as “ Del amor y del honor," “ De ship would not proceed further, and, Deo et Mundo,” and “ De Majori in great alarm, they were eventually Fine Intellectus Amoris et Honoris," obliged to make public the sad dedicated to Alcadius, the Ma- news of their freight, and give up hometan high priest. From some the body to the authorities. Then cause, he now returned to Bugia, the viceroy, and the nobility, and the where he continued to preach, in principal inhabitants, accompanied defiance of the resistance previously by the jurats and the clergy, formed shown to him on the occasion of his a procession, and conveyed the former visits. He did not long es- corpse to the church of Sta. Eulalia, cape the fury of the people. They and laid it in the ancestral chapel turned him forth from the town, and of San. Marco. The Franciscans, beat him and stoned him. On the however, soon begged the body, as following night-for so says the ac- Raymond was a member of their count of Nicholas de Pax, Bovillus, order, and placed it in the church and others — some Genoese mer- of San Francisco. His tomb lies in chants, amongst whom were Stephen a chapel on the north side of the Colon and Luis de Pastorga, coming nave, and is a fine Gothic structure. from the coast of Tunis, perceived Grotesque animals support seven a large light, in the form of a pyra- niches, the respective canopies of mid, which seemed to rise up out which are formed by two angels in of large stones. They anchored each, holding crowns, on which are there, and on reaching the shore, carved types of astrology, geometry, found the body of Raymond, still music, arithmetic, rhetoric, logic, and sensible. They instantly begged grammar. An illustration of the the body from the authorities, and tomb is given in Mut's “ History of having received permission, took it the Kingdom of Majorca,” edited on board ship, and continued their by Sres. Bover and Moragues, journey homeward. Raymond was On Monday, the 5th of December, treated well by all, but, two days 16u, a special visit was made to afterwards, died from the effects of the chapel containing his body, in his injuries, on arriving at Portopi, order to identify it for the purpose near Palma, the port of Majorca. of canonisation. The syndic from His death took place, according to Rome, and the authorities of Palma, some, on the 3rd July, 1315; to in the presence of witnesses duly others, 30 June, 1315. Be that as appointed, proceeded in procession, it may, he was eighty years of age- and, having arrived at the chapel, a man who had devoted all the caused the marble sepulchre to be latter portion of his life to a good opened, and then the wooden coffin work ; but, despised by all in his which was deposited therein. Having lifetime, he died poor, disheartened, exhumed the relics, they carried and discouraged by the failure of them in procession to the high altar, his enterprise, only to be venerated singing the “ Deus tuorum militum.” A dense crowd now formed around Sr. Bart. Sureda, canon and de them, so that they were obliged to of the diocese of Majorca, a order the people to leave the Vicar-General Juan Figaros, a church. The doctor and others others, rendered testimony to t then examined the remains, and de- fidelity of the copy of this senten clared them to be those of the mar- at Avignon ; and in 1600, Grego tyr. Besides a few blows inflicted Fortessa, Vicar-General, and M on the rest of the body, there were chior Trias, notary public of Paln four on the head, two of which declared, on royal authority, ti were, they said, occasioned by this sentence was to be found ir stones. One of these was on the private cabinet of the archives forehead, another on the left eye- the University of Majorca. brow. The other two were sword Raymond Lull was a prolific w cuts; one of these was distinguished ter, but his works are not so nun on the upper part of the head, the rous as some of his ardent admira other on the os petrosum. That he would wish to believe.' Alfonso was venerated at an early period is Proaza, in 1515, in a letter to a fri shown by the fact, that in the Do- at Sienna, mentions the total nui minican convent at Palma, now de- ber at 488. Mut, in his histoi stroyed, was found a book entitled says that Dr. Juan Lobet, who w “Ars Metaphysicalis," in which is professor of the art of Raymoi inserted the “Officium Gloriosi et Lull, in the University of Major Sanctissimi Martyris Magistri Ray- writes word that he has read mo mundi Lullii."
than 500; others assert that he wro But it was not long before the 1000; others even 3000 or 400 doctrine of his works was called in Custurer, following the celebrati question. This opposition was bibliographer, Don Nicholas Antoni headed by the Dominicans. This makes the number 321, and tl order denied the doctrine of the catalogue, published at Mayenc immaculate conception, which the 313, of which 88 are chemical work Franciscans stoutly defended. The which we shall see reason for e inquisitor at that time was one cluding from the catalogue. Ho Nicholas Aymerich, who belonged ever, in dealing with these high nui to the former order, and so he for- bers, we must remember that mai mally complained of Raymond Lull of his writings are very short, b as a heretic. The relations of Ray- are put down by authors as separa mond then complained to John of works. Aragon, who caused an examination The works of Raymond Lull a to be made by the inquisitors of thus classed by Alphonso de Proaz Barcelona, and twelve other doctors His art, 60; grammar and rhetori in theology, on the 19th May, 7; logic, 23; understanding, i 1386. By the sentence of the memory, 4; the will, 8; morali court, Raymond Lull was acquitted and polity, 12 ; jurisprudence, i from all blame. Another sentence philosophy and physic, 32 ; met in his favour was delivered at physics, 26; mathematics, includir Avignon, under Antonio Riera, of works on music, and instruments Valencia, in 1395, on the inquiry music, 19; medicine, 21; chemi into the bull of condemnation issued try, 49 ; theology, 153; and spiritu by Pope Gregory XI., which Ayme- books, 60. We may not accept a rich alleged to have been issued. these works as genuine, but ui This document was, however, no doubtedly there still remain tł where to be found amongst the ar- larger portion of Raymond's worl chives of the Holy See. However, only in MS., and this list only serve
I Chap. viii.
