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IV 50.

PLICAT SE dig. IX 2 29 § 3 si cum vi ventorum navis impulsa esset in funes anchorarum alterius et nautae funes praecidissent, si nullo alio modo nisi praecisis funibus explicare se potuit. ANGUSTUM=in angusto conclusum.

DISCRIMINIS ULTIMA Holyday distress is desperate, when the help makes the ship less. Iuv. XV 95 bellorumque ultima. Luc. VIII 665 666 nihil ultima mortis | ex habitu vultuque viri mutasse. x 24. 56 FACTURA Iuv. has a predilection for this tic. Lupus 39. Kiaer 185.

v 32. VI 426—8 oenophorum... | ... de quo sextarius alter | ducitur ante cibum, rabidam facturus orexim. ' 605. x 8. 49. 144.

57 I NUNC ET X 165 n. Mart. 11 6 1. Prop. IV=III 7 29 ite, rates curvas et leti texite causas. VENTIS ANIMAM COMMITTE etc. Sen. Med. 304—8 animam levibus credidit auris | dubioque secans aequora cursu | potuit tenui fidere ligno, | inter vitae mortisque vias | nimium gracili limite ducto. Hor. c. 1 3 10.

DOLATO a smooth plank, a piece of joiner's work.

58 CONFISUS nomin. as IV 23 24 tu succinctus. voo. in vi 276 277 tu tibi tunc, Uruca, places ... | ...quae scripta et quot lecture tabellas. DIGITIS etc. XIV 288. DL. I 103 Anacharsis madwy Tét Tapas daktúlous είναι το πάχος της νεώς, τοσούτον έφη του θανάτου τους πλέοντας ån éxelv. Sen, contr. 16 g 10 scitis, nihil esse periculosius, quam etiam instructa navigia : parva materia seiungit fata. Arat. phaen. 298 299 schol. οι δ' έτι πόρσω | κλύζονται, ολίγον δε διά ξύλον αϊδ' ερύκει, as Longin. 10 § 6 remarks, from Hom. Il. xv 628. cf. Alkiphr. 1 3. D Chrys. or. 64 11 331 R (Valcken. diatr. p. 239 seq.) ovde yap hitty την ψυχήν ούτε σχοινίους επιτρέπουσιν, ούτε τριδάκτυλον αυτούς σώζει Fólov TEÚKLvov. Liban. progymn. (1 124c in Valck.) oi Tlwtñpes ain σίον έχοντες τον θάνατον πλέουσι, λεπτήν έχοντες εις σωτηρίαν ελπίδα à đúla. Sen. ep. 49 $ 11 erras, si in navigatione tantum existimas minimum esse, quo a morte vita diducitur: in omni loco aeque tenue intervallum est. Ov, am. II 11 26 et prope tam letum, quam prope cernit aquam. cf. Aesch. Th. 762. Aen. 1x 143. [Plat.] Axioch. 368b Bias reckoned men at sea neither amongst the living nor amongst the dead.

59 TÆEDA the fir-plank. 60 Mox when on board.

CUM RETICULIS ET PANE Hor. 8. 1 1 47 reticulum panis, borne by a slave in a journey. VENTRE LAGONAE IV 107 Montani venter. v 29 n. VIII 162.

61 ASPICE VIII 96 n, circumspice. 62–82 When the voyager's fate mightier than wind and sea proved prosperous, and the Parcae spun a white thread, the vessel ran under makeshift sails of clothes, and under the foresprit which alone remained. The sun brings back hope of life. Presently the white summit of Alba Longa comes in view, and the master brings his ship to anchor in the lee, behind the vast mole of Ostia's new harbour. The sailors offer their hair in gratitude for deliverance, and spin a merry yarn of the dangers of the deep.

62-66 repeat the same thought. cf. VII 41 42. 135—7. XVI 25–34.

62–64 POSTQUAM thrice III 26 27 dum. VII 53 54 cui...qui...qui.

63 PROSPERA common predicate to tempora and f. v. e. et p.; vectoris also belongs to both.

The conj. of Vales. vectori is probable.

FATUM XVI 1 n. 64 PARCAE III 27.

