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828 trabeati forma Quirini. Suet. de genere vestium in Serv. Aen. VII 612 (reliq. 266 Reiffersch.) distinguishes three kinds of trabeae, the second regum, quod est purpureum, habet tamen album aliquid. Mommsen röm. Staatsr. 1* 414. Marquardt v (2) 119. DIADEMA XIII 39. DH, 111 62. Lyd. de mag. 1 7. Wesseling on DS. 1 47. Hübner in Hermes 1 348 seq. Marquardt v (2) 292. Suet. Calig. 22 non multum afuit, quin statim diadema sumeret, speciemque principatus in regni formam converteret.

QUIRINI the name of Romulus as a god III 67. Liv. I 40 SS 2 3 the sons of Ancus were indignant, si ne ab Tarquinio quidem ad se rediret regnum, sed praeceps inde porro ad servitia caderet, ut in eadem civitate post centesimum fere annum, quod Romulus, deo prognatus, deus ipse, tenuerit regnum, donec in terris fuerit, id servus serva natus possideat...commune Romani nominis...dedecus fore, si...servis etiam regnum Romae pateret.

260 Liv. I 48.8 8 Servius Tullius regnavit annos quattuor et quadraginta ita, ut bono etiam moderatoque succedenti regi difficilis aemulatio esset. ceterum id quoque ad gloriam accessit, quod cum illo simul iusta ac legitima regna occiderunt.

261 LAXABANT the im. perf., as in ddidov, "offered, denotes the attempt. Liv. 113 § 744 81 de accipiendis clam nocte in urbem regibus colloquuntur. Vitelliis Aquiliisque fratribus primo commissa res est. Vitelliorum soror consuli nupta Bruto erat, iamque ex eo matrimonio adulescentes [iuvenes, 262) erant liberi, Titus Tiberiusque: eos quoque in societatem consilii avunculi assumunt.

PORTARUM CLAUSTRA Heins, on Ov. m. IV 86.

262 IUVENES III 158. X 310. XIV 121. CONSULIS Liv. 11 5 $$ 6—7 consulis liberi omnium in se averterant oculos; illos eo potissimum anno patriam liberatam, patrem liberatorem, consulatum ortum ex domo Iunia...induxisse in animum ut superbo quondam regi, tum infesto exsuli proderent.

264 COCLITE etc. Liv. 11 10. Verg. Aen. VIII 650—1 pontem auderet quod vellere Cocles, , et fluvium vinclis tranaret Cloelia ruptis. Schwegler 1 22 1. 4. II 52-3. 187. MUCIUS C. Mucius Cordus (schol. Bob. in Cic. p. Sest. § 48) Scaevola, Liv. 11 12. Mart. 1 21. Schwegler 11 54. 183–5, who derives the legend from the surname.

265 IMPERII FINES TIBERINum cf. xiv 160. Prop. v = 1V.1 8 et Tiberis nostris advena bubus erat. After the surrender of the city (Tac. h. 111 72 dedita urbe) to Porsena, the Romans lost territory on the right bank of the river Liv. II 13 § 4 de agro Veientibus restituendo impetratum, expressaque necessitas obsides dandi, si Ianiculo praesidium deduci vellent. In the poet's days Euphrates, Rhine and Danube were the frontier line supra 169 170 n. Tac, 19 mari Oceano aut amnibus longinquis saeptum imperium.

VIRGO Verg. supr. Sen. cons. ad Marc. 16 § 2. Schwegler 11 56. 185—7, who derives the legend from the equestrian statue of Cloelia (i. e. of Venus Cluilia or Cloacina) on the via sacra ib. 1 22. NATAVIT with acc. as in English 'swam the Tiber,' Verg. 8. III 260.

266 SERVUS Liv, 11 4 SS 5 6 cum ... coniurati...remotis arbitris multa inter se de novo, ut fit, consilio egissent, sermonem eorum ex servis unus excepit; ... rem ad consules detulit;...5 g 5 damnati proditores ...$ 8 consules in sedem processere suam, missique lictores ad sumendum supplicium nudatos virgis caedunt securique feriunt:... 9 praemium indici pecunia ex aerario, libertas et civitas data. Schwegler 11 44–5,

267.MATRONIS .III 212. When Brutus died

Liv. II 7 $ 4 matronae annum, ut parentem, eum luxerant. Of like honour this slave shewed himself worthy; but the sons of Brutus died by public execution, after having been flogged like slaves (v 173 n.). For Valerius also (Liv. II 16 7) and Augustus (DCass. LVI 43), the matrons wore mourning during a year. VERBERA Liv. 111 55 § 14 tergo ac capite puniretur.

