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COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY

[95th Congress ]

JAMES 0. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman EDWARD M. KENNEDY, Massachusetts STROM THURMOND, South Carolina BIRCH BAYH, Indiana

CHARLES McC. MATHIAS, JR., Maryland ROBERT C. BYRD, West Virginia

WILLIAM L. SCOTT, Virginia JAMES ABOUREZK, South Dakota

PAUL LAXALT, Nevada JAMES B. ALLEN, Alabama

ORRIN G. HATCH, Utah
JOSEPH R. BIDEN, JR., Delaware

MALCOLM WALLOP, Wyoming
JOHN C. CULVER, Iowa
HOWARD M. METZENBAUM, Ohio
DENNIS DECONCINI, Arizona
PAUL G. HATFIELD, Montana

Francis C. ROSENBERGER, Chief Counsel and Staff Director

SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE CONSTITUTION

BIRCH BAYH, Indiana, Chairman HOWARD M. METZENBAUM, Ohio

WILLIAM L. SCOTT, Virginia JAMES B. ALLEN, Alabama

ORRIN G. HATCH, Utah JAMES ABOUREZK, South Dakota

NELS ACKERSON, Chief Counsel and Executive Director

MARY K. JOLLY, Staff Director

KEVIN O. FALEY, General Counsel
LINDA ROGERS-KINGSBURY, Chief Clerk
THEODORE L. HUMES, Minority Counsel
KENNETH L. FORAN, Minority Counsel

CONTENTS

OPENING STATEMENTS

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Abourezk, Hon. James, a U.S. Senator from the State of South Dakota -

Bayh, Hon. Birch, a U.S. Senator from the State of Indiana, chairman,

Subcommittee on the Constitution.----

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF WITNESSES

Abraham, Prof. Henry, Department of Government and Foreign Affairs,

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va..

Bachrach, Prof. Peter, Department of Political Science, Temple University,

Philadelphia, Pa..-----

Berg, Prof. Larry, Department of Political Science, University of Southern

California, Los Angeles., Calif..---

Dent, Edward, Washington, D.C...

Diamond, Roger, J., legal counsel, People's Lobby, Los Angeles, Calif..--

Fauntroy, Hon. Walter E., a Delegate in Congress from the District of

Columbia---

Fish, Peter G., associate professor, political science, Duke University,

Durham, N.Ć.

Jones, Hon. James R., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Oklahoma---

Koupal, Joyce, People's Lobby, Los Angeles, Calif.------

Nader, Ralph, Washington, D.C.---

Telschow, Roger, codirector, Initiative America, accompanied by John

Forster, codirector, Initiative America, and Bill Harrington, legislative

coordinator, Initiative America.-.

Thomson, Ken, director, Citizens for Participation in Political Action ---

Ward, Baxter, supervisor, County of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, Calif..

Whiting, Don, election supervisor, State of Washington.------------

CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF WITNESSES

TUESDAY, DECEMBER 13, 1977

Jones, Hon. James R., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Fauntroy, Hon. Walter E., a Delegate in Congress from the District of

Columbia.----

Berg, Prof. Larry, Department of Political Science, University of Southern

California, Los Angeles, Calif..

Bachrach, Prof. Peter, Department of Political Science, Temple University,

Philadelphia, Pa.----------------

Abraham, Prof. Henry, Department of Government and Foreign Affairs,

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.---
Telschow, Řoger, codirector, Initiative America, accompanied by John

Forster, codirector, Initiative America, and Bill Harrington, legislative
coordinator, Initiative America.

WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 14, 1977

Ward, Baxter, supervisor, County of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, Calif.----

Nader, Ralph, Washington, D.C ---

Whiting, Don, election supervisor, State of Washington.---

Fish, Peter G., associate professor, political science, Duke University,

Durham, N.C.---

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Dent, Edward, Washington, D.C.
Thomson, Ken, director, Citizens for Participation in Political Action ---
Koupal, Joyce, People's Lobby, Los Angeles, Calif---
Diamond, Řoger J., legal counsel, People's Lobby, Los Angeles, Calif----

LIST OF EXHIBITS
1. Letter to Sen. James O. Eastland, chairman, Committee on the

Judiciary, from Patricia M. Wald, assistant attorney general, De

partment of Justice---2. Letter to Alice Rivlin, director, Congressional Budget Office, from

Senator Bayh, chairman, Subcommittee on the Constitution,

January 18, 1978.------
3. Letter to Senator Bayh from Alice Rivlin, February 27, 1978..-----
4. S.J. Res. 67, joint resolution proposing an amendment to the Consti-

tution of the United States with respect to the proposal and the
enactment of laws by popular vote of the people of the United

