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court. See e.g. the entire desertion of Agrippina after she had lost favour with Nero DČass, LXI 8 $ 6. The writings of M. About in 1870 form & lively commentary on this verse.

74 NORTIA as at Rome, so at Volsinii, in the temple of Nortia, an Etruscan goddess, nails were driven yearly into the wall (Cincius ap. Liv. VII 3 $ 7), a national calendar, and a symbol of the inevitable march of time 0. Müller Etrusker 11 329–331. On an Etruscan patera Athrpa (i. e. Atropos, Gr. for Nortia, i. e. ne-vortia Schwenck Rhein, Mus. 1842 p. 446) is seen driving a nail into a wall Müller ib. 331. Several altars and votive stones of Nortia are extant ib. 54. Seianti, Seiantial, Saintial occur as Etruscan names ib. i 418. inscr. by Festus Avienus cir. A. D. 450 in Fabretti p. 742. Wernsdorf-Lemaire p. 1. m. v 525 1. 3 Nortia, te veneror lare cretus Vulsiniensi. Tertull, apol. 24 and ad Nat. I1 8 cites Volsiniensium Nortia among the gods who took rank in Italy by municipal consecration. Martian. Capell. 1 $ 88 identifies Sors, Nemesis, Tyche, Nortia. So the schol. makes Nortia=Fortuna. Seianus had in his house a statue of Fortune, said to have belonged to Servius Tullius, which turned its back on him just before his fall, as he was offering sacrifice to it DCass. LVIII 7 & 2. Plin. VIII § 197. Henzen suspects the inscr. in Orell. 1854 magnae deae Nortiae.

TUSCO he was born at Vulsinii Tac. an. iv 1. ib. 3 municipali adultero. Vi 8.

75 SI OPPRESSA FORET SECURA SENECTUS PRINCIPIS Tac. an. iv 1 Seianus so bewitched Tiberius, ut obscurum adversus alios sibi uni incautum intectumque efficeret. Suet. Tib. 65 et oppressa coniuratione Seiani nihilo securior aut constantior; for the next nine months he did not leave his villa Iovis. As early as A.D. 23 S. had plotted the death of Tiberius DCass. LVII 22 § 2 TÒr répovra pớota Metaxelpleco da.. Tiberius, born 16 Nov. 42 B.C., wanted a month and two days of seventy-two years of age. For the expression the age of the em. peror'='the aged emperor' cf. IV 81 venit et Crispi iucunda senectus. Sulpic. 48 sententia dia Catonis.

76 HAC IPSA SEIANUM DICERET HORA AUGUSTUM DCass. LVIII 4 A.D. 30 Seianus had the command of the praetorian guard which was devoted to him, and had won the senate by favours or promises or fear, so that he was regarded as supreme; A. D. 31 he with Tiberius was appointed consul for five years, and both alike, when they came to Rome, were to be received in state. cf. Tac. an. IV 2. Suet. Cal. 12 S. had been suspected of aiming at the throne some time before his fall. Tac. an. III 29 A.D. 20 the daughter of S. is betrothed to the son of Claudius; by which Tiberius polluisse nobilitatem familia videbatur, suspectumque iam nimiae spei Seianum ultra extulisse. ib. iv 1 fin. A.D. 23 summa apiscendi libido;...parando regno, ib. 3 S. removes one by one those who stand between him and the throne, and invites Livia ad coniugii spem, consortium regni. ib. iv 68 A.D. 28 the hopes of S. ib. vi 1 § 3 after the fall of S. Vitellius was accused of having offered the keys of the treasury, of which he was keeper, and the military chest to the conspirators. ib. 8 novissimi consilii .. insidiae in rem publicam, consilia caedis adversum imperatorem. On the instability of popular favour see DCass. Lxv 1 SS 1–2. 77 EX QUO SUFFRAGIA NULLI VENDIMUS on the bribery which corrupted elections in the later years of the republic see Nep. 25 6 § 2 Atticus ab. stained from seeking office because it could not be won without a breach of the laws in tam effusi ambitus largitionibus. Plut. Coriol. 14 $ 3. Caes. 28 & 2. Sen. ep. 115 g 10. 118 SS 2–4. App. b. c. 11 19. 23. Luc. 1 178–. 180 hinc rapti pretio fasces sectorque favoris , ipse sui populus

