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que nos hoc quoque quod iudicia nostra non tantum prava, sed etiam levia sunt. fluctuamus aliudque ex alio conprehendimus. petita relinquimus, relicta repetimus. $ 3 alternae inter cupiditatem nostram et paenitentiam vices sunt. id. ep. 47 $ 21 hoc habent inter cetera boni mores, placent sibi, permanent: levis est malitia, sa epe mutatur, non in melius, sed in aliud. 237 seq. Quintil, decl. 3 14 esp. pp. 623 624 tu fortasse, cum miserum patrem trucidares, tollentem ad sidera manus risisti. inane hoc supra nos vacuumque cura caelestium putabas : sunt illa vera, quae extremo miseri spiritu dicebantur : dabis mihi, scelerate, poenas: persequar quandoque et occurram'... nec tamen illa mihi vana quorumdam esse videtur persuasio, qui credunt non extrinsecus has furias venire, nec ullius deorum impulsu hanc mortalibus incidisse dementiam, sed nasci intus : conscientiam esse, quae torqueat... repetita toties confessio est. ecquid concipitis animis imaginem illam, quae hoc coegit? stabat profecto ante oculos laceratus et adhuc cruentus pater. Plut. 11 5549 seq. Ý yap itauórns ékelun kaì θρασύ της κακίας άχρι των αδικημάτων ισχυρόν έστι και πρόχειρον, είτα του πάθους ώσπερ πνεύματος υπολείποντος, ασθενές και ταπεινόν υποπίπτει τους poßors kai tais decolòaqjovlacs. Cic. legg. I § 40. p. Rosc. Am. SS. 65–67. 237 ADMITTUNT X 340 n.

SUPEREST 109. CONSTANTIA 77.

238 1 166 n. 239 AD MORES NATURA RECURRIT X 303 n. Hor, s. 11 7 74. ep. 1 10 24 25 Obbar naturam expellas furca, tamen usque recurret , et mala perrumpet furtim fastidia victrix. Sen. brev. vit. 6 § 3 sed his querellis nec alios mutaverunt nec se ipsos, nam cum verba eruperunt, adfectus ad consuetudinem relabuntur. id. ep. 25 g 3. 2 Pet. 2 22 Grotius. Wetstein.

242 ATTRITA DE FRONTE Cic. Tusc. III § 41 cum os perfricuisti. Calvus to Vatinius in Quintil. ix 2 $ 25 perfrica frontem et dic te digniorem, qui praetor fieres, quam Catonem. Mart. xi 27 7 at cum perfricuit frontem posuitque pudorem. Lucian vit. auct. 10 το ερυθριάν απόξεσον του προσώπου παντελώς. Victorius (v. l. viii 6) compares Ath. 2130 (where Athenio, who of a poor philosopher became tyrant of Athens, having described the successes of Mithradates, Tpiyas métwTOV, persuaded the Athenians to revolt from Rome) and Strabo 603 speaking of audacious critics of Homer: éxonu yàp kal τούτο πλάσαι παρατριψαμένους το μέτωπον και μη χωλόν εάν και έτοιμος προς έλεγχον άπαξ ήδη αποτετολμηκότας.

FRONTE II 8. VIII 189. Pers. v 103 104 if a ploughman, ignorant of astronomy, were to seek command of a vessel, exclamet Melicerta perisse / frontem de rebus. Hier. ep. 18=22 (IV 2 p. 41) quae rubore frontis abstrito parasitos vincunt mimorum.

RUBOREM XI 54 55. 244 DABIT VESTIGIA Cf. dare colla sub iuga. 245 CARCERIS UNCUM X 66 n. Ov, Ibis 164. Burn Rome and Camp. 80.

245-247 CARCERIS UNCUM AUT MARIS AEGAEI RUPEM SCOPULOSQUE FREQUENTES EXULIBUS MAGNIS 1 73 n. aude aliquid brevibus Gyaris et carcere dignum. x 16 n. 170 n, Plin. ep. III 9 § 33 Norbanus Licinianus in insulam relegatus est. Philo in Flacc. 21 (1 543 M). legat. 43 (1 595) Gaius (Caligula) sent orders to Andros and elsewhere for the execution of tho exiles. Tert. spect. 23 pr. cum igitur humana recordatio etiam obstrepente gratia voluptatis damnandos eos censeat ademptis bonis dignitatum in quendam scopulum famositatis. Fr, Holtzendorff die Deportationsstrafe im röm. Alterthum Leipz. 1859.