States.------------
5. Introductory statement from the Congressional Record, Monday,

July 11, 1977, by Senator James Abourezk which accompanied the

introduction of S.J. Res. 67.--6. Public opinion survey conducted by Cambridge Survey Research on

the voter initiative constitutional amendment.---7. Prepared statement of Hon. Michael J. Harrington, a Representative

- in Congress from the State of Massachusetts... 8. Prepared statement of Hon. Guy Vander Jagt, a Representative in

Congress from the State of Michigan.-----
9. H.J. Res. 544, joint resolution proposing an amendment to the Con-

stitution of the United States to give citizens of the United States
the right to enact and repeal laws by voting on legislation in a

national election..
10. Prepared statement of Hon. Harold S. Sawyer, a Representative in

Congress from the State of Michigan.----
11. H.J. Res. 658, joint resolution proposing an amendment to the Con-

stitution of the United States to give citizens of the United States
the right to enact and repeal laws by voting on legislation in a

national election.------
12. "The Initiative in Washington: 1914–74", by Hugh A. Bone, professor

of political science, University of Washington.. 13. Editorial from the Lynchburg Virginia News, “An Intriguing Pro

posal," January 2, 1978... 14. Letter to James Murdock, Lynchburg News, editorial page editor,

from Peter G. Fish, associate professor, Duke University-.-.15. Prepared statement by the People's Lobby..

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APPENDIX
Part 1.—CORRESPONDENCE AND STATEMENTS FROM STATE OFFICIALS
Letter from Hon. Tom McCall of Oregon, former Governor, to Senator

James Abourezk, November 28, 1977-----
Letter from Hon. J. James Exon, Governor, State of Nebraska, to Senator

Mark Hatfield and Senator James Abourezk, November 21, 1977------
Letter from Hon. Jay S. Hammond, Governor, State of Alaska, to Senator

Mark Hatfield and Senator James Abourezk, November 30, 1977-----Prepared statement of Hon. William N. Durley, assistant to California

Secretary of State March Fong Eu for Elections and Political Reform--Letter from Hon. Dixon Arnett, 20th district, California State assembly

man, with enclosures, to Senator Birch Bayh, December 5, 1977------Letter from Hon. William G. Milliken, Governor, State of Michigan, to

Senator Mark Hatfield and James Abourezk, December 5, 1977.--
Letter from Hon. Bruce A. Smathers, Secretary of State, State of Florida, to

Senator James Abourezk, December 5, 1977.-----
Prepared statement by Hon. Paul Guzzi, Secretary of the Commonwealth

of Massachusetts...

161

172

196

PART 2.-CORRESPONDENCE AND STATEMENTS FROM Law SCHOOLS AND

UNIVERSITIES University of Utah, Robert C. Benedict, assistant professor, department Page of political science, November 17, 1977.

---- 159 George Washington University, Arthur S. Miller, professor of law Novem

ber 23, 1977.-Antioch 'School of Law, Institute for Alternative Futures, Clement Bezold, Ph.D., director.----

163 Western Illinois University, college of arts and sciences, John S. Shockley,

Ph.D., associate professor, December 2, 1977.. University of Washington, Prof. Hugh A. Bone, department of political science, December 2, 1977-----

189 University of Southern California, Prof. Harlan Hahn, department of political science, December 6, 1977.

189 Rutgers University, Prof, Benjamin R. Barber, professor of political science, January 12, 1978..

192 California Polytechnic State University, Marvin J. Whalls, head natural

resources management department, January 19, 1978 University of Toronto, Prof. Walter Berns, professor of political science, January 26, 1978.--

197 East Carolina University, Prof. John P. East, Ph.D., LL.B., department of political science.

197 PART 3.—CORRESPONDENCE AND STATEMENTS FROM ORGANIZATIONS Americans for Initiative-Referendum, Milwaukee, Wis, James A. Sigl, director...

198 American Referendum Association, Inc., New York, N.Y., Matt Shermer, director.

198
Illinois Coalition for Political Honesty, Patrick Quinn, secretary-treasurer.. 202
Liberty Lobby, Washington, D.C., Vincent A. Drosdik III...
Michigan United Conservation Clubs, Lansing Michigan, Thomas L.

Washington, executive director.----
Montanans for Safe Power, Billings, Mont., Edward M. Dobson, cochair-

man..---
The National Health Federation, Delaware, Ohio, John Yiamouyiannis,

Ph.D., science director.
Progressive Democratic Club of Kansas City, Mo., David J. West, pub-
licity-----
-----------------------------

------
Part 4.-JOURNAL ARTICLES
“The Initiative: A Comparative State Analysis and Reassessment of a

Western Phenomenon,” by Charles M. Price, the Western Political
Quarterly, vol. 28, June 1975.---

208 "Direct Democracy-A Study of the American Referendum," by Penelope J. Gazey, Parliamentary Affairs, vol. 24, No. 2, spring 1971.