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letalisque ambitus urbi | annua venali referens certamina campo, Petron. 119 39-50 n. nec minor in campo furor est, emptique Qui. rites | ad praedam strepitumque lucri sufragia vertunt. I venalis populus, venalis curia patrum. I est favor in pretio etc. Suet. Caes. 19 Cas, even Cato consented to bribery as against Caesar. More than fifty trials for ambitus are on record. Cicero defended L. Licinius Murena, P. Vatinius, C. Plancius, L. Sempronius Atratinus, M. Cispius, T. Annius Milo, P. Sestius, M. Aemilius Scaurus Rein in Pauly 1° 840–5. id. röm. Criminalrecht 701–33.

78 EFFUDIT CURAS Sen, de ir, 11 35 g 3. omnemque.curam sui effundent. id. ep. 11 § 3 quasi omnem verecundiam effuderint. Caesar (Drumann 1655. 680—4. Höck 1 (1) 1914-2. 199—201) assumed the right of recommending candidates for election Cic. Phil. vii § 16. ad Att. xiv 5. 6. Suet. 41 who gives one of his circulars. ib. 76. DCass. XLIII 14 & 5. 45 § 1. 46—7. 51 he reserved to himself by a law the nomination of half the magistrates, but in effect chose all. Eutrop. vi 25=20. The form of election was still kept up B.C. 44 Cic. ep. fam. vii 30 § 1. Phil. ir SS 79–84. The triumvirs received from the comitia the power of nomination App. b. c. IV 2. v 73. DCass. XLVI 55 $ 3. XLVII 2 8 1. 15. XLVIII 35. 53. Augustus (Höck 1 (1) 410—1) made a show of canvassing for his friends and voted as a citizen, but in fact appointed whom he would Suet. 40. 56. D Cass. LII 20, 30

LIII 21 SS 6—7. LV 34 § 2. LVI 40 $ 4. The first work of Tiberius (Höck 1 (3) 51–5) as emperor A.D. 14 was that ordinatio comitiorum, quam manu sua scriptam divus Augustus reliquerat (Vell. 11 124 9 3, who with his brother were praetors, candidati Caesaris, the last who were nominated by Augustus, and the first by Tiberius ib. & 4). Tac. an. I 15 Lips. exc. E 'then first were the elections transferred from the Campus to the senate: for to that day, though matters of importance were done by the will of the princeps, yet something was left to the inclination of the tribes. nor did the people complain of the loss of its rights except with an empty outcry, while the senate, released from the necessity of bribes and degrading entreaties, willingly accepted the boon, Tiberius limiting himself to the recommendation of four candidates, sine repulsa et ambitu designandos.' ib. 81. II 36. IV 6. DCass. LVIII 20 Fabric. the magis. trates were still for show presented to the people. DCass. LIX 9 SS 647 A. D. 38 Gaius (Caligula) restored the elections to the centuries and tribes, to the alarm of all men of sense, ib. 20 SS 3–5 A. D. 39 owing to the lukewarmness of the voters, and lack of candidates, he revoked the boon, The people still however assembled, and the new magistrates, after the usual prayers and other ceremonies, were proclaimed by a magistrate and herald Suet. Dom. 19. Plin. ep. III 20 a lively picture of contested elections in the senate. id. pan. 92 Trajan voted for Pliny in the senate and proclaimed him in the Campus. Capitolin. M. Ant. phil. 10 $ 2 M. Aurelius comitiis usque ad noctem frequenter interfuit. Vopisc. Tac. 7 SS 2—3. In the third century the lex Iulia de ambitu was dormant in the city dig. XLVIII 14 pr. quia ad curam principis magistratuum creatio pertinet, non ad populi favorem. cf. Rein in Pauly 11 558-60, On candidati Caesaris see H. F. Stobbe in Philologus XXVII 88.