268 LEGUM the first legal, as opposed to arbitrary (regni securis), execution. Liv. II 1 § 1 imperia legum potentiora quam hominum. Luc. VII 441–2 de Brutis, Fortuna, loquor. quid tempora legum | egimus aut annos a consule nomen habentes? 1x 265—7. Sen. de ira i 16 & 5 etsi perversa induenda magistratui vestis et convocanda classico contio est, procedam in tribunal non furens nec infestus, sed vultu legis et illa sollemnia verba leni magis gravique quam rabida voce concipiam et agi iubebo non iratus, seve.

et cum cervicem noxio imperabo praecidi,.....sine ira...

rus ero.

269–275 Holyday “It were better to be the son of an unworthy Thersites, so that one's self were an Achilles, than to be a Thersites, though one were the son of an Achilles. But, says he, by way of jeer, to the noblest Roman, thou canst not properly derive thyself better than from the company which assembled at Romulus's Asylum.'

269 THERSITES ΙΙ. ΙΙ 216 αίσχιστος δε ανήρ υπό"Ίλιον ήλθεν. cf. 212 seq. Achilles killed him Quint. Smyrn, 1 746 seq. alya dávalkis årò μελέων φύγε θυμός | ανέρος ούτιδανοίο χάρη δ' άρα λαός 'Αχαιών | τους γάρ νείκεε πάμπαν έπεσβολίησι κακήσιν, | αυτός έων λωβητός ο γαρ Δαναών πέλεν aidus. Soph. Phil. 439 seq. Encomium of Th. (also of a quartan ague) school paradoxes by Favorinus Gell. xvii 12 & 2. cf. Quintil. x 1 $ 47 1. 6 n. DUMMODO VII 222. 225.

270 AEACIDAE a Homeric (II. XVIII 221) name of Achilles, son of Peleus, the son of Aeacus. Achilles is contrasted with Thersites (XI 30 31 n. exc. rhet. in Halm rhet. ant. 588 2 ceterum ridiculum videtur, si Achilles in specie vel viribus Thersitae comparatur. cf. Theon progymn. 9 in Waiz rhet. gr. 1 232. After death Luc. Char. 22 Depoitr s loos Oétidos mais nükbuolo. cf. quom. hist. conscr. 14. Plotin, enn. III 3 to censure the whole from the parts is like taking a hair or toe as a sample of a man, or Thersites of humanity), as being not only the bravest, but the fairest of the Greeks II. II 674. 769. VULCANIA ARMA when, after the death of Patroclus, the arms of Achilles had been borne off by the Trojans, Thetis besought Hephaestus to supply her son with a new suit Il. XVIII 369—616. Aen. XII 739 of the suit of Aeneas arma dei ad Vulcania. Cic. Tusc. II § 33 Davies tectus Vul. caniis armis, id est fortitudine. Liban. ep. 125. 272 TAMEN UT x 240. Halm on Cic. p. Sest. § 140.

With 272–5 cf. Sen. ep. 44 & 3 Plato [Theaet. 1759] ait: neminem regem non ex servis oriundum, neminem

non servum ex regi. bus.

LONGE REPETAS Cic. fam. XIII 29 & 2 exspectare te arbitror, haec tam longe repetita principia quo spectent, de legg. I $ 28. Luc. 1 94 nec longe

fatorum exempla petantur. Quintil. v 7 8 17 longius interrogatione repetita. Plin. ep. 18 8 8 ne lon. gius exempla repetantur. So rep. alte etc. cf. Klotz repeto i A b, and makpboev. Aus. grat. act. p. 1115 b Walker deductum heroibus genus ad deorum stemma replicare. REVOLVAS Sen. contr. 16 8 4 quemcumque volueris revolve nobi. lem; ad humilitatem pervenies. quid recenseo singulos (he had

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II 19.

named Marius, Servius), cum hanc urbem possim tibi ostendere?

273 ASYLO Liv. 1 8 locum, qui nunc saeptus descendentibus inter duos lucos est, asylum aperit: eo ex finitimis populis turba omnis sine discrimine, liber an servus esset, avida novarum rerum profugit. Strab. v p. 230 • having established an asylum between the aru and the Capitol.' DH, 11 15 the place between the aru and the Capitol, which is now called between the two groves, Vell. 1 6 $ 8 asylo facto inter duos. lucos. Becker i 386–7. 410.