228 "Perspectives on Direct Legislation: Washington State's Experience 1914

1973,” by Hugh A. Bone and Robert C. Benedict, Western Political Quarterly, June 1975.-

245 Tendencies of California Direct Legislation”, by John Sheldon Rada

baugh, The Southwestern Social Science Quarterly, June 1961.--------- 267 "Initiative, Referendum and Recall: A Resume of State Provisions”,

76-95A, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, May 1976; with Addendum I to 76-95A, February 15, 1977.--

280 "Constitutional Problems Involving a National Referendum," Thomas M.

Durbin, Legislative Attorney, American Law Division, February 25, 1977.-

353 Part 5.—LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUMMARY A Compilation of Statewide Initiative Proposals Appearing on Ballots

through 1976.

203

204 205

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1978------

Part 6.-ADDITIONAL CORRESPONDENCE AND STATEMENTS Letter from Robert Redford, to Senator James Abourezk, November 10, Page 1977.-

581 Letter and statement from James A. Boyle, Jr., attorney at law, to Senator James Abourezk, November 28, 1977.

581 Prepared statement of David Marker, board of directors, Maryland Public Interest Research Group -----

583 Letter and statement from Upton Sisson, attorney at law, to Senator James Abourezk, December 1, 1977.--

584 Letter and statement from Stephen Laudig, attorney at law, to Senator James Abourezk, December 1, 1977.--

590 Letter from Roy V. Jordan, lawyer, to Senator Birch Bayh, with attached newspaper articles and statements, December 2, 1977.-

591 Letter from Sheila S. Hartley and Lee Jones, to Senator James Abourezk, December 5, 1977..

599 Letter from Harley H. Hoppe, King County assessor, Seattle, Wash. to Senator James Abourezk, December 5, 1977.

600 Letter from Michael J. Malbin, American Enterprise Institute, to the editor, Washington Post, January 23, 1978.---.

601 Letter from Edward G. Maschke, vice president, Goleta County Water District, Goleta County, Calif., to Senator James Abourezk, January 30,

---------Part 7.-News ARTICLES, COMMENTS, AND EDITORIALS “California Initiative Process Needs Reform,” by Nick Brestoff, Los Angeles Times, February 5, 1975-

---

603 More Refrendums?” The Economist, March 6, 1976...

604 "Initiative Voting Spreads," by Neal'R. Peirce, Los Angles Times, June 6, 1976-------

607 "The Continuing Campaign To Inhibit the Initiative," by Joe Dziublenski, California Journal, August 1976 -

609 "Direct Democracy via Referenda,” by Ralph Nader, Washington Star, November 6, 1976.-------

612 "Taking the Initiative,” Washington Post, May 24, 1977.-"Group Backs Initiative Plan," by Jeff Hall, Kansas City Star, July 10,

1977. “National Initiative Ballot Law Will be Introduced by Abourezk," New

York Times, July 11, 1977----"Initiating of Laws by Public Proposed," New York Times, July 12, 1977.-- 615 . "People's Laws Being Proposed," Ft. Wayne Journal Gazette, July 12,

1977.----"Amendment Would Grant Power To Enact Laws,” Rochester, New York,

Times-Union, July 12, 1977... “Petition Proposal Promoted,” by Terry Maxon, Oklahoma Journal, July

14, 1977.----“Legislation Gets Group's Support,” Daily Oklahoman, July 15, 1977.---"Federal Initiatives," ŘFI/KOST, Los Angeles, Calif., editorial broadcast

July 15, 1977.----“They're Taking the Initiative," by Douglas C. Lyons, Rochester, New

York, Democrat and Chronicle, July 19, 1977.“Abourezk’s Bill: A Chance To Exercise Voter Initiative," by Nicholas von

Hoffman, Washington Post, July 26, 1977... "Initiative, the Populists' Voguish Darling," by George F. Will, Washington Post, July 28, 1977.-

619 “For a National Initiative,” Portland, Oreg., Journal, July 28, 1977.-- 620 David Brinkley, NBC News-New York Radio Commentary, July 28, 1977.----

621 “Do the People Rule?" by Roger Telschow, Berkshire Eagle, Pittsfield,

Mass., August 2, 1977-------------------------------------------"In Support of a National Initiative Amendment,” Letters to the Editor column, Washington Post, August 3, 1977.--

622 "In Defense of "Creeping Populism'," by James Abourezk, Washington Post, August 10, 1977...

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