XXVIII 6484 700. The courtiers of the empire exult in the loss of freedom Vell. 11 126 § 2 semota e fora seditio, ambitio campo. Symm., Francof. 1816, laudes in patrés 3 p. 40 let us compare our present state with antiquity, illa tribus evocet libertina ac plebeia faece pollutas, nos patricios favisores; classes illa, nos principes. The voters of our day are what the candidates were of old. intellegamus nostri saeculi bona; abest cera turpis, JUV. II,


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diribitio corrupta clientelarum cuneis, sitella venalis. inter senatum et principes comitia transiguntur. Auson. grat. act. § 13 consul ego, imperator Auguste, munere tuo, non passus saepta neque campum, non suffragia, non puncta, non loculos. nihil cum sequestre deposui, cum diribitore nil pepigi. Amm. XIV 6 8 6 'the tribes have long enjoyed leisure and the centuries peace, there are no contests of votes, but the security of Numa's age has returned.' Mamertin. grat. act. Iulian. 16 seq. QUI DABAT OLIM IMPERIUM FASCES LEGIONES OMNIA, NUNC OPTAT PANEM Claud. bell. Gild. 96—103 ille diu miles populus, qui praefuit orbi, , qui trabeas et sceptra dabat. | nunc inhonorus, egens . . .| obsessi discrimen habet. l.. dubitandaque pauci | praescribunt alimenta dies, Africa being in the enemy's band.

79 IMPERIUM FASCES dictatorships, consulships, praetorships, provincial governorships. FASCES 35. v 110. VIII 260. Hor. ep. 1 6 53 of an influential elector cui libet hic fasces dabit. Lucr. III 995–7 petere a populo fasces petere imperium. From the beginning of the republic the consul used to lower his fasces before the people, a confession that his majesty was inferior to theirs Liv. 11 7 7. VM. iv 1 $ 1. command of armies in the field; also military tribunates, two thirds of which were assigned by vote Liv. VII 5 & 9. IX 30 & 3.

OMNIA an enumeration of several particulars is often closed by alia, cetera, omnia, reliqua, without et Madvig $ 434 n. 1. Kritz on Sall. C. 30 g 4. So tälla. návra Tolaûra Heind. on Plat. Gorg. 507d. Our et cetera is rare Phaedr. IV 4 36 vestem uniones pedisequos et cetera. 80—1 DUAS TANTUM RES ANXIUS OPTAT PANEM ET CIRCENSES VII 174 n. the importation of corn from Sardinia, Sicily, provincial Africa and Egypt, with the regulation of the market price and the free gifts of corn or money, to which the dangerous city population (containing more than half a million of paupers) was accustomed, caused a great drain on the state exchequer Höck 1 (2) 138–144. In the monumentum Ancyranum c. 15 Augustus records his generosity in this matter, as in that of games (cf. Höck ib. 144—5) c. 22 see Mommsen ad locc. Tac. an. 1 2 populum annona... pellexit. ib. xv 36 A.D. 64 Nero abandoned the intention of making a tour through the East: haec .... plebi volentia fuere voluptatum cupidine, et quae praecipua cura est, rei frumentariae angustias, si abesset, metuenti. id. hist. IV 38 A.D. 70 false rumours of an insurrection in Africa, when the corn fleet was detained by stress of weather, volgus alimenta in dies mercari solitum, cui una ex re pub. lica annonae cura. See Lips. elect. I 8. admirand. 11 10. Marquardt III 2 87—108. Mommsen die röm. Tribus 178—201. Rein in Pauly 12 1031-3 annona. IV 777–783 largitio frumentaria. 0. Hirschfeld in Philologus XXIX 1—96 on the administration of the corn supply. Mommsen in Hermes IV 364—370 on the praefecti frumenti dandi. The combination panem et circenses was proverbial. cf. Ios. ant. xix 1 § 16 some regretted the death of Gaius (Caligula), being captivated, as the manner of the vulgar is, with spectacles, and exhibitions of gladiators and distributions of meat.' DChrys. or. 32 1 668 R it is reported that some one once exclaimed: What can one say of the populace of Alexandria, who only need to have bread in good store provided for them, and a spectacle of horses, as caring for nothing else ?' Fronto princ. hist. ad fin. p. 210 Naber •It appears to be a consummate stroke of policy in the emperor not to neglect even actors and the other players of stage or circus or amphitheatre, as knowing populum Romanum dua. bus praecipue rebus, annona et spectaculis, teneri: imperium non

University of



X 80, 81 minus ludicris quam seriis probari : maiore damno seria, graviore CHRGAN ludicra neglegi: minus acribus stimulis congiaria quam spectacula eget congiariis frumentariam modo plebem singillatim placari ac nominatim spectaculis universum (populum].

