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361 HERCULIS II 19-20 peiores, qui talia verbis | Herculis invadunt. viii 14 n. HERCULIS AERUMNAS Plaut. Pers. i 2 seq. cf. the labours of Bellerophon, Perseus, Theseus, Ulixes, and of Psyche in Apuleius (Friedländer 13 445 seq.). Cic. fin. II § 118 to an Epicurean percontare ipse te, perpetuisne malis voluptatibus perfruens in ea quam saepe usurpabas, tranquillitate degere omnem aetatem sine dolore,......an cum de omnibus gentibus optime mererere, ......vel Herculis pati aerumnas? sic enim maiores nostri labores non fugiendos tristissimo tamen verbo aerumnas etiam in deo nominaverunt. ib. v § 95 ut ubi virtus sit resque magnae et summe laudabiles virtute gestae, ibi esse miseria et aerumna non possit, tamen labor possit, possit molestia. A Stoic paradox was that virtue is sufficient for happiness Cic. parad. II § 16 nec vero ego M. Regulum aerumnosum nec infelicem nec miserum umquam putavi. id. fin. III § 42. V SS 79—83 Regulus as happy as Metellus.“ Quintil. viii 3 § 26 aerumnas quid opus est [dicere]? tamquam parum sit si dicatur quid horridum. cf. Forcell. Orig. c. Cels. 111 66 cites as acknowledged examples of perfect life, among herpes Herakles and Odysseus. Sen. const. sap. 2 § 1 the gods have given to us in Cato a more certain model of a sage than they gave to early ages in Ulixes and Hercules. hos enim Stoici nostri sapientes pronuntiaverunt, invictos laboribus, contemptores voluptatis et victores omnium terrarum. id