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Museum, written in Catalan in the Barcelona in 1298, and both fourteenth century, it says, this “Des- Nicholas Antonio and the MS. ir conort " was made in the Court of University Library, at Cambri Rome, and is sung at the end of his wrongly attributed to Raymur “ Art." Five months and nine days Massiliensis, date the work, Octo had elapsed when Celestin V. re- 1298. Accordingly, we must signed the pontifical chair and Boni- clude that he came from Barce face VIII. was elected in his place. to Paris in 1298, and there contir Accordingly we find Raymond at to reside for some time, finishing Rome, trying, by his books and public “ Filosofia D'Amor" and o discussion, to induce others to follow works. He was now a studen him, and influence the new Pope in the University of Paris, under' favour of his scheme. Among the mas Atrebatensis (of Anas), the books that he finished were the Cæsar du Boulay calls him Thc “ Arbor Scientiæ," in 1295; the Anglicus. On July 9th, 1299 “ De Anima,” in 1294; and the published his “ Directions to “Articuli Fidei.”! This last work Master, Thomas Atrebatensis," was finished, on the eve of the day “De Quadraturaet Triangulatura of St. John the Baptist, at Rome, in culi.” At the same time he tre 1296. The various notices of the with Philip of France for aid to works of Raymond seem to have con- project of preaching to the Sarac fused this work with one entitled but without avail. Gaining no { “Apostrophe." This latter was, to his cause, he determined to however, a separate work, also en- turn to his native country. titled, “ Petitio pro Conversione In- though downcast, he did not bec fidelium," and supplicates by name inactive or relinquish altogether Pope Boniface, in furtherance of the hopes. The date of one of cause. But the Pope had more books shews us that in April, i serious matters to attend to. He had he was in Montpelier, and 1 seized the papal chair by fraud in there he proceeded to Africa, w 1.294, by first inducing Celestin to he made a translation of the “. resign, and then by getting himself culi Fidei" from Catalan, the orig secretly elected by Charles II., of language, into Latin, in July. Sicily; and though he had begun to September and October, he finis reign wich unparalleled magnificence other works, and departed for and splendour, a cloud had begun to prus in 1301, where he finished rise, destined to end, in 1303, in his “Liber de Natura," and his “] expulsion from Rome. Raymond, torica Nova," in the monaster therefore, saw that nothing could be St. John of Chrysostom. The done, and so returned to Genoa, gin of this journey was the re There he stayed but a short time, that Kassan, grand khan of but travelled onwards to Perpignan, Tartars, who professed Christia where the King of Majorca then had gained possession of Syria was. Froin thence he made his way the Holy Land from the hi to Paris, and arrived there about of the Saracens. Raymond, October, 1297. There he finished lighted with this news, set out his work “ De Astronomia,” accord- mediately for Cyprus, but arr ing to the Mentz catalogue. But there only to learn its falsity this could hardly be, for we find him intelligence of the utter defea finishing his work “ Oraciones” at the Tartar. After preaching

1 Vide Nic. Ant. Bibl. Vet. ix. iii. 130 & 132. Custurer, Vidà, &c., p. 512, No. ? Dante Inf. xix 53, xxvii. 85; Villani, viii. 6; Milman, Latin Christ. ix. 7, xi 3. British Museum, Add. MSS., 16,430. 4. Hist. Univ. Paris, vol. iii. 421.

