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the ancient Conftitution of this Church, can • Suppose either Archdeacons, or Deans and G Chapters, to have any original Jurisdiction, ( since that Right was in the Bilhop, before I there were either Archdeacons, or Deans and Chapters’ Bp. Still. Eccl. Cases, P. 338.
However, 'tis allow'd shat Archdeacons have now a Power, not only to visit, but suspend, excommunicate, in many places to prove Wills
; and, in fome, to institute to Benefices : nay, 'tis given us for Law; That there are Archdeaconries in England, which have no Dependance on the Bishop, but are totally exempt. See Bp. Still. ubi fupra. And yet Stat. 14 H.VIII.c. 12. ex preily fays; that there lies an Appeal from the určhdeacon's Court toʻthe Bishop's.
Tisone Part of the Archdeacon's Office to in. duet all Clerks into their benefices, within his Jurisdiction ; and 'tis the special Privilege of the Archdeacon of Canterbury, to induct, or install all Bishops within that Province.s 'See Somn. ubi jippra.
As long since as Lyndwood's Time, Archideacons were permitted to take Priests Orders, and yet to retain their Office and former Title; and it was the common Opinion then, that the Archdeacon, being in Priest's Orders, was fupe. rior to a Cathedral Dean, Pr. L. 3. Tit. I... 1. verb. Decani. Now, by the Act of Uniformity's he is oblig'd to be in Priest's Orders. The Cano. nifts gave the Precedence to the Archdeacon, bee cause of the largeness of his Jurisdiction : but the Dean is allow'd to be superior within the Cathedral, It seems not material in this Point,
whether the Archdeacon be Doctor or not ; for Jurisdiction goes before Title.
Archdeacons and other Ordinaries have Power to visit Parochial Libraries, to order the Mhutting them up on the Death of the Incuinbents, to require Security for the Preservation of them: And Books loft must be fu'd for in their Names. Stat. 7 Ann. c. 14.
Disputes have of late arifen between Archdeacons and their Clergy, concerning the for. mer's Power to command any of the latter to preach a Serinon at the Visitation. It is not a Tuld Cafe. But Visitors are bound by Canon. Law to preach in their Visitations, or to main. tain others to do it for them. See the Case of a Rector refusing to preach, &c.
RURAL DE A NS.
Besides Archdeacons there were formerly Ru. ral. Deans. These Officers were first introduc'd about the Time of the Conquest. Our Dioceses
are still divided into Deanries; and those Clergymen, who, under the Bishop and Archdea. con, had the peculiar Care and Inspection of the Clergy and Laity of such a District as is now call'd a Deanry, were Rural-Deans. They had Power to Visit, and hear Causes, and a fort of Authority, latterward, to correét delinquent Clergymen, but not to proceed to Cen- . sure; both they and Archdeacons were prohibited to meddle with Matrimonial Causes.
were sometimes allow'd to take the Con. feffions of the Clergymen within their Jurisdi. &ion į at other times, particular Persons were
assign'd by the Bishop for that Purpose. They were oblig'd to have a Seal of their Office; but were removeable at pleasure ; but jointly, by the Bishop and Archdeacon. Sometimes they were beneficed within the Deanry, which they had the Care of, sometimes not. See Provinc. L. 1. T. 2. L.2.T. 1. L. 5. T. 16. Const. Oib. Quoniam Tabell. Quoniam quod. The Incumbents within the Deapry were call’d, The RuralDean's Chapter.
But there are some Deans with Jurifdi&tion, but without a Chapter, as Battel and Bocking: fome Chapters without a Dean, as Soutbwel; fome Chapters that have no Head but their BiShop, as St. David's and Llandaff; at the for. mer, the Chantor: at the latter, the Archdeacon presides, in absence of the Bishop, or vacancy of the See. And lastly, there are some Deans and Chapters in Churches, where there are no Episo copal Sees, as Westminster and Windfor; and these are therefore call's Collegiate Churches; as those likewise are which have a Chapter, but neither Dean nor Bishop.
CH A P. IX.
Of Benefices, Donation, Collation, Presentati
on, Institution, Induction, Subscriptions, and
. cap. 18. 9. 12. and all Benefices are sometimes by the Canonists call'd Dignities, Pro. L. 3. T. 1.Glof. But Bishopricks,
Deanries and Archdeaconries, are most proper. ly call’d Dignities, both in Law, and common Difcourse, but neither Lyndwood, nor Watson, allow Prebends, in ftri&ness, to be Dignities. Pro. L.
3. T. 7. Gloff. Comp. Incumb. p.4, 5. And yet'tis allow'd by all, that they must be Dignities, if there be a Jurisdiction annex'd to them.
In Common Law Deans and Chapters are callid Corporations Aggregate.
Bishops, Re&ors, and Vicars are Corporations, Sole, at Common Law.
A Prebendary, who has a distinct Eftate, and yet a Vote in Chapter, is call'd a Corporation Šole, and a Member of a Corporation Aggregate,
These are all call'd Corporations, because they have a Power to receive Lands and Goods, for the Use of themfelves and Successors (except where they are restrain’d by Law) to sue and be sued jointly, &c.
But having already spoke of Prebends, I am now to fay fomething of Benefices, focommon. ly calld; which are Parfonages, or Rectories, and Vicarages, Manfe, Tythes, and all other Duties pa were all Parsonages are Churches endow'd with Glebe,
by the Parishioners ; and fuch originally were all Parish Churches. But the Monks and other Regulars, before the Reformation, got near half of the best Benefices in England appropriated to their Houses; these they serv'd at first by some of their own Bodies; afterwards the Bishops oblig'd them to settle Secular Priests in them, to serve their Cures. When H. VIII. suppress’d
the Monasteries, he gave of these Benefices fome to Bishops, fome to Cathedral and Collegiate Bodies, and very many to meer Laymen. And even to this Day, any Benefice may be appropriate to a Bishop, Dean and Chapter, &c. with consent of King, Patron, and Ordinary.
Vicarages are Benefices created for the Main. tenance of those Clergymen who serve in Churches, where fome, or all the Tythes are impropriated. At first the Vicar was a meer Curate, as we now speak, temporary and removable at pleasure : by degrees, fome Vicars got fettled Maintenance, distinct from the Impropriator ; which Maintenance consisted of a Glebe and Manfe, and for the most part fone Proportions of Tythes; but in some places, only a Pension from the Im propriator; these were, and ftillare in Law call’d Perpetual Vicars, or Vicars En. dow'd, to distinguish them from Temporary Vi. cars, i. e. Curates.
In the Year 1222, a Constitution was made by irchbishop Langton, than no Perpetual Vicar should have a Portion (viz. of Glebe and Tythes) of less value than five Marks per An. and that could be fo let to Farm. But in Lyndwood's Time, even temporary, stipendiary Vicars had eight or ten Marks per An. which after Sir H. Spelman's Computation was as much as
Some Benefices that formerly were sever'd by Impropriation, have fince been consolidated, and all the Glebe and Tythes been given to the Vicarage, and many Vicars have a good part of the great Tythes, or a Lease of them upon reafonable Terms froin the Ecclefiaftical Impro