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At the time of the Megalesian games (193), early in April, Iuv. invites his friend Persicus to a frugal dinner.

The rich epicure is admired; the poor, derided : our housekeeping and our whole plan of life should be in just proportion to our means (1-38). Many, it is true, neglect this golden rule; they riot for a while at Rome, and then retire to Baiae, to avoid their creditors (38—55).

To-day, my friend, you may judge whether I practise the frugality which I preach; whether I live like the worthies of those good old times when heaven itself guarded our city (56–119), or, like their pampered descendants, can relish no meal but such as is served on the costliest tables, by the most expert and elegant slaves (120–161). Let richer men enliven their feasts by voluptuous songs and dances: here you may listen, if you will, to Homer or his rival Virgil (162—182).

Leave then all care behind you; leave to younger men the dissipation of the Circus, and spend the festival with me in enjoyments better suited to our years (183_208).

Whether Persicus is a real or fictitious character does not appear; it is not certain that Iuvenal would have hesitated to address a living friend in such verses as 186 seq.

Cf. Hor. S. II 2. ep. 1 5. Mart. v 78. x 48. xi 52. Plin. ep. i 15; on luxurious furniture Clem. Al. paed. II c. 3; and on the frugal life of the old Romans VM. IV 4. 1-23 the cost of our table must be proportioned to our means; what

; is due state in Atticus, is stark madness in Rutilus. Many men waste their estate in dainty living, till at last they are fain to enlist as swordplayers, and put up with the hodge-podge of the trainer's barrack. 1 21 22. 171–8. cf. VIII 182 n.

ATTICUS Ti. Claudius Atticus (father of Herodes Atticus), who discovered an immense treasure, the entire enjoyment of which was allowed him by Nerva (Philostr. soph. 11 1 $ 3. Zonar. XI 20). He was twice consul (Philostr. § 1. Suid. 'Hpbons), the first time before 859 u.c., for he must have been the Atticus consular legate of Syria in the tenth year of Trajan (Eus. h.e. III 32 SS 3. 6).' BORGHESI @uvres v 532–3. LAUTUS 1 67 n. Varro in Gell. xIII 11 g 5.

2 RUTILUS XIV 18 a MAIORE CACHINNO III 100, CACHINNO III 152-3 n. 3 APICIUS IV 23 n. Apion the grammarian wrote & mono.

poor noble.

THERMAE

graph on his luxury Ath. 294'.

4 CONVICTUS I 145 n. Quintil. vi 3 § 27 in convictibus et quotidiano sermone. Mart. XII praef. civitatis aures, quibus assueveram, quaero, et videor mihi in alieno foro litigare. si quid est enim, quod in libellis meis placeat, dictavit auditor. illam iudiciorum subtilitatem, illud materiarum ingenium, bybliothecas, theatra, convictus, in quibus studere se voluptates non sentiunt, ad summam omnia illa, quae delicati reliquimus, desideramus quasi destituti. cf. Friedländer 13 333. 343–8. VII 233 n. Mart. v 20 8–10 of an easy life of enjoyment, sed gestatio, fabulae, libelli, | campus, porticus, umbra, virgo, thermae, | haec essent loca semper, hi labores.

STATIONES Plin. ep. 1 13 & 2 plerique in stationibus sedent, tempusque audiendi fabulis conterunt. ib. 119 8 5 ambio domos stationesque circumeo. Gell. XIII 13 g 1 cum ex angulis secretisque librorum ac magistrorum in medium iam hominum et in lucem fori prodissem, quaesitum esse memini in plerisque Romae stationibus ius publice docentium aut respondentium, an quaestor populi Romani a praetore in ius vocari posset. dig. XLVII 10 15 § 7 ad stationem vel tabernam. Thorlacii prolusiones et opusc. acad. Copenh. 1806 n. 5. συστάσεις. λέσχαι. Special stationes near the forum for provincial towns Suet. Ner. 37. Plin, XVI 236.