248 NOMINIS Bentley on Hor. C. 111 27 34.

249 NEC SURDUM NEC TIRESIAM v 138

V.

TIRESIAM

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139 nullus ... Aeneas nec filia. contrast Sen. Med. 1035 Iason to M. testare nullos esse, qua veheris, deos. Cic. n. d. 111 $ 83 saying of Diogenes : Harpalum, qui temporibus illis praedo felix habebatur, contra deos testimonium dicere, quod in illa fortuna tam diu viveret. Divine judgement on perjury Il. r 280. T 260. Eur. Oenom. fr. 581 Nauck εγώ μεν εύτ' αν τους κακούς ορώ βροτών | πίπτοντας, είναι φημι δαιμόvwv gévos. Xen. Hell. v 4 § 1. Kyrop. v 4 § 31. VIII 7 § 22. Plut. Dion 58 g 2.

SURDUM Sen. ben. IV 4 § 2 speaking of the universality of prayer: quod profecto non fieret nec in hunc furorem omnes mortales consensissent adloquendi surda numina et inefficaces deos, nisi nossemus illorum beneficia nunc oblata ultro, nunc orantibus data. Zenob. ur 49 els bewy wra noev. caecum x 318 n. Apollod. III 6 7 § 1 Heyne. Ov. m. III 322 Burman. 335—8. blinded by Pallas, whom he had seen in the bath (cf. Aktaeon) Pherekydes fr. 50. Dicaearch, fr. 30. Kallim. lavacr. Pall. 82 Spanheim. Prop. v=IV 9 57 58. N. Schell de Tiresia Graecorum vate Lips. 1851,

ADDENDA, 26 Boissier la relig. des Rom. 11 177 comments on the exaggeration here.

38 Calpurn. I 42–4 aurea secura cum pace renascitur aetas | et redit ad terras tandem squalore situque | alma Themis posito.

46 TURBA DEORUM Cic. legg. 11 & 19 separatim nemo habessit deos neve novos neve advenas nisi publice adscitos.

65 Schiller Nero 138 n. 6 justly says: we must not underrate the importance of prodigies; how much even enlightened people thought of them appears from Sen. qu. n. II 49 seq. (various kinds of thunder, some portending death and exile, some a consulate to the holder's harm, an inheritance which will cause more loss than gain cet. cet.) vir 1 and 17.'

78–83 Strabo p 19 fin, cited on 226. Lasaulx Studien 209, 229. 83 QUIDQUID TELORUM Liv. III 17 § 5 quidquid patrum plebisque est. 25 $ 8 .et haec' inquit 'sacrata quercus et quidquid deorum est, audiant, foedus a vobis ruptum.' 98 ARCHIGENE on the è Lachmann Lucr. 1 739. Bentley Hor. C. III 12 8.

100 Hom. Il. iv 160—2. Wyttenb. on Plut. II 549a. Grang. here.

102 SED ET XII 41. glossary to Beda h. e. III IV (Cambr. 1878). EXORABILE Prop. III=II 30 11 et iam si pecces, deus exorabilis illest.

105 xi 177 n. Lact. 11 4 88 20 21. Hen. riot moeurs juridiques . . de l'anc. Rome d'après les poëtes lat, Par. 1865 111 44 45.

119 147 n. 121 cynicos see DL. VI SS 30 31 the wise discipline enforced by Diogenes on his pupils.

136—139 cf. the complaint of Polyb. yı 56 § 13 after saying that the modern disbelief in the gods and υπέρ των έν άδου is irrational and dangerous τοιγαρούν, χωρίς των άλλων, οι τα κοινά χειρίζοντες παρα μεν τοίς "Ελλησιν, εάν ταλάντου μόνον πιστευθώσιν, αντιγραφείς έχοντες δέκα και σφραγίδας τοιαύτας και μάρτυρας διπλασίους ου δύνανται τηρείν την πίστιν. among the Romans an oath is still sacred.