65 PENSA MANU Stat. Ach. 1 260 261 si Lydia dura | pensa manu mollesque tulit Tirynthius hastas.

STAMINIS ALBI SO at the

LAGONAE AUSTRIS

nuptials of Peleus Catull. 63 305 seq. 318 319 ante pedes autem can. dentis mollia lanae | vellera. Sen. apocol. 4 3—6 at Lachesis redimita comas, ornata capillos, | Pieria crinem lauro frontemque coronans, I can. dida de niveo subtemina vellere sumit, i felici moderanda manu. Mart. Vi 58 7 8 si mihi lanificae ducunt non pulla sorores , stamina. id. IV 73 3 4. Ov. Ibis 244 stamina pulla. id. tr. iv 1 64. v 13 24.

66 MULTUM FORTIOR X 197 n. Hand Tursell. III 669. Haase on Reisig 399. Iren. 11 30 g 4 fin. 4 Esdr. 7 66 Bensly. Quintil. x 1 94 n.

68 VESTIBUS EXTENTIS Tac. II 24 tandem relabente aestu et secundante vento claudae naves raro remigio aut intentis vestibus... revertere. id, h. v 23.

SUPERAVERAT had remained. So Plaut. Caes. Cic. Liv. Verg. (e.g. Aen. v 519 amissa solus palma superabat Acestes). Hor. Tib. Staveren on Nep. Them. 7 8 2. Sall. h. i 41 § 11 Dietsch quid ultra? quaeve humana superant aut divina inpolluta sunt ?

69 VELO PRORA SUO schol. • artemone solo velificaverunt.' Isid. xIx 33 dolon minimum velum, et ad proram defixum. cf. HSt. 63 euro. v 100. XIV 268.

70 IULO VIII 42 n. 71 ATQUE joins gr. I. with n. S. p. L.; subl. apex is subject.

NOVERCALI LAVINIO Liv. 1 1 g 11 oppidum condunt. Aeneas ab nomine uxoris Lavinium appellat. ib. 3 8 3 Ascanius...abundante Lavinii multitudine, florentem iam, ut tum res erant, atque opulentam urbem matri seu novercae reliquit, novam ipse aliam sub Albano monte condidit; quae ab situ porrectae in dorso urbis Longa Alba appellata. Aen. I 267–271. XII 193 194 moenia Teucri | constituent urbique dabit Lavinia nomen. Varr. I. 1. v 8 144. Mart. XIII 109 of Alban wine vindemia | misit, Iuleo quae sibi monte placet. Tibull. 11 5 50 Albaque ab Ascanio condita Longa duce. Schwegler bk. 6 esp. p. 337 and ind. Klausen Aeneas 1080 n. LAVINIO on the rhythm cf. vi 82 comitata est Eppia ludium. L. Müller de re metr. 257 reads Lavino, and in Aen. 1 2 Lavina que litora (see Forbiger). ă also Aen. I 258. 270. Tib. 11 5 49. Ov. f. 111 629. 633. cf. Klausen Aeneas 832 n. Lachmann Lucr. 11 719. For the history cf. Schwegler ind.

72 APEX IV 145 n. 72 73 CUI CANDIDA NOMEN SCROFA hence scrofula, scurvy. vi 177 scrofa Niobe fecundior alba. Varro l. c. Prop. IV=v 1 35 et stetit Alba potens, albae suis omine nata. Aen. VIII 43—48 prophecy of Tiberinus litoreis ingens inventa sub ilicibus sus / triginta capitum fetus enixa iacebit, alba solo recubans, albi circum ubera nati: 1 is locus urbis erit, requies ea certa laborum, , ex quo ter denis urbem redeuntibus annis | Ascanius clari condet cognominis Albam. ib. XII 134 135. Schwegler 1 285 286. 321–3. 340. Klausen 974 seq. Lykopbr. 1253 seq. Tatian apol. 34 of a statue of Eutychis (Plin. vii § 34) by Periklymenos τί δέ μοι διά τον Περικλύμενον γύναιον, όπερ έκύησε τριάκοντα παϊδας, ώς θαυμαστόν ηγείσθαι και κατανοείν ποίημα; πολλής γάρ άκρασίας απενεγ. καμένη τα ακροθίνια βδελύττεσθαι καλον ήν, τη κατά Ρωμαίους συt παρεικαζομένη, ήτις και αυτή δια το όμοιον μυστικωτέρας, ώς φασιν, ήξίωTai epateias. He refers to (Non. p. 114) Grundules lares... Romae con

. stituti ob honorem porcae quae triginta pepererat. Arn. 1 28. Cass. Hemina fr. 11 p. 99 Peter (from Diom. 1 384 k) monstrum fit. sus parit porcos triginta, cuius rei fanum fecerunt laribus Grundilibus. Compare the cow which guided Cadmus to the site of Thebes Ov. m. II 10-25.