some time in Cyprus, he passed Bertrand de Goth, was made Pope, over into Armenia, to a city called under the title of Clement V. It Allero, where is dated his work, was during his pontificate that, in “ De iis quæ Homo de Deo debet 1309, the papacy was transferred to Credere ;” but he soon returned Avignon, Raymond probably preagain to Cyprus, the reason of sented his book to this Pope in perwhich he gives in his book, “ De son-at all events, he was travelling Fine:"! “Versus Cyprum in Arme- about at this time, for we find from niam, sed quiæ istæ lenæ omni- his works that he was lodged in the bus non sunt sacræ, prout scio, monastery of San Domingo, at Pisa, qeni fui.” He thus stayed in Cy- in January 1306, and returned to prus for some time, and stayed in Montpelier in 1307. He was then the hospital of the Templars at probably in high favour, for RayFamagusta, on the east side of the mond Ganfredus, the minister-geneisland. In January 1303 he returned ral of the order of St. Francis, had to Montpelier, and after a short given him letters patent, directing stay there, proceeded to Genoa, every member of the order to receive where he finished writing many him well, in whatever part he was, works. In March of the same and had given him the title of year we find him again at Mont- “Most great Benefactor of their pelier, where James II., of Majorca, order.” The king's promises of supwas resident with his court. Here port were probably, however, never he resided during the next two fulfilled ; and, according to Sr. Cusyears, writing many books, the titles turer, he returned to his native of which it would be tedious to island, and wrote the poem “Desmention. 1305, A.D., however, is conort.” St. Rosselló, however, and the date of the completion of his others, assert that he went first to work “De Fine," which treats of the Bona, in Africa, and that there occurconquest of the Holy Land.

red the event narrated in “De The eldest son of King James II., Amico et Amato :" the infante Don Jamie, was the heir- “ The friend set out for certain presumptive to the crown of his foreign parts, where he thought to father, but he preferred to devote find his Beloved, and by the way his life to religion rather than govern- there met him two lions, and the ment, so he adopted the dress of the friend began to feel before him order St. Francis of Assisi, in com- fear of death, for he desired to live, pany with his warmly-attached friend that he might serve his Beloved. Don Luis, the son of Don Carlos, of And he set himself in quest of his Sicily. It was not surprising, then, Beloved, that love might direct his that King James II. should be well- steps, and that he might better supaffected to the order, and accord- port death ; and while the friend ingly he began to take favourable was seeking his Beloved, the lions notice of Raymond ; and so affected came humbly to the friend, whose was he by the work “De Fine,” falling tears they licked up, and that he sent a copy of the book to kissed his hands and feet; and so the Pope, and himself promised the friend set forth in peace to find money to aid the cause. Boniface bis Beloved." VIII. was now dead, as well as Sr. Custurer quotes the following Benedict XI., who succeeded him; account of what happened to him and by the influence of Philip the in Africa, from the “ Vidà ContemFair, the Archbishop of Bordeaux, poranea :”

i Dio. ii. part 3.

? No 115 3 p. 520, et seq. Vide also British Museum, Add. MSS., No. 16,432.

