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the abdomen is concerned, it cannot be too strongly urged that no two subjects are precisely alike in the relation of parts; and, further, that even in the same individual striking changes are produced during life, both in the position and in the form of the organs, by different conditions of the hollow viscera. Such being the case, the author is well aware that in the present state of our knowledge it is impossible in every case to state dogmatically the average condition of the various organs and viscera ; still, in the short description which he has given, he has striven to approach as nearly as possible to the truth, by the careful study of specially prepared specimens and models.

The topographical anatomy of the abdominal cavity offers at the present moment a most promising field for research, and the author has little doubt that in a short time more definite and exact knowledge will be obtained upon the effect which different degrees of enlargement or distension of particular organs may exercise upon neighbouring viscera.

It is right that the student should not lose sight of the fact that in the course of an ordinary dissection the parts which are displayed are artificially separated from each other, and in consequence their true relations are disturbed. It is necessary to correct, therefore, impressions gained by dissection by the study of sections of the frozen body. The one form of study is the complement of the other ; both are required for the acquisition of a proper knowledge

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of topographical anatomy. Sectional anatomy is the true anatomy, but it can only be appreciated and understood by the key which is supplied by dissection.

In the present work no attempt is made to deal with the minute anatomy of the organs.

Under ordinary circumstances the microscope is out of place in the dissecting-room. It is a matter for regret, however, that students so very generally neglect the opportunities which are afforded them during their dissections of gaining a practical knowledge of the general architecture of the different organs which come under their notice. The connecting link between the dissecting-room and the histological laboratory is thereby lost. The spleen offers us a good example; it is only when we deal with such an organ as a whole, and not with thin slices suited for the microscope, that we can obtain a proper appreciation of its framework, and the general disposition of its constituent parts.

The Committee appointed some years ago by the Anatomical Society of Germany with the view of obtaining some uniformity in anatomical nomenclature has recently published its report. Where the terminology recommended by this Committee differs from that in common use in this country, the author has, in most cases, introduced the German terms into the text, within parentheses.

Most of the illustrations are new, but many have also been borrowed from the writings of well-known authors.

In every case the source from which the latter have been obtained is acknowleged in the text. The author has specially to thank Dr. Symington and Professor Paterson for the generous manner in which they have supplied him with original drawings and wood-blocks.


25th December 1895.

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