5 DE RUTILO supply loquuntur XIII 181. XIV 189. Madvig $ 447 d. Nägelsbach & 183. VALIDA AC IUVENALIA MEMBRA as )( iuvenilis iuvenalis connotes praiseworthy qualities, manly vigour. Verg. Aen. v 475 quae fuerint iuvenali in corpore vires. Ov. am. 1 5 22 quam iuvenale femur! So iuvenaliter. See Mühlmann and Döderlein Synon. v 49. 6 GALEAE VII 33 patiens cassidis. he might have won honour in the field of battle [Quintil.] decl. 9 § 9 facinus indignum, illum animum, illum ardorem non contigisse castris, non bellicis certaminibus, ubi verae virtuti nulla pugnandi lege praemium praescribitur! Calpurn. decl. 50 * INFAMIS NON MILITET. vir fortis in piratas incidit; rescripsit patri de redemptione; illo cessante, redemit eum lanista et rudem ei in harena dedit. reverso belli tempore denuntiat militiam imperator.' cf. Iuv. VIII 199. n.

FERTUR ‘is reported;' it is the fabula of every lounge.

7 COGENTE VIII 193 n. The tribune (cf. VII 228 n.) has not indeed assigned over Rutilus's estate to his creditors, and so driven him to engage himself to the lanista for his bread; (Rutilius is not damnatus ad ferrum dig. XXVIII 1 8 § 4. Gai. 1 13. Ulp. i 11); but yet he has not interposed to save him from a degradation worse than slavery (VIII 199 n.). Prohibeo was the technical form of intercessio on behalf of a citizen Gell. VI=VII 19 g 5, and the chief function of the tribunate was jealously to guard the freedom of Roman citizens. Mommsen Staatsrecht 12 27 n. 2. 255 n. 2. 266 n. 7.

SED NEC Qv. Pont. 11 19 nec vos hoc vultis, sed nec prohibere potestis. Mart. vi 75 4. x 18 2 (cited xil 97 n.) Hand. 17 117.

NEC PROHIBENTE Stat. 8. I 2 193 nec me prohibente.

8 v 122 n. Sen. ep. 87 and 99 (cited vit 199 n.). Quintil. decl. 9. 302 'quidam ut patrem sepeliret, auctoravit se: die munere productus sub titulo causae rudem postulante populo accepit: postea patrimonium statutum per leges equitibus acquisivit, prohibetur gradibus' (the law enacting 'gladiator in quattuordecim gradibus ne sedeat') p. 586 Burman si creditor post datam pecuniam operas remisisset, diceres eum gladiatorem fuisse ?...illum ergo maiores prohibuerunt theatro, qui utilitate, qui gula so auctorasset. Freemen who engaged themselves as gladiators (se auctorabant), were sworn to obedience Petron. 117 in verba Eumolpi sacramentum iuravimus,

uri, vinciri, verberari ferroque necari et quicquid aliud Eumolpus iussisset, tamquam legitimi gladiatores domino corpora ani. masque religiosissime addicimus. Sen. ep. 37 SS 1 2 illius turpissimi auctoramenti verba sunt: "uri, vinciri ferroque necari.' ab his, qui manus harenae locant et edunt ac bibunt, quae per sanguinem reddant, cavetur, ut ista vel inviti patiantur. cf. (Quintil.] decl. 9 § 22 venit in harenam homo nec sceleratus nec infelix. ecquando, iudices, hoc audistis? cf. Hor. s: 11 7 59 Heindorf. The lanistae are called doctores (VM. 11 3 $ 2 ex ludo C. Aurelii Scauri doctoribus gladiatorum arccssitis vitandi atque inferendi ictus subtiliorem rationem legionibus ingeneravit. Quintil. decl. 302. Friedländer 118 where e.g. doctores myrmillonum from inscriptions) or magistri (Cic. de or, ini 86 magistər hic Samnitium...quotidie commentatur); their lessons, dictata Suet. Caes. 26 Casaubon. Tert. ad mart. 1 nec tantus ego sum, ut vos alloquar; verumtamen et gladiatores perfectissimos non tantum magistri et praepositi sui, sed etiam idiotae et supervacui quique adhortantur de longinquo, ut saepe de ipso populo dictata suggesta profuerint.

