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in his place; and from that time until Mr. Gunning resumed his duties, about four years afterwards, his patients were entirely under my management. Thus I had the opportunity, at an unusually early age, of acquiring a large experience in hospital practice, and to this cir, cumstance my early professional success may very much be attributed. Having at this time no private practice, I was able to devote a great deal of my time to my duties in the hospital. During six months in the year I passed several hours daily in the wards, taking notes of cases, and communicating freely with the students. During the other six months, the whole of the time which I could spare from my employment as a teacher of anatomy, was devoted to the hospital also. The custom at St. George's, and indeed at all the other metropolitan hospitals, had hitherto been for the surgeons to go round the wards only on two days in the week, not attending otherwise, except when there were operations to perform, or severe accidents which made their assistance necessary, or on other special occasions. Mr. Robert Keate and myself


were the first persons who adopted another mode of proceeding. We were at our posts in the hospital daily, and superintended everything; and there was never an urgent case which we did not visit in the evening, and not unfrequently at an early hour in the morning also. This was of as much advantage to the students as it was to the patients and ourselves, and the effect of it was soon perceptible, in the increase of zeal and diligence on their part, and in their increasing numbers. After some time I appointed clinical clerks, one for the patients of Mr. Home (or, as he became soon afterwards, Sir Everard Home) and another for those who were under my care as officiating for Mr. Gunning. I also began to deliver clinical lectures; and I believe that these were the first lectures of this kind which were ever delivered in a London hospital.

I may take this opportunity of saying a few words respecting my friend and colleague Mr. Robert Keate. At the time of which I am speaking, his uncle held the very high and important office of surgeon-general to the army,

and he himself was a deputy-inspector of military hospitals, and assisted his uncle in his official duties. He had been introduced by his uncle to the Royal Family, with whom he was a considerable favourite; was surgeon to the Queen, and to some of the royal dukes and princesses. These various avocations for a considerable time had interfered with his devoting himself so much to the business of the hospital as he would have done otherwise ; nevertheless he had already obtained a very considerable practical knowledge of his profession, and was an excellent operator. We acted together as colleagues until I resigned my office as surgeon in the year 1840; and it is, I hope, to the credit of both of us that, during the whole of those thirty-two years, the most perfect harmony and friendship always subsisted between us. We had the most implicit confidence in each other; and not only did we never openly disagree, but I do not believe that either of us entertained even unkind thoughts as to the other. He was, and still is, a perfect gentleman in every sense of the word; kind in his feelings; open, honest, and upright

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