Schwegler 1 459–60. 464–8. Pauly 19 1948. Preller röm. Myth. 237. Winer Realwörterbuch s.v. Freistatt. On the right of sanctuary and its abuses Höck 13 94 5. in Ephesus Strabo 641. On the asylum itself, cf. Liv. 11 1 $ 4 illa pastorum convenarumque plebs, transfuga ex suis populis, sub tutela inviolati templi aut libertatem aut certe impunitatem adepta. August. c. Crescon. II 16=13 non igitur, sicut conviciaris, tamquam in asylum Romuli vestros nocentes recipimus. id. de cons. ev. I § 19 in primordia sua recolant, facinorosorum asylum...asylum constituerunt Remus et Romulus, ut quisquis cuiuslibet sceleris reus eo confugisset, inultum haberet commissum. Plut. Rom. 9. DCass. XLVII 19. Flor. 11 § 9. Verg. Aen. VIII 342. esp. Ov. f. 111 431 seq. Iustin XXXVIII 7 § 1 conluvio convenarum. That the Romans were (DH. 1 5) έκ τών φαυλοτάτων εθνών συνεληλυθότες, Rome's founders (ib. 4) ávéotiol Tuves kai Távntes kal Bápßapoi, Rome's original population (ib. vıı 70) { Ovn Bápßapa kai avéotia, and ancient Rome itself (ib. Ι 89) και καταφυγή βαρβάρων και δραπετών και άνεστίων ανθρώπων, are to DH. slanders 1 89. II 8. IV 26. Minuc. Fel. 25 & 2 asylo prima plebs congregata est. confluxerant perditi facinerosi incesti sicarii proditores.

275 PASTOR schol. quos collegit Romulus.' Iustin XXVIII 2 8 8 quos autem homines Romanos esse? nempe pastores, qui latrocinio iustis dominis ademptum solum teneant. DCass. Lx 29 8 3 βασιλείς εγένοντο χοι πρίν όντες αιπόλοι, QUOD etc. schol. .servus aut infamis vel latro.'

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NOTE ON X 1 2

A GADIBUS USQUE GANGEN The following was accidentally omitted in s. x n. 1 after 'to the ancients.'

Sen. n. q. I pr. § 13 quantum enim est, quod ab ultimis litori. bus Hispaniae usque ad Indos iac ēt? paucissimorum dierum spatium, si navem suus ferat ventus, implebit. Plin. II § 242 pars nostra terrarum...longissime ab ortu ad occasum patet, hoc est ab India ad Herculis columnas Gadibus sacratas. SS 243—4 two measurements are given, each starting from the Ganges. He gives many other measurements always reckoning from Gades to the west, Ganges to the east (Sillig's ind.) and places Gades v § 76 extra orbem. Claud. names Gades as the furthest west iv cons. Hon. 43. bell. Gild. 159. in Eutr. 1 353. Sidon. c. 5 286—7. Ambr. de Abraham II § 40 ab Indiae quoque litoribus ad Herculis, ut aiunt, columnas.

X

Mex pray for eloquence, strength, wealth, and thus invite their own ruin

upon themselves (1—27). Well might Democritus and Heraclitus in this vanity of human wishes find matter, the one for laughter, the other for tears (28–53). For what may we pray (54—5)? Vaulting ambition o'erleaps itself: witness Seianus, Crassus, Pompeius, Caesar (56—113). The schoolboy envies the eloquence of Demosthenes and Cicero; yet it had been well for Cicero, if he had only been known as the meanest of poets: for Demosthenes, if he had never left his father's smithy (114—132). How passing is military glory, and how uncertain military power, appears in Hannibal and Xerxes"; Alexander, for whom the world was all too strait, found rest at last in an urn (133—187). Length of days does but bring decay of body and mind. Peleus and Nestor, had they died early, would not have mourned the loss of Achilles and of Antilochus. Priam, Hecuba, Croesus, Mithridates, Marius, Pompeius were spared to their own hurt (188—288). Beauty is dangerous even to the chaste; example of Silius (289—345). Leave to the gods, who know what is best for you, to order your lot as they will: pray: only for health of mind and body, that you may

bravely bear the worst (316—365). Cf. [Plat.) Alcib. II. Pers. II. VM. vii 2 E s 1. Sen. ep. 10 SS 4–5.

32 Ss 4–5.60 8 1. 118 SS 4–9. Lucian, navig. 13 seq. id. Icaromen. 25. Max. Tyr. 11=30. Euseb. ap. Stob. flor. I 85. Fr. Jacobs verm. Schriften III 107-112. Lasaulx Studien d. class. Alterthums 137–158.