SCRIBTURUS esse cf. publ. sch. Lat. gr. $ 99 1 a p. 346.

LANISTAE III 158 n. Sen. ep. 87 § 15 quod contemptissimo cuique contingere ac turpissimo potest, bonum non est; opes autem et lenoni et lanistae contingunt. Spartian. Hadr. 18. Quintil. decl. 9 § 22. 278. The fallen noble's rex, from whom he receives laws, is a lanista! cf. v 170—3 n. on the voluntary slavery of trencher-knights. [Quintil.] decl. 9 8 7 tenenti servilia arma et ignominiosa morte perituro. $ 22 illud vero existimo gravius, nomen gladiatoris accipere, subire dominum lanistam. an ille animus rediret in cellulam, ferret saginam, magistrum, personam denique sceleris ? ib.

15 fin. piratis lanistisque. § 12 fin. calamitatum mearum gradus, piratam, lanistam.

10 Hor. s. 1 2 9 omnia conductis coemens obsonia nummis.

MACELLI 64 n. v 95 n. Ter. eun. 255—8 ad macellum ubi advenimus, | concurrunt laeti mi obviam cuppedinarii omnes, | cetarii, lanii, coqui, fartores, piscatores, | quibus et re salva et perdita profueram.

11 QUIBUS IN SOLO VIVENDI CAUSA PALATO EST XII 50 51. Gell. xix 2 8 7 (thence Macr. II 8 & 16. cf. Wytt. on Plut. 11 219) Socrates quidem dicebat multos homines propterea velle vivere ut ederent et biberent, se bibere atque esse ut viveret. Aug. de magistro 9 & 26. VIVENDI CAUSA VIII 84 n.

12 EGREGIUS many exx, of such forms (e.g. sobrior, industrior) in Kühner (1877) 1 370. Haase on Reisig p. 172. Neue 112 112—4. 689. cf. Madvig adv. 1 117. Sen. de clem. 1 13 $2 noxior. Piissimus, which Cic. ridicules as a barbarism in Antonius (Phil. 13 § 43), is found in Tac. Sen. etc.

13 ET CITO CASURUS I 33 34 magni delator amici et cito rapturus. On the rare use of the part. see Kiaer 185. PERLUCENTE II 78. Sen. Herc. f. 1001 perlucet omnis regia. Holyday 'he's set | on riot most, that still is most in debt, I and soon must fall; you may see through the rent.' 14 INTEREA while ruin threatens. GUSTUS here (cf. visus) concrete of the thing tasted=sapores. Colum. III 2 8 5 a site for a vineyard in quo gustus nobilis pretiosusque fluit. Petron. 77 fin. profer et unguentum et ex illa amphora gustum (of wine), ex qua iubeo lavari ossa mea.

ELEMENTA through air, earth, and water v 94 n. Luc. x 155—169 e.g. infudere epulas auro, quod terra, quod aer, I quod pelagus, Nilusque dedit, quod luxus inani | ambitione furens toto quaesivit in orbe, I non mandante fame. Quintil. v 10 & 21. Gell. vi=vii 16 g 6 peragrantis gulae et in sucos inquirentis industriam atque has undique

vorsum indagines cuppediarum; the chapter gives from Varro tepl edeoudtwv a list of dainties quae profunda ingluvies vestigavit with their homes. DCass. LXV 3 § 1 the whole reign of Vitellius was ουδέν άλλο η μέθαι τε και κωμοι πάντα τε γάρ τα τιμιώτατα και απ' αυτού του ωκεανού...και εκ της γης και εκ της θαλάσσης συνήγετο (some dishes retained the name 'Vitellian'). Hier, ep. 52 =2 ad Nepotian. § 6 (1 261° ed. Ven. 1766) novi et genera et nomina piscium, in quo litore concha lecta sit calleo : saporibus avium discerno provincias ; et ciborum pretiosorum me raritas ac novissime damna ipsa delectant. ib. 12 (266d) quid prodest molestias quasdam difficultatesque ciborum quaerere.

