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The viscount of Dundee, slain in the battle of Killycrankie.

For pathless marsh and caverned cell,
The peasant leaves his lowly shed—
Verse 3, p. 76.

The morrasses were the usual refuge of the Border herdsmen, on the approach of an English army. (Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, vol. i. p. 49.) Caves hewed in the most dangerous and inaccessible places, also afforded an occasional retreat. Such caverns may be seen in the precipitous banks of the Teviot, at Sunlaws, and Ancram, upon the Jed at Hundalee, and in many other places upon the Border. The banks of the Eske, at Gor

ton and Hawthornden, are hollowed into similar recesses. But even these dreary dens were not always secure places of concealment. “In the way as we came, not far from this place (Long Niddry) George Ferrers, a gentleman of my lord Protector's— happened upon a cave in the ground, the mouth whereof was so worne with the freshe printe of steps, that he seemed to be certayne, thear wear sum folke within ; and gone doune to trie, he was redily receyved with a hakebut or two. He left them not yet, till he had knowen whyther thei wolde be content to yelde and come out, whiche they fondly refusyng, he went to my lorde's grace, and upon utteraunce of the thynge, gat license to deale with them as he could ; and so returned to them, with a skore or two of pioners. Three ventes had their cave, that we ware aware of, whereofhe first stopt up one; anoother he fil’d ful of strawe, and set it a fyer, wherat they within cast water apace; but it was so wel maynteyned without, that the fyer prevayled, and thei within fayn to get them belyke into anoother parler. Then devised we (for I hapt to be with hym) to stop the same up, whereby we should eyther smoother them, or fyndout their ventes, if thei hadde any moe: as this was doon at another issue, about a xii score of we moughte see the fume of their smoke to come out ; the which continued with so great a force, and so long a while, that we could not but thinke they must needs get them out, or smoother within ; and forasmuch as we found not that they dyd the tone, we thought it for certain thei wear sure of the toother.” PATTEN's Account of Somerset's expedition into Scotland, apud DALzEL's Frag???671tS.

Southern ravage.—Verse 3, p. 77.

From the following fragment of a letter from the earl of Northumberland to king Henry VIII. pre• served among the Cotton MSS. Calig. B. vii. 179, the reader may estimate the nature of the dreadful war which was occasionally waged upon the Borders, sharpened by mutual cruelties, and the personal hatred of the wardens or leaders. Some Scottish barons, says the earl, had threatened to come within “three miles of my pore house of Werkworthe, wher I lye, and gif me light to put on my clothes at mydnyght; and alsoo the said Marke Carr said there opynly, that seyng they had a governor on the marches of Scotland, as well as they haid in Ingland, he shulde kepe your highnes instructions, gyffyn unto your garyson, for making of any dayforrey; for he and his friends wolde burne enough on the nyght, lettyng your counsaill here defyne a notable acte at theyre pleasures.

Upon whiche, in your highnes' name, I comauro det dewe watche to be kepte on your marchies, for comyng in of any Scots. Neutheless, upon Thursday at nyght last, came thyrty light horsemen into a litill village of myne, called Whitell, having not past sex howses, lying toward Ryddisdaill, upon Shilbotellmore, and ther wold have fyred the said howses, but ther was noo fyre to get ther, and they forgate to brynge any withe they me ; and tok a wyf, being great withe chylde, in the said towne, and said to hyr, Wher we can not gyve the lard light, yet we shall doo this in spyte of hym ; and gave hyr iii. mortall wounds upon the heid, and another in the right side, with a dagger ; whereuppon the said wyf is dede, and the chylde in hyr bely is loste. Beseching your most gracious highnes to reduce unto your gracious memory this wylfull and shamefull murder, done within this your highnes’ realme, notwithstanding all the inhabitants thereabout rose unto the said fray, and gave warnynge by becons unto the contrey afore theyme, and yet the Scottsmen dyde escape ; and uppon certeyne knowledge to my brother Clyfforthe and me, had by credable persons of Scotland, this abomynable act not only to be done by dyverse of the Mershe, but also the afore named persons of Tyvidaill, and consented to, as by aparaunce, by the erle of Murey, upon Friday at nyght last, let

glyp c of the best horsemen of Glendaill, with a part of your highnes’ subjects at Berwyke, together with George Dowglas, whoo came into Ingland agayne, in the dawning of the day; but before theyre retorne, they dyd mar the erle of Murey's provisions at Coldingham; for they dyd not only burne the said towne of Coldingham, with all the corne thereunto belonging, which is estemed wurthc cii marke sterling ; but alsoo burned twa townes nye adioning thereunto, called Barnerdergets and the Black Hill, and toke xxiiii persons, lx horse, with cc hed of cataill, whiche nowe, as I am informed, hathe not only bene a staye of the said erle of Murey's not comyng to the bordur as yet, but also, that none inlande man will adventure theyre selfs uppon the marches. And as for the tax that shulde have bene grauntyd for finding of the said iii hundred men, is utterly denyed. Upon whiche the king of Scotland departed from Edynburgh to Stirling, and as yet ther doth remayn. And alsoo I, by the advice of my brother Clyfforthe, have devysed that within this iiii nyghts, Godde wylling, Kelsey, in lyke case, shal be burnet, with all the corne in the said town ; and then they shall have noo place to lye any garyson in, nygh unto the bordurs. And as I shall atteigne further knawledge, I shall not faill to satisfye your hignes, according to my most bounden dutie. And for this burnyng of

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