73 PHRYGIBUS VII 236. 74 MAMILLIS the sow was kept in pickle as a relic Varro r. r. II 4 17

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parere tot oportet porcos, quot mammas habeat :...si plures pariat, esse portentum. $. 18 in quo illud antiquissimum fuisse scribitur, quod sus Aeneae Lavinii xxx porcos pepererit albos. itaque quod portenderit, factum xxx annis, ut Lavinienses condiderint oppidum Albam. huius suis ac porcorum etiam nunc vestigia apparent Lavinii : quod et simulacra eorum ahenea etiam nunc in publico posita, et corpus matris ab sacerdotibus, quod in salsura fuerit, demonstratur. id. in Serv. Aen. III 392. 75 INCLUSA PER AEQUORA MOLES cf. 80 n. schol. portum Augusti dicit sive Traiani; quia Traianus portum Augusti restauravit in melius et interius tutiorem sui nominis fecit.' Trajan 'added an inner basin or dock, of a hexagonal form, surrounded with quays and extensive ranges of buildings for magazines' (Bunbury). The original work does great honour to the emperor Claudius DCass. Lx 11 § 3 he conceived and carried out an achievement worthy of the enterprise (opovnuatos) and greatness of Rome.' Ostia lay on the left bank of the left (i.e. the broader southern) arm of the Tiber. Claudius dug a safer basin about two miles N. of Ostia communicating with the river by a new cut (afterwards enlarged by Trajan, fossa Traiana, now Fiumicino, the right arm). The port protected by two vast moles, right and left, with a breakwater surmounted by a lighthouse between them, was known as portus Romanus or portus Augusti (Apul. met. xi 26. coins of Nero in Eckhel vi 276. DCass. Lxxv 16 § 5. cf. Lx 11). The harbour and river's mouth being choked with sand, there was in Latium no safe port for the cornfleets; the magazines were at Puteoli (acts 28 13. Sen. ep. 77 $ 1). Caesar (Suet. Claud. 20. Plut. 58 g 3) projected a new channel for the Tiber to Anxur, and docks at Ostia. Strabo 231 232 calls Ostia “a city without a port, on account of the alluvial deposits continually brought down by the Tiber, which compelled the larger vessels to ride at anchor in the open roadstead at great risk, while their cargoes were unloaded into barges, by which they were carried up the river to Rome. Other vessels were them. selves towed up the Tiber, after they had been lightened by discharging a part of their cargoes.' cf. DH. 111 44. Suet. Claud. 20 portum Ostiae exstruxit circumducto dextra sinistra que bracchio et ad introitum profundo iam sale mole obiecta ; quam quo stabilius fundaret, navem ante demersit, qua magnus obeliscus ex Aegypto fuerat advectus, congestisque pilis superposuit altissimam turrim in exemplum Alexandrini phari, ut ad nocturnos ignes cursum navigia dirigerent. DCass. lx 11 a new harbour was necessary because of the dependence of Rome on foreign corn for support, and the danger of entering Ostia in winter ; Claudius undeterred by his engineers' estimates of the cost, dug out a large basin, faced it with masonry and let in the sea ; again in the sea itself χώματα εκατέρωθεν αυτου μέγαλα χώσας, θάλασσαν ενταύθα πολλών περιέβαλε και νήσον επ' αυτή πύργον τε επ' εκείνη φρυκτωρίαν έχοντα κατεστήσατο. ib. 31 8 4 Cl. goes to Ostia προς επίσκεψιν σίτου. Suet. 25 he established corps of firemen at Ostia and Puteoli. cf. Plin. ix & 14. XVI § 202 the vessel in which Caligula brought the obelisk from Egypt stretched nearly the whole length of the harbour of Ostia on the left; for there it was sunk in the reign of Claudius cum tribus molibus turrium altitudine in ea exaedificatis ob id ex Puteolano pulvere advectisque. XXXVI $ 70 the towers were built on it at Puteoli, it was then towed to Ostia and sunk. ib. § 125. Henzen inscr. 5098. Prudent. perist. 11 48. Coins of Nero bear Aug. Port. Ost. with a figure of the harbour with ships (Cohen 1 Néron 91-93. 215–218. suppl. Néron n. 14). Here