145 INCENDIA SULPURE COEPTA Sen. n. q. 11 § 8 apud nos quoque ramenta sulpure adspersa ignem ex intervallo trahunt. 148 XII 47 n.

180 AT VINDICTA BONUM VITA IUCUNDIUS Attila in Iordan. 39 quid viro forti suavius, quam vindictam manu quaerere? magnum munus a natura animum ultione satiare,

XIV

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If our sons, Fuscinus, grow in vice as they grow in years, the fault is too often to be charged on a father's example (1–106). True as this is universally, it is most true of avarice; this vice alone is inculcated as a virtue: yet, if parents would but suffer things to take their course, this also would soon spring up of itself, and alarm by its growth those who now blindly and suicidally foster it (107—331).

Cf. Sen. de ira 11 21 $ 9 pertinebit ad rem, praeceptores paedagogosque pueris placidos dari. proximis adplicatur omne quod tenerum est et in eorum similitudinem crescit. nutricum et paedagogorum rettulere mox in adulescentiam mores. § 10 apud Platonem educatus puer cum ad parentes relatus vociferantem videret patrem, numquam' inquit 'hoc apud Plato. nem vidi.' non dubito quin citius patrem imitatus sit quam Platonem. § 11 tenuis ante omnia victus et non pretiosa vestis et similis cultus cum aequalibus : non irascetur aliquem sibi conparari quem ab initio multis parem. feceris. ib. 18 § 2 educatio maximam diligentiam plurimumque profuturam desiderat. facile est enim teneros adhuc animos componere, difficulter reciduntur vitia, quae nobiscum creverunt. Quintil. 1 2 3 6 utinam liberorum nostrorum mores non ipsi perderemus! infantiam statim deliciis solvimus. mollis illa educatio, quam indulgentiam vocamus, nervos omnes mentis et corporis frangit. quid non adultus concupiscet, qui in purpuris repit? nondum prima verba exprimit, iam coccum intellegit, iam conchylium poscit. § 7 ante palatum eorum quam os instituimus. in lecticis crescunt: si terram attigerunt, e manibus utrimque sustinentium pendent. gaudemus, si quid licentius dixerint : verba ne Alexandrinis quidem permittendu deliciis risu et osculo excipi.

nec mirum: nos docuimus, ex nobis audierunt. § 8 nostras amicas, nostros concubinos vident, omne convivium obscenis canticis strepit, pudenda dictu spectantur. fit ex his consuetudo, inde natura. discunt haec miseri antequam sciant vitia esse : inde soluti ac fluentes non acci. piunt e scholis mala ista, sed in scholas adferunt. Plut. pueror. educ. 20. προ πάντων γάρ δει τους πατέρας το μηδέν αμαρτάνειν, αλλά πάντα, και δεί, πράττειν, εναργές εαυτούς παράδειγμα τοίς τέκνοις παρέχειν, ίνα προς τον τούτων βίον ώσπερ κάτοπτρον αποβλέποντες αποτρέπονται των αισχρών έργων και λόγων. ώς οίτινες, τους αμαρτάνουσιν υιοίς επιτιμώντες, τους αυτοίς αμαρτήμασι περιπίπτουσιν, επί τώ εκείνων ονόματι λανθάνουσιν εαυτών κατήγοροι γιγνόμενοι. οι δ’ όλως φαύλως ζώντες ουδέ τούς δούλοις παρρησίαν

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άγουσιν επιτιμών, μήτοι γε δή τοις υιοίς, χωρίς δε τούτων γένοιντο αν αυτοίς των αδικημάτων σύμβουλοι και διδάσκαλοι.

1-85 Children learn vice from their parents: the children of the gambler (445) the epicure (7—14) the cruel master (15—24) or the false wife (25—30) will with rare exceptions (31—37) follow in their parents' steps. If nothing else can deter men from vice, yet reverence for the young should (38—49): if a son errs, his father corrects his fault; yet with what face can he do so, while he himself is worse of the two (48—58)? Our houses are swept and put in trim when a guest is looked for; we are content that our sons see them stained with vice (59—69). All depends on early training; the stork, vulture, eagle, when full fledged, seek no other prey than such as they first fed on in the nest (70--85).