Döllinger Heidenthum u. Judenthum 199—202. Our satire is referred to by Chaucer Troilus and Creseide iv 25 0

Juvenall lord, true is thy sentence, \ that little wenen folke what is to yerne, | that they ne finden in hir desire offence, | for cloud of errour ne lette hem discerne | what best is.' Warton-Hazlitt hist. engl. poetry iv 414 • In 1617 one W. B. produced the earliest attempt at an english Juvenal...That which seems best is worst. Exprest in a paraphrastical transcript of Juvenals tenth satyre.' A few verses are

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borrowed by Hall. There is a fine version by Sir John Beaumont, Chalmers british poets vI 43–7; and another in Hen. Vaughan's works, ed. Grosart, 11 31–55. Johnson's · Vanity of human wishes' is an imitation.

1-11 In every land, from furthest west to furthest east, few only can discern true blessings from their counterfeits, clear from all mist of error, For what do we with reason fear, covet with reason? what do you ‘undertake with foot so right, with a start so lucky, but you rue your attempt and the success of your desire? Whole houses have fallen on their own petition, when indulgent gods have taken them at their word. In peace, in war, men crave what will only harm them; his flood of speech is often the orator's death-warrant; rash trust in his thews, the wonder of the world, made Milo a prey of wolves. VM. vii 2 E $ 1 (a passage which, as also Plat. Alc. II and Pers. I1, Iuv. had before him) * mind of mortals, wrapt in thickest darkness [Iuv. 4 nebula], over how wide a field of error dost thou throw thy prayers broadcast: thou seekest wealth, which has been the destruction of many (12—27]: thou lustest after honours, which have ruined not a few [133–187]; thou broodest over dreams of sovereignty, whose issue is often seen to be pitiable [56—113]: thou graspest at splendid marriages (350—3]; but they, though sometimes they add glory to families, yet not seldom overthrow them utterly'[funditus domos evertunt. cf. 7).

1 GADIBUS XI 162. Cadiz, beyond the pillars of Hercules (Herodot. IV 8 § 1), was the western boundary of the world, the ne plus ultra, to the ancients Pind. Nem. IV 69 Γαδείρων το πρός ζόφον ου περατόν. Αnacreontic. XIII Bergk =XXXII 25-6 και τους Γαδείρων εκτος | τους Βακτρίων TE kivdwr [cf. here 2 Gangen). Sil. 1 141 finem hominum Gades. Vell. i 2 $ 4. Stat. s. 111 1 183 solisque cubilia Gades. Solin. 23 & 12 extremus noti orbis terminus. Aristid. 11 p. 354 Jebb. Paroemiogr. ed. Leutsch II 661 n. 19. Avien. descr. orbis 98—100. St Paul (Clem. Rom. ep. i 5) "went to the boundary of the west,' i.e. he fulfilled his declared intention of visiting Spain. On the alliteration in Gadibus usque see 122 n.

USQUE without ad before the names of towns usually, before other nouns in Plin. Stat. Iust. 2 AURORAM Ov. m. 1 61 Eurus ad Auroram Nabataeaque regna recessit.

GANGEN ib. iy 20—1 oriens tibi victus ad usquel decolor extremo qua tinguitur India Gange. Luc. II 229-234. Stat. Th. 1 686. Here were the pillars of Bacchus Avien. descr. orbis 824—8. supra p. 63. PAUCI 19. 112. 337. II 53 ' only few.' To limit pauci, unus, Cic. either uses modo (sometimes solus) or has no particle ; Liv. and the writers of the silver age (e.g. Quintil. i 12 & 2) often add tantum (Krebs-Allgayer Antibarbarus 706. 969). Caes. b. c. II 43 § 3 horum fuga navium onerariarum magistros incitabat : pauci lenunculi ad officium imperiumque conveniebant.

DINOSCENE In other compounds the initial g of the second member is preserved, ignosco, cognosco etc. See Corssen über Aussprache u. s. w. 12 82. 437. Pers. v 105, 107 veri speciem dinoscere calles | ...quaeque sequenda forent, quaeque evitanda vicissim. DL. VI $ 42 • Diogenes blamed men for their prayers, saying that they asked for what they thought good, not for the true goods.' Sen. ep. 45 SS 6. 7 res fallunt: illas discerne. pro bonis mala amplectimur: optamus contra id, quod optavimus. pugnant vota nostra cum votis...adulatio quam similis est amicitiae!...doce quemadmodum JUV. II.

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