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were those magazines of corn, by seizing which Alaric (A.D. 409) com. pelled Rome to surrender (Gibbon, c. 31 n. 86 seq. Tillemont Honore art. 36). Philostorg. xII 3 he seizes Portus, the chief naval station of Rome, encircled by three harbours and extending to the compass of a great city: here all the public corn was stored.' Gifford ‘My curiosity led me also to Ostia (1789) and I walked between the piers, now covered with grass. The land has gained considerably on the west as well as the east coast of Italy; the bottom of the old harbour, on which we now walk, is therefore much raised : yet the arms are still so high above it, as to intercept the view of the adjoining country. The extremities of the old arms towards the sea must have fallen in; for, in their present state, they are but short, and a sandy coast stretches out far beyond them.' Merivale ch. 49. E. H. Bunbury in dict. geogr. who gives & plan. Visconti escavazioni di Ostia (annali d. inst. 1857 281–310), and i monumenti del metroon ostiense (ib, 1868 362—413). Lanciani ricerche topogr. sulla città di Porto (ib. 1868 144—195 with tav. 49 of the monumenti). 0. Hirschfeld röm. Verwaltungsgesch. I 139–142. Marquardt röm. Staatsverw. 11 130 131. Lehmann Claudius Gotha 1858 199 (another great work of Cl., the emissary of the lacus Fucinus, was originally designed to feed the new canal). 250 251. Schiller Nero 136 n. 4. 483. 641. Marquardt v (2) 16—18.

MOLES ‘moles carried out amidst enclosed seas.

76 TYRRHENAM V 96. PHARON VI 83. the lighthouse. Suet. DCass. Plin. cited 75. Plin. XXXVI S 83. VFl. vii 83—85 non ita Tyrrhenus stupet Ioniusque magister, I qui iam te, Tyberine, tuens clarum que serena | arce pharon.

RURSUM breakwaters stretching far into the sea, and then bending again towards the land. 78 NON sic Hor. C. IV 14 25.

79 MAGISTER dig. xiv 1 1 g 1 magistrum navis accipere debemus, cui totius navis cura mandata est.

80 BAIANAE CUMBAE such as those which ply about in the harbour of Baiae 111 4 n. XI 49 n. Plin. XIV § 61 fossa Neronis quam a Baia no lacu Ostiam usque navigabilem incohaverat. Prop. i 11 9 10 atque utinam mage te remis confisa minutis | parvula Lucrina cymba moretur aqua. Mart. 111 20 19 20 an aestuantes iam profectus ad Baias | piger Lucrino nauculatur in stagno. Hertzberg from this line infers that the harbour and moles spoken of are those of Baiae, joined with the Lucrine lagoon and Avernian lake by Augustus, to form the portus Įulius (Strab. 245. Suet. Aug. 16. DCass. XLVIII 50. Plin, XXXVI § 125 mare Tyrrhenum a Lucrino molibus seclusum. Verg. g. 11 160—4 Servius an memorem portus Lucrinoque addita claustra | atque indignatum magnis stridoribus aequor, | Iulia qua ponto longe sonat unda refuso | Tyrrhenusque fretis immittitur aestus Avernis ? Aen. Ix 707—9. Hor, a. p. 63–65. Prop. IV=111 18 1. cf. Vell. 11 79 $ 2). But the distance of Baiae from Alba (the sublimis apex of 72), the lighthouse, and the short-lived fame of the portus Iulius (see Bunbury dict. geogr. Lucrinus) confirm the traditional interpretation. The interiora stagna are Trajan's inner basin. PERVIA in which pleasure-boats ride safe, to which even they find

81 GAUDENT Sen. ep. 78 $ 14 quod acerbum fuit, rettulisse iucundum est: naturale est mali sui fine gaudere. Macrob. VII 2 $ 9 seq. citing Eur. Andromeda fr. 15 Dind. ws ndú tol OWOévta peuvño al trów. Aristot. rhet. i ll & 8. Sen. Hf. 660 661.

VERTICE RASO Lucian merc. cond. 1 many who had escaped the parasite's life of slavery (sat. v) told me the tale of

their way.