to shew the subjects upon which he Translatum fuit præsens Testamenwrote. The question next arises, tum de linguâ Catholonica, anno was Raymond Lull an alchemist, gratiæ, 1443, 6 Junii, apud London, and did he write the chemical works in prioratu Sancti Bartholomæi." attributed to him? If we look care- This cantilena, or poema, upon fully at these writings, we shall ob- alchemy, Sr. Rosselló thinks to be the serve the following facts tending to work of Raymond Lull, and deduces disprove their authenticity :
the argument from it that he was an 1. He speaks against the success alchemist. He gives it in full, and of alchemy.
says that the MS. from which he 2. The books attributed to him took his copy was in the library of are dated too late to be consistent the Balearic Isles, having been taken with the time of his life. For ex. from the convent of St. Domingo, at ample, we find, that though he died Palma, now destroyed. It was on in 1315, there are works attributed xiv. century paper, and in a book to him dated 1357, 1349, 1333, containing the “Desconsuelo," and 1319, in “ Regno Angliæ sub Ro- other works of Raymond, in prose.3 berto Rege," 1355, 1363. &c. He has no doubt whatever of its
3. He makes mention of Robert authenticity, although it has no date or Rupert, king of England during attached to it. But the MS. is incomthese dates just quoted, as well as plete, for in that in the British MuPrince Charles, King Edward of seum there are four more stanzas, Woodstock, and Queen Eleanor. expressly stating that it belonged to
4. Because at no period of his the “ Testamentum Novissimum," life can we reconcile a journey to quoted above, the date of which is England with other dates already incorrect, with the belief that Rayfixed.
mond Lull was the author of it. Who the author of these chemical There are two more arguments to works was we have no means of de- be used against the authorship of termining. We know, however, that these works. One is, the use of the they must be very early works after adjective majoricanus, as applied to Raymond's death; for they are, ap Raymond, the usual adjective being parently, written originally in Cata- majoricensis; the other is, the style lan, and translated into Latin at a of these works, which is not the same subsequent period. For example, as that of which there is no doubt. we will quote the concluding words Many of them do not begin with an of the “ Testamentum Novissimum," invocation to God. The reasoning according to the MS. in the Sloane is more at length, and the tables are collection of the British Museum :'- less geometrical in form than the
“Fecimus Nostrum Testamentum, real works of Lull. The catalogue, per Voluntatem de A., in Ipsula published at Mayence, gives the title Angliæ in Ecclesiâ Sanctæ Catarinæ, of a work, being “An History when apud London, versus partem castri and why Raymond crossed over ante Thamisiam, regnante Rege Ed- into England to Visit King Robert.” wardo de Wodestoke, per gratiam The work is, unfortunately, not to Dei, in cujus manus mittimus in cus- be found in MS. or in print ; but todiam per voluntatem de Apræsens some argument might be made from Testamentum, anno post Incarnatio- it as to the probable author of many nem Domini 1332, cum omnibus suis of these works attributed to Rayvoluminibus, quæ nominata fuerint in mond Lull. præsenti testamento cum Cantilena, Many of the poems of Lull are quæ sequitur, Alleluia Dei gratiâ. inexpressibly beautiful, rendered
I No. 419, folio 55.