81 CIRCENSES XI 195=197 totam hodie Romam circus capit. III 223. VI 87. VIII 59 n. 117-8

8 parce et messoribus illis qui saturant urbem circo scenaeque vacantem. IX 144. XI 53. XIV 262. On the large sums spent by Augustus in shows see Suet. 43. DCass. LIV 17 § 5 Pylades, when rebuked by Augustus for his quarrels with Bathyllus, 'it is for your interest, Caesar, that the people should devote their leisure to us.' cf. Macr. sat, 11 7 19. Tac. dial. 29 calls the histrionalis favor et gladiatorum equorumque certamina special vices of Rome, inbred from the womb: athletics engrossed the mind, leaving no room for higher pursuits: few talked of any other topic at home or in the lecture-room; even professors curried favour with their class by feigning an interest in sport. At Constantinople also the circensian games were the life of the many Greg. Naz. or. 36 $ 12. After Trèves had been repeatedly sacked by the barbarians, amid famine and pestilence, the first request of the few remaining nobles was for circensian games Salvian. de gubern. Dei vı 15. See Friedländer 11° 151–468 for an exhaustive treatment of the subject. cf. Mart. VII 7 8–10. VIII 11 5–6. Ammian. XXVIII 4 28–31 e. g. hi omne, quod vivunt, vino et tesseris impendunt et spectaculis. eisque templum et habitaculum et contio et cupi. torum spes omnis circus est maximus.

PERITUROS AUDIO MULTOS Tac. an. IV 74 A.D. 28 of the courtiers of S. quidam male alacres, quibus infaustae amicitiae gravis exitus imminebat. ib. vi 1 SS 1—2 & bold friend of S. who anticipated his sentence by suicide, Blaesus. § 3 P. Vitellius who stabbed himself with a penknife (cf. Suet. Vitell. 2); Pomponius Secundus, who survived Tiberius; Aelius Gallus. § 4 the children of S. (cf. DCass. LVIII 11 8 5). § 6 the one consul, Trio, accused his colleague Regulus of slackness in crushing the accomplices of S. Regulus accused Trio in return of being himself a conspirator (cf. DCass. LVIII 9 & 3). ib. 7 Minucius, who was the more pitied, as having borne meekly the friendship of S.; yet after condemnation he turned informer. ib. 10 Iulius Marinus, formerly a tool of S. ib. 14 Geminius, a boon companion of S. ib. 19 A. D. 33 inritatusque suppliciis cunctos, qui carcere attinebantur accusati societatis cum Seiano, necari iubet. iacuit immensa strages, omnis sexus, omnis aetas, inlustres ignobiles, dispersi aut aggerati. neque propinquis aut amicis adsistere, inlacrimare, ne visere quidem diutius dabatur. sed circumiecti custodes et in maerorem cuiusque intenti corpora putrefacta adsectabantur, dum in Tiberim traherentur, ubi fuitantia aut ripis adpulsa non cremare quisquam, non contingere. ib. 30 A. D. 34 Lentulus Gaetulicus, who had promised his daughter to the son of S., was accused, but escaped, being the only connexion of S. who was spared. ib. 38 A.D. 35 Fulcinius Trio. Suet. Tib. 55 cum plurimorum clade Aelium Seianum (perculit). ib. 61 in omne genus crudelitatis erupit, . . . cum . Seiani familiares atque etiam notos persequeretur ; post cuius exitum vel saevissimus extitit. Gaius (Caligula) professed to burn the private informations, libelli, against the friends of S. but afterwards brought them forward, defending the severity of Tiberius as necessary id. Cal. 30. cf. 12. DCass. Lix 6 § 3. Plut. de amicor, mult. 7.p. 96b. DCass. LVIII 12 ss 1–3 the populace slew as it met them the friends of S. who had abused their greatness; the praetorians, jealous of the confidence shewn to the vigiles, set fire to houses and fell to pillage. Those who had courted S., those who had