16 ATTENDAS...IUVANT X 339 n. XI11 144. Madvig $ 348 n. 3. publ. sch. gr. § 214. Roby § 1574.

MAGIS ILLA IUVANT, QUAE PLURIS EMUNTUR 14 n. 120–9. v 94 n. Hor. 8. II 2 15–52. Petron. 93 ales Phasiacis petita Colchis | atque Afrae volucres placent palato, I quod non sunt faciles; at albus anser | et pictis anas renovata pennis i plebeium sapit. ultimis ab oris | attractus scarus atque arata Syrtis , si quid naufragio dedit, probatur. , mullus iam gravis est. amica vincit | uxorem. rosa cinnamum veretur. I quicquid quaeritur, optimum vi. detur. ib. 119 748 non vulgo nota placebant, gaudia, non usu plebeio trita voluptas. Sen. ep. 122 § 14 omnia concupiscenti aut contemnenti, prout magno aut parvo empta sunt, fastidio est lumen gratuitum. § 18 causa tamen praecipua mihi videtur huius morbi vitae communis fastidium. id. qu. nat. IV 13 $S 3 4. id. cons. Helv. 10 § 5 o miserabiles, quorum palatum nisi ad pretiosos cibos non excitatur! pretiosos autem non eximius sapor...sed raritas et difficultas parandi facit...omnes regiones pervagantur, maria traiciunt et, cum famem exiguo possint sedare, magno irritant. ib. SS 2–3. Quintil

. v 12 § 19 numquam tamen hoc continget malis moribus regnum, ut, siqua pretiosa fecit, fecerit et bona. Plin. xxii 3. 17 ERGO therefore, since they like expense for its own sake, they make no conscience of pawning the family plate.

PERITURAM I 18 n. Phaedr. III 2 5. to be squandered on their appetite.

18 OPPOSITIS so in Catullus's pun 26 Ellis Furi, villula nostra non ad Austri | flatus opposita est neque ad Favoni. | ... verum ad milia quindecim et ducentos. | o ventum horribilem atque pestilentem! MATRIS IMAGINE FRAUTA he defaces a silver medallion of his mother, and pawns it as old silver. Plin. xxxv § 4 imaginum quidem pictura, qua Inaxime similes in aevum propagabantur figurae, in totum exolevit. aerei ponuntur clipei, argenteae facies, surdo figurarum discrimine statuarum capita permutantur, vulgatis iam pridem salibus etiam carminum. adeo materiam conspici malunt omnes quam se nosci. et inter haec pinacothecas veteribus tabulis consuunt alienasque effigies colunt, ipsi honorem non nisi in pretio ducentes, ut frangat heres furisque detrahat la queus. Silver statues ib. XXXIII § 151. 19 QUADRINGENTIS 400 sesterces.

CONDIRE to load with dainties.

19 20 GULOSUM FICTILE a con. tradictio in adiecto like 111 182 183 ambitiosa paupertate. Hier. ep. 107 =7 ad Laetam § 10 faciant hoc cultores Isidis et Cybeles, qui gulosa abstinentia Phasidis aves ac fumantes turtures vorant, ne scilicet Cerealia dona contaminent.

20 FICTILE his plate is in pawn, so that he must eat his delicacies off earthenware. In 168 n. fictilibus cenare pudet.

SIC schol. 'cum non habeant, unde manducent, distrahent se ad ludum.'

MISCELLANEA schol..cibus gladiatorum,...... ideo miscellanea, qui omnia, quae apponuntur eis, miscent et sic manducant.' Quintil. decl. 9 § 5 alebat devotum corpus gravior omni fame sagina et inter debita noxae mancipia contemptissimus tiro gladiator ...... discebam quotidie scelus. ib. § 10 quid praestiti ?......quod lanista gladiatori, exiguam stipem et cibos semper petendos.