1 PLURIMA SUNT . . QUAE v 130. FUSCINE unknown.

2 FIGENTIA so, of a permanent dye or ótan' Pers. IV 33 figas in cute solem. Petron. 102 nec vestem atramento ad haesuram, quod frequenter etiam non arcessito ferrumine infigitur.

3 MONSTRANT shew in example.

TRADUNT “teach' (cf, accipio 'I learn') Sen. ep. 40 § 3 praecepta. anthol. Lat. 159 R discipulum medicus quidam suscepit adultum, | traderet ut iuveni dogma salutiferum.

4 DAMNOSA ALEA Ov. a. a. II 206 Heins dam nosi facito stent tibi saepe canes.

Mart. xiv 18 alea parva nuces et non dam nosa videtur: 1 saepe tamen pueris abstulit illa nates. id. v 84 1–5. cf Pers. v 57 hunc alea decoquit. anthol. Lat. 193 11 pascitur a multis avide damnosa voluptas.

SENEM Cic. Cato mai. $ 58 nobis senibus ex lusionibus multis talos relinquant et tesseras. Suet. Aug. 71 inter cenam lusimus yepovtikws. ib. 70. 72. Eurip. Med. 68. Ladies also used to give much time to such amusements Plin ep vir 24 § 5 solere se ut feminam in illo otio sexus laxare animum lusu calculorum. ALEA XI 176 n.

5 BULLATUS v 164 n. XIII 33 n. bullatus aleator like 1 78 praetextatus adulter. AKMA 1 91.92 proelia . . armigero. Amm. XIV 6 25 of the poor pug. naciter aleis certant. Ov. tr. IV 1 32 nec nisi lu sura movimus arma manu.

FRITILLO Mart. v 84 3. Marquardt v (2) 427. Porphyr. on Hor. s. II 7 17 makes the fritillus the same as the phimus or pyrgus: so Becker Gallus III 254: schol. h. l. distinguishes the phimus from the pyrgus, and is doubtful with which to identify the fritillus 'FRITILLO, pyxide cornea, qui diuos dicitur Graece: fritinnire aves dicuntur (id est] strepere aut sonare: apud antiquos nam in cornu mittebant tesseras moventesque fundebant: aut fritillum pyrgum dixit.' (anthol. Lat. 193 R. Sid. ep. VIII 12 tessera frequens eboratis pyrgorum resultatura gradibus) and turricula (Mart. xiv 16) had indentations on the inside; whether the fritillus had, does not appear from the quotations in Salmas. ad Vopisc. Proc. p. 754 seq.: it is certain that the fritillus was used for shaking and throwing the dice Mart. xiv 1 3. Iv 14 8. Sen, apocol. 14 fin. placuit nqvam poenam excogitari debere ... Aeacus iubet illum alea ludere pertůso fritillo 15 quotiens missurus erat resonante fritillo, | utraque subducto fugiebat tessera fundo. ib. 12 fin. qui concusso | magna parastis lucra fritillo. 6 MELIUS better than the heres ver. 4.

7 QUI RADERE cet. who has learnt from his father to peel truffles etc. Gourmands could not trust the cook to prepare the choicer dishes Hor. s. II 4.

TUBERA v 116 n. Recipes for tubera in Apic. vii 319–324. 319 begins tubera radis.

8 BOLETUM IUV. II.

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The pyrgus v 147 n. cf. Hor. s. II 4 20. Sen. ep. 95 & 25 boletos, voluptarium venenum, nihil occulti operis iudicas facere, etsi praesentanei non fuerunt? ib. 108 § 15 ostreis boletisque in omnem vitam renuntiatum est. nec enim cibi, sed oblectamenta sunt ad edendum saturos cogentia, quod gratissimum est edacibus et se ultra quam cupiunt farcientibus, facile descensura, facile reditura. id. n. q. v 4 § 10 ardentes boletos et raptim indumento suo mersatos demittunt paene fumantes. Plin. ep. 17 § 6. ib. 15 § 2 Gierig. Mart. XII 48 1. XIII 48. Recipes for dressing boleti in Apic. vii SS 316-318.