accused or borne witness against others to please him, were panic-stricken. ib. 14 his relations, friends, flatterers, and those who had moved the senate to vote him honours, were put on their trial; some who had been acquitted were again tried, on the ground that they owed their escape to his favour; the mere fact that one had been a friend of S. stood in lieu of all proof of guilt; his own creatures endeavoured to screen themselves by accusing others. ib. 15 SS 1–3 most of the accused committed suicide. Senators and knights and ladies were crowded into the carcer, and either despatched there or thrown headlong from the Capitol, ib. 16 $8 5—7 guilty and innocent suffered alike. Once Tiberius declared that any one was free to mourn for S.; but shortly afterwards the executions were resumed. ib. 19 some friends of S. were spared, as L. Seianus the praetor and M. Terentius a knight, who boldly avowed his friendship for the fallen favorite, and defended it by the example of Tiberius. ib. 25 SS 2— 4 A, D. 35 Fulcinius Trio, who had served s. as an informer, anticipated condemnation by suicide. 82 MAGNA EST FORNACULA Quintil. 1 5 § 46 tells us that some regarded such a contradictio in adiecto (the epithet 'great' with a diminutive) as a solecism vitium, quod fit per quantitatem, ut magnum peculiolum, erunt qui soloecismum putent, quia pro nomine integro positum sit deminutum. Apul. mag. 74 calls a false accuser totius calumniae fornacula. The form forn. is also used by Vitruvius and Fronto; diminutives began to be affected in the silver age; and have passed in great numbers into the Romance languages ver. 173 n. The metaphor lay very near cf. ver. 61 seq. In such a devouring furnace perished the friends of Livia (Suet. Tib. 51), Agrippina (Tac. an. iv 52) and Germanicus (ib, 68; see esp. 69 fin. for the universal terror). So Gaius (Caligula) prosecuted many on the score of friendship for his former victims (DCass. LIX 23 $ 8); the case of Lepidus, his brother-in-law and intended successor (ib. 22 & 6–9) is an exact parallel to this of S.; the soldiers received a donative as for a victory, and three swords were dedicated by the emperor to Mars Ultor.

MI the only instance of this form in Iuv. 83 BRUTIDIUS MEUS Brutidius Niger, a famous orator of the day, aedile A. D. 22, when he accused C. Silanus Tac, an. III 66 Brutidium artibus honestis copiosum et, si rectum iter pergeret, ad clarissima quaeque iturum festinatio extimulabat, dum aequales, dein superiores, postremo suasmet ipse spes anteire parat: quod multos etiam bonos pessum dedit, qui spretis quae tarda cum securitate, praematura vel cum exitio properant, words which seem to imply that Brutidius incurred some hazard by thus serving the ends of S. DCass. LVIII 12 & 3 notes that many who had accused the victims of S. were themselves accused after his fall. He described the death of Cicero and the exposure of his head M. Sen. suas. 6 SS 20—1 pp. 3445 Bu. cf. id. contr. 9 $S 35–6 pp. 130–1 (he was a pupil of Apollodorus). Cf. Bücheler in Rhein. Mus. 3 Folge xi 295 on the double form of the name Brutidius and Bruttēdius. I 44 n.

MARTIS ARAM in the campus Martius, near the porticus reaching from the porta fontinalis on the Quirinal to the saepta and diribitorium, Burn Rome and the Campagna 344–5. Liv. xxxv 10 § 12. XL 45 $ 8.

84–5 QUAM TIMEO VICTUS NE POENAS EXIGAT AIAX UT MALE DEFENSug-the contest between A. and Ulixes for the arms of Achilles was a commonplace of rhetoric vi 115 consedere duces : surgis tu pallidus Aiax. Greek declamations of Antisthenes are extant on the subject. Porcius Latro also declaimed on it in his school, from whom his pupil Ovid m. xiii borrowed (M. Sen. contr. 10 8 8



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