“When he had arrived at Bugia, dured for a long time, until, att and had entered into the court, he entreaty of some Genoese merchan began to cry in the public square, who were residing on business in t as a second Jonas : ‘The law of the city, he was placed in a more dece Christians is the true law, and holy, prison. Contemporaneous auth and it alone is grateful and accept- say, that the ministers of Mahomn able unto God ; but the law of the danism were eager to put him Saracens is false and erroneous, and death; that they resolved to ha look that what I say I will make him brought before them in t good by arguments, that ye cannot council ; that if it were found ti disprove.' On hearing these words, he was a learned man they wou the people desired to stone him, but put him to death, but if ignora the principal minister of the Mahom- They would set him free ; and tl medan law commanded him to be one of them, who had heard h brought into his presence, and spoke speak, was of opinion that he shou to him after this manner : ‘How is not be heard, for he would give su it that ye have such boldness, to reasoning that they would not speak publicly of our Mahommedan able to satisfy him; and that 1 law with such insult, it being noto Genoese and the Catalans persuad rious that we will put to death him them to give him a more decent that blasphemes it.' Raymond an- son.] Then there gathered rou swered him, 'He that is the true him the most skilled of the sect servant of Jesus Christ, and has un- the Mahommedans, sent by th derstood the indubitable truth of the principal ministers, and tried, by gr Catholic faith, ought, without fear of promises, to seduce him to their fa death, to extol it and preach it to system. They offered to him all.' 'If ye believe,' insisted the marriage a lady of most noble orig minister, 'that yours is the true faith, houses, riches, property, honou give me, then, your reasons by which and the favour of the king. I ye prove its verity. Then, in the Raymond, despising everything, most learned manner, Raymond be- horted them, with tenderness, gan to explain to him the mystery embrace the law of Christ, promis of the Trinity, and he spake with such them no riches or goods whereby force that the minister could not an- make their fortunes, but only swer him ; on the contrary, although eternal, nor favours of kings more than moderately versed in every earth, but only the love of the K kind of philosophy, moved with terror of Heaven, and the glory of be at the lofty doctrine of Raymond, he admitted to the dignity of His s did not try to satisfy him with words ship. As no agreement came or arguments, but, like the tyrants either side by this means, they sett of old, had recourse to force, and that both parties should write boo gave orders to the guards to bear in which each one should show, him away to prison. While he was clear and patent arguments, wh passing through the street, some of the two laws was the better, m plucked out the hairs of his beard, holy, and more true. Raymo others tripped him by the way, had already worked much on others cruelly beat him with sticks, part, and had nearly completed others with their hands, others with work, when the King of Bugia, h their fists, till at length he was led, ing arrived at the city, obliged } or rather dragged, away, and with to desist from the undertaking, a ignominy thrust, not into the prison having news of what was passi of the thieves, so much as into their ordered him to quit the city and privy, full of mud and filthiness. country. Raymond embarked w This was a persecution that he en- his books in a Genoese ship, in or

to pass over to Genoa ; but the fury with “the subtle doctor." He of contrary winds altered their course, afterwards compiled a book entitled so that, at ten miles from the port “ Dominus quæ Pars ?!? of Pisa, the ship was wrecked, and Raymond now left Paris for a though the sea swallowed up many, while, and returned to Montpelier. Raymond was one of those who While there he finished his work, escaped. All his books were lost; “ De Acquisitione Terræ Sanctæ " in but, favoured by Heaven, he, half the month of March ; and then pronaked, and with one companion, ceeded to Majorca, where he wrote was landed in the port on a plank,” his “De Confessione." This was

In March, 1308, therefore, we find followed, in January, 1310, by his him lodged in the monastery of San Liber Sermonum, or “Ars PrædiDomingo, at Pisa, and there finishing candi ;" and then he made his way his “ Ars Generalis Ultima." In April back to Paris. He now gained he finished his “Disputatio Ray- much favour from the French king, mundi Christiani et Homeri Sara. Phillip the Fair, who gave him the ceni,” alluded to by the “ Vidà Con- titles of “Organo del Espiritu Santo,” temporanea just quoted, and many and “Doctor Iluminado del Cielo." other works. The republic of Pisa Two of his works we now find denow began to favour his scheme, dicated to the king; one “Liber naand gave him letters, and founded talis parvuli Christi Jesu," the other a military order for the conquest of “Liber Lamentationis Philosophiæ."3 the Holy Land. With bright hopes The University of Paris now apRaymond set out for Genoa, and proved his “Ars," and a diploma there obtained a subscription of was granted to him. Raymond then 25,000 ducats from devout women; paid another visit to Avignon, Montthence he proceeded to France, to pelier, and Majorca, where he finishseek the Pope, then resident in ed other works, and then returned to Avignon. He presented his letters Paris in 1322, and here, by the and supplication, but without avail; king's command, other works of his and then returned to Paris, reading were examined and approved by his Ars and composing many books. Francisco de Neapoli, then chanA story of him is recounted, by cellor of the university. * which he gained the attention of A general council was now conthe famous Duns Scotus. It ap- voked at Vienne, by the pope, Clement pears that one day Raymond was V., for the ist of October, 1311. At present at one of his lectures; and this council were present more than on hearing some argument to which three hundred archbishops and bihe did not assent, signified his dis- shops, and the principal theme of approbation by a slight murmur. discussion was, the condition of the Duns Scotus looked round, and order of the Templars, and the when he discovered the murmurer in abuses which had grown up amongst the corner, thought to shame him by them. Raymond determined to be the question, “ Dominus quæ pars ?" present, and present his cause before to which Raymond is said to have the assembly. About this time he answered, “Dominus non est pars, wrote the “Liber Phantasticus," sed est totum." In consequence being a supposed conversation beof this proof of his talent, Raymond tween him and a priest on their seems to have had much association way to the council. In the first