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their adventures; I listened diligently as to the survivors of a shipwreck, saved by miracle, oιοί εισιν οι πρός τοίς ιεροίς έξυρημένοι τας κεφαλάς, συνάμα πολλοί τάς τρικυμίας και ζάλας και ακρωτήρια και εκβολάς και ιστού κλάσεις και πηδαλίων αποκαυλίσεις διεξιόντες κ.τ.λ. id. Hermotim. 86. Petron. 103 notavit sibi ad lunam tonsorem intempestivo inhaerentem ministerio, execratusque omen, quod imitaretur naufragorum ultimum votum. Artemidor, i 22 to seafaring men to dream that the head is shaven is a plain prognostic of shipwreck; vavayño avτες μέν γάρ ή εκ μεγάλης σωθέντες νόσου ξυρώνται οι άνθρωποι. Nonius p. 528 qui liberi fiebant, ea causa calvi erant, quod tempestatem ser. vitutis videbantur effugere, ut naufragio liberati solent. anth. Ρal. TI 164 Γλαύκο και Νηρηϊ και Ινών Μελικέρτη και βυθίω Κρονίδη και Σαμοθραξι θεοίς | σωθείς εκπελάγονς Λουκίλλιος ώδε κέκαρμαι τάς τρίχας εκ κεφαλής· άλλο γαρ ουδέν έχω. Dempster on Rosin 786 787 on the dedication of the hair.

83–92 Go then, boys; in all religious stillness dress the shrines with garlands, sprinkle the sacrificial knives with meal, deck out the soft hearth of turf. I will presently follow, and after duly performing the main sacrifice will return home, where the little images wax-polished welcome their tribute of slighter chaplets, Here I will propitiate my guardian Iuppiter, give frankincense to the Lares of my fathers and fling abroad all hues of violet. All is gay, the gate has raised long boughs on high, and keeps holiday with morning lamps.

83 LINGUISQUE ANIMISQUE FAVENTES EÚ Nuo ŪVTES Ov. f. 1 71 72 prospera lux oritur: linguisque animisque favete, I nunc dicenda bono sunt bona verba die. id. m. xv 677 deus est! deus est! linguis animisque favete. tr. v 5 5 6. Prop. V=Iv 6 1. Tibull. II 2 1 2 Broukh. Hor. C. III 1 2. Aen. v 71 Servius. Plin. XXVIII § 11. Sen. vit, beat. 26 § 7 quoties mentio sacra litterarum intervenerit, favete linguis! hoc verbum non, ut plerique existimant, a favore [i.e. applause] trahitur : sed imperatur silentium, ut rite peragi possit sacrum nulla voce mala obstrepente. Stat. S. 11 7 19. Brisson. de form. I 11 seq. Marquardt iv 465.

84 SERTA 91. 'festoons,' Aen. II 248 249 nos delubra deum...festa velamus fronde per urbem. ib. IV 457—9. Stat. s. III 3 23. IV 8 9. cod. Theod. xvi 10 12 pr. nullus omnino... Larem igne, mero genium, Pénates odore veneratus, accendat lumina, imponat tura, serta suspendat. Rich.

FARRA INPONITE CULTRIS Luc. I 609 610 Corte iam fundere Bacchum | coeperat obliquoque molas inducere cultro. Serv. Aen. II 133 sal et far quod dicitur mola salsa, qua et frons victimae et foci aspergebantur et cultri. Sen. Thyest. 688 tangensve fusa victimam culter mola. cf. Hor. s. II 3 200. VM. II 5 5.

85 MOLLIS FOCOS GLEBAMQUE VIRENTEM the three turf-altars 2. 94. Verg. ecl. 8 64. Prop. V=IV 6 6. Ov. m. 111 751 of Perseus dis tribus ille focos totidem de caespite ponit. Here Iuv, to Iuppiter, Iuno, Minerva. cod. Theod. xvi 10 12 g 2 erecta effossis ara caespitibus.

86 QUOD PRAESTAT the nobler offerings 3—9.

87 CORONAS IX 137 138 o parvi nostrique Lares, quos ture minuto | aut farre et tenui soleo exorare corona. Cato r. r, 143 kalendis, idibus, nonis, festus dies cum erit, coronam in focum indat. per eosdem dies Lari familiari pro copia supplicet. Plaut. aul. 3. 383—5 on the marriage of & daughter, trin. 39 Larem corona nostrum decorari volo, at a house-warming merc. 834 seq. on a departure, Stich. 534 on a return. Hor. C. III 23 15 16. Iv 11 7. Tibull. 1 10 15—30, where the

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