LUDI VIII 199 n. [Quintil.] decl. 9 & 21 in ludo fui: qua poena nullam ulteriorem scelera noverunt, cuius ad comparationem ergastulum leve est. ... ... morabar inter sacrilegos, incendiarios et, quae gladiatoribus una laus est, homicidas, inclusos turpiore custodia et sordido cellarum situ.

21 ERGO since so many are ruined by luxury, men give it a bad name in those of narrow means ; while in the rich it is extolled as generosity or taste 1. VIII 182. RUTILO 2.

NAM not found in this position in prose authors. Hand Tursell. Iv 3. Bentley on Hor. 8. II 6 78. Orelli ib. 3 20.

22 VENTIDIO divite. 23 sumEr the subject is haec eadem parare, which is also the subject of est.

23–38 in all things great and small • know thyself,' attempt nothing beyond thy power ; thus Socrates disregarded natural philosophy in comparison with self-knowledge Plat. apol. 19bc. Phaed. 96 seq. rep. 529. Xen. m. 11 11. rv 7 $ 6. cf. Sen. ep. 88. Encyclopaedic learning was in fashion, even in poetry (in imitation of the Alexandrine school) cf. Lucan, the Aetna etc.

24 ATLAS Aen. IV 481 maximus Atlas. ib. 246 seq. Probably the scholiasts may have disputed (Düntzer) about the absolute or relative height of the mountain thus honoured with a superlative vii 234–6 n. 25 Hic Herm. in Halm on Cic. Vatin. § 24 gives other exx. of relative sentences, in the second clause of which, instead of repeating the relative, the writer employs the demonstrative. The sentence is one, in which two contrasted clauses are connected as coordinate, in such a way that while the two together suit the meaning of the context, one of them, taken apart from the other, will not. Hom. V 577—8. Cic. Catil. 1 1. Stürenb. on Cic. p. Arch. p. 161. p. Mil. § 33. Phil. 2 g 110 1. 6 n. de fin. 1$ 15 Madvig. Liv. 11 12 $ 2 C. Mucius,......cui indignum videbatur, populum Romanum servientem, cum sub regibus esset, nullo bello nec ab hostibus ullis obsessum esse, liberum eundem populum ab isdem Etruscis obsideri. Teuffel on Hor. 8. II 7 109. Plin. ep. I 12 & 13. 16 § 8. Quintil. 11 7 § 3. x 3 & 29. Lact. de ira Dei 10 § 44. Eur. Andr. 269 seq. IT. 116—7. Schmidt on Aesch. PV. 507. Isae. 7 $ 39. Antiph. in Harpocr. s. V. OTAOLÁTns (Sauppe 11 138). DChrys. or. 26 1 316 13 Dind. Cobet v. 1.2 569. Madvig adv. I 453. Hand Tursell. 1 350. Herbst on Quintil. x 2 $ 5.' Here it is not for the study of African geography that the man is despicable, but for neglecting more necessary studies.

26 ARCA x 25 n. XIV 259 260 aerata multus in arca | fiscus. Catull. 23 1 Furi, cui neque servus est neque arca. Cic. parad. 6 1 § 44 animus hominis dives, non arca appellari solet. Phaedr. iv 12 2. Gron. on Sen. ep. 81. Hor. s. 1 1 67. Brisson or Dirksen (and inscr. ind.) under arcarius.

27 SACCULUS XIV 138. Catull. 13 7 8 nam tui Catulli | plenus sacculus est aranearum. Mart, complaining that he had spent his little all on a wealthy orbus v 39 7 excussi loculosquc sacculum que. id. XI 3 6. Saccus and sacculus are frequent in the jurists (see Dirksen's manuale).

E CAELO II 40. Stat. s. I 1 2 Hand

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