Custurer, note 25, p. 525. Add. MSS., 16,432.

Custurer, ii. 6, 2. Vide Document quoted by St. Rosseló, p. 77, dated Tuesday after the octave of the Feast of the Purification, 1309.

• Custurer, i. 6, 71.

chapter he gives us some resumé of Christianorum et Saracenorur his life. “I was a man joined in This work commences “Raymund matrimony, blessed with offspring, veniens de Concilio Generali, qu and a moderate competence, but factium fuit in Viennensi Civitat of loose and earthly conduct. All In September he finished, “] these things I freely gave up, that Trinitate et Incarnatione.” He th I might gain honour for God and went over to Sicily, and stayed good to all men, and extol the holy some time at Messina, where faith : I learnt Arabic ; many times wrote many works; but in Februa I went forth to preach to the Sara- 1313, returned again to Major cens; I was captured on account and still wrote many treatises. of the faith, imprisoned, scourged ; October he had returned again for forty five-years I have toiled Messina and gained great favo that I might stir up the Church and with the King of Sicily. In 131 Christian princes to promote the he returned to Majorca, in order public welfare. Now I am an old depart from thence for Tunis. Sa man, now a poor man, but my mind cho had now succeeded to t is still the same, and in such will I Majorcan throne, and had made remain till death. God himself will treaty with the King of Tunis, give ; what then? does this seem to that there would be many shi you fancy or not? let your own starting from the island for Tui conscience judge. But I seem to in order to increase commerce. perceive that your mind is fancifully one of these ships Raymond ei disposed towards me; but God will barked, leaving the port of Palr be judge, whom you can neither with the greatest regret of the office coerce nor deceive.” And so Ray- of the city and his own persor mond went, full of hope, to the meet- friends, who came down to the pi ing of the council. There he made to see him off. Señor Custurer cit three distinct petitions--1. For the a deed in which is quoted a no foundation of colleges to teach contemporary with the event, givii foreign languages; 2. For the re- an account of Raymond's departur union of all military orders into one, It runs thus: “This day, Tuesday, t in order to unite their strength for 14th of August, 1314, there ei the conquest of the Holy Land. 3. barked Master Raymond Lull, in For the proclamation of a prohibition ship bound for Bugia, at which ei to read in the schools the books of barkation there assisted a grai Averroes. Raymond proposed for company of people, and especial the foundation of colleges the cities the Jurats, that is to say, Luis of Rome, Paris, and Toledo, and the Sanct Marti, Andreu Roig, Ju: council so far seconded him as to Börras, Antoni Aguilo, Fr. Amad name Rome, Paris, Bologna, Oxford, de Sta . . ., Fr. Antoni Ferrer, ai and Salamanca. The second pro- many others, who felt great sorro position was rejected, probably be- at his departure." Part of a lett cause the council was occupied at is also extant, written back, by Ra that time with far more serious mond on his arrival, to the Jura matters, relating to the order of the thanking them for their kind office Templars, which ended in their order and full of zeal for the attainment being abolished. The third peti- his life's object. He had evident tion was granted. The last sitting made up his mind fearlessly of the council was held in March, court death, perhaps he had a pr 1312. Raymond now went back to sentiment that he was to die thu his native country, and finished, in compare what he says of himself July, the treatise “ De Participatione his “Liber de Contemplatione

| Custurer, p. 541. Rosselló, 83, note.

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