2 P. 305.
more pithy by the force and terse- self to his remarkable life, there ness of the language in which they good reasons for asserting that were written. Of the more beauti- all probability, Raymond Lull ful, we may signalise the “ Desco- the inventor of the mariner's o nort,” or “Desconsuelo," of which pass. But little is known or deci much has been quoted above, and respecting this invention. Fla the “Cant d'en Ramon," striking Gioja, of Amalfi, however, is n from its simplicity of form and ful- generally spoken of as the origin: ness of meaning. This latter poem of this instrument, which has consists of fourteen stanzas, in which such a marvellous effect upon c he describes his sin, his conversion, merce and geographical knowler the foundation of the college of Some time before Flavio G Miramar, his prayers to God to aid flourished, however, we find me his endeavours, his conviction that tion, in Raymond Lull's writings He will come to judge the world the polar direction of the mag who was created to save it : weeping His book “De Contemplatior then will be of no avail, pardon for finished at Paris before 1275, es sin must be sought. He also de cially mentions it. It is import scribes his discovery of his “ Art," to to quote these passages : “ Videi further Christ's cause ; how, through marinarios se dirigere per stel the Cross and the Virgin, the queen polarem."! Again : “Sicut acus of sinners, his heart is become a naturam vertitur ad septentrior house of loves, and his eyes foun- dum sit tacta a magnete.”? Aga tains of weeping between joy and “Ratione cujus acus se vertit grief; his poverty, and the contempt rectitudinem aquilonis per tact with which he is visited, no one magnetis." Again : Sicut acus r knowing or loving him ; his wish tica dirigit marinarios in suâ n to die in a sea of loves, but first to gatione...... Nam sicut have aid granted to him in preaching naturale aeni, Domine, se veri the Gospel, and concludes the poem ad aquilonem per naturam magn with a glorification of God. The â qua est tacta." Upon these greatest work of Raymond Lully is, sages Sr. Don Antonio Pascual undoubtedly, his “ Art," which, serves that they are laid down though now lost sight of, was, after facts already known; but any c: his death, very famous, and served ful reader of Raymond's works as a text-book to the schools of have observed that he often spe Lullistas. Among the more devoted of things as already known for of his followers we find Fr. Bernard sake of argument. In his wa de la Vineta, Henricus Cornelius “ Dels Antichs Comensamens Agrippa, Jordanus Brunus de Noli, Astronomia," of which there i Valerius de Valerius, Don Juan Lo- MS. in the British Museum, bet, Canon Antonio Bellver. Many alludes in clear language to of these wrote commentaries upon virtue of the needle, as well as some portions of his works.
his work, “Felix de las Marave It seems curious that a man who del Orbe,"mentioning especially was reckoned illustrious in his life- pointing to the South Pole –“Fe time, and was certainly famous, by dix lo filosof, l'asaman ha vi his works, for many years and in per la qual la agulla se gira a many countries after his death, tresmuntana et à migjorn," &c. should have sunk in the present The silence of writers about day almost into insignificance. Be- discovery is an argument in fav sides the interest which attaches it- of Raymond Lull. But few ot
3 Chap. 117, no. 23. Add. 16,428, folio 57.
claimants have since arisen ; and this man who could possess such knowmay arise from the fact that it was ledge as to enable him to draw this thought to be the invention of a chart must have visited some of the Majorcan soon after Raymond's countries himself, and probably fitted death, and then, when his work himself to become the head of Prince became so hidden from the world, Henry's school of navigation. Be little more could be written about that as it may, however, it is certain it. At a very early period Italians that the art of navigation was in a came to Majorca to study the works high state of cultivation amongst the of Raymond Lull, and hence Flavio Majorcans at a very early period, Gioja may have obtained the re- to which, no doubt, the works of Lull putation of the discovery. From had contributed. In the work, above the earliest times downwards the quoted, entitled “Felix de las MaraMajorcans were great navigators, and velles," Raymond Lull distinctly contributed as much to the science states his belief in the fact that there as to the practice. In 1415, Prince must be a continent in the other Henry of Portugal founded a school hemisphere opposite to ours. And of navigation at Sagres, near Cape so also in two passages of the work St. Vincent, and we are told that he entitled, “ Quæstiones per artem sent to Majorca for a man to teach Demonstrativam Solubiles. In these the art. We are told that the name passages he states that the flux and of this individual was one “ James, reflux of the tide in the great sea, well-versed in navigation and in the or the Sea of England, as he calls art of making instruments and maps, it, owes its origin to the sphewhom this prince caused to come rical form of the earth, and that the from Majorca, to teach sciences in sea would swallow up one piece of an academy which he founded for land if it had not appetite towards that purpose."! Another edition, another in the opposite hemisphere. however, of the work just quoted, Thus the balance of land and sea is omits the name “ James," and merely preserved. mentions the man as a Majorcan. Señor Rosselló points out a There is some reason for supposing curious coincidence between the Gabriel Valseca to have been the name of Christopher Columbus, or head of the academy. In the pos- Colon and Esteban Colon, who carsession of the Count de Monte- ried the body of Raymond Lull away negro, in the villa, called “Raxa," from Bugia in company with Luis near Palma, is a collection of various Pastora. These wanted to have objects of antiquity, &c., founded by carried the body to Genoa, where the late Cardinal Desping. In one Raymond had left many of his of these rooms is a nautical chart by works and was much held in veneraValseca, which formerly belonged to tion. It is not without the range Amerigo Vespuccio. This map is of probability that this Stephen or signed “Gabriel de Valseca, li feta en Esteban Colon belonged to the Malorcha, añy, 1438." All the world, sanie family as the celebrated as then known, is correctly marked Christopher Columbus, and that upon the map, as well the direction this latter obtained his idea of foundof certain winds, and facts relating to ing a new world from the writings the people of the various countries. of Lull. Anyhow, during ChristoCommunication between people was pher Columbus studies in Portugal, at that time very slow, and, there- he must have familiarised himself fore, it is at least probable that the with all that had been written by
i Hist. des Voyages, La Haye, 1747, vol. i. book i. chap. i. p. 4, note.
4 Olias Rimadas, p 87, note.