EODEM as the truffle. In Apicius 11. cc. the dressings of both contain among other ingredients caroenum, coriandrum, ligisticum, modicum mellis, piper, liquamen, oleum modicum.

NATANTIS Hor s. 11 8 42 affertur squillas inter murena natantis. Pers. y 183.

9 MERGERE to swallow XI 39. FICELLAS Lachm. (on Lucr. pp. 204—5) for ficedulas. Lucil. 29 87 ficellae. Varr. Menipp. fr. 529 Bücheler pilavalwral edones Romae, ut turba incendant annonam, et propter phagones ficedulam pinguem aut turdum nisi volantem non video. In the pontiffs' bill of fare (Macr. III 13 12). Cordus in Capitolin. Albin. 11 § 3) says that Albinus ate at one meal ficedulas centum. ficédula (beccafico) in Mart. XIII 5, who recommends pepper with it. Favorinus (in Gell

. xv 8 $ 2) states that the leading epicures (praefecti popinae) served up no other bird entire. Tiberius (Suet. 42) rewarded Asellus Sabinus for a dialogue in quo boleti et ficedulae et ostreae et turdi certamen induxerat. Among the dishes served up at Trimalchio's feast were (what seemed to be) peafowls' eggs, which were found to contain Petron. 33 fin. pinguissimam ficedulam... piperato vitello circumdatam. cf. Mart. XIII 49. Plin. x § 86 formam simul coloremque mutant. hoc nomen autumno habent, postea melancoryphi vocantur. Varr. 1.1. v 76. Hier. adv. Iovin. 7 (11 3345) upud nos attagen et ficedula, mullus et scarus in deliciis computantur.

10 MONSTRANTE Symphos, aenigm. 101 2 me monstrante magistro. GULA 1 140 n. v 158 n. x 259 260 Hectore...ac reliquis fratrum cervici. bus. XII 4 vellus. 112 ebur. II 114 gutturis.

10 11 SEPTIMUS ANNUS...NONDUM OMNI DENTE RENATO Hippokr. de carnibus 1 434 Kuhn εκπίπτουσι δε επειδάν επί τα έτεα είη της πρώτης τροφής, έστι δε και οίς πρότερον, ήν από νοσερής τροφής φύσωσιν. τοίς δε πλείστοισιν, επειδαν επτά ετεα γένηται. cf. ibid. ad fn. p. 444. id. in Philo opific. mundi § 36 (Philo ib. § 35). Plaut. Menaechmi 1116. Varro in Gell. 11. 10 $ 12. Sen. ben. IV 6 $ 6. ib. vII 1 $ 5 licet nescias, quare septimus quisque annus aetati signum inprimat. Solon fr 25 Bergk παίς μεν άνηβος έων έτι νήπιος έρκος οδόντων | φύσας εκβάλλει a pôrov èv čart' ČTeol. cf. Censorin. 14 § 7. proverb in schol. Aristoph. ran. 418 8s értéans cûv ódóvtas oủk čovoEv. Plin. VII $ 68. Macr. somn. I 6 g 70. Martian. Cap. VII $ 639. Aus. monosyll. de membris 1 indicat in pueris septennia prima novus dens. Basil. de hominis structura or. 1 18 (1 331* Bened.). Ambr. ep. I 44 & 13. Hier. ep. 98=12 (IV 2 798 Ben.) cum autem virgunculam rudem et edentulam septimus aetatis annus exceperit et coeperit erubescere, scire quid taceat, dubi. tare quid dicat, discat memoriter psalterium. [Boëth.] de discipl. scholarium 1 pr. indiscrete impotens septennis infantia ducitur ad im. buendum. After the completion of the sixth year Plato directs that boys and girls should be separately educated legg. 794. (Plato] Axioch. 366 ónótav δε εις την επταετίαν αφίκηται πολλούς πόνους διαντλήσαν, παιδαγωγοί και γραμ. ματισται και παιδοτρίβαι τυραννούντες. Αristot. pol. VΙΙ 17 1336 8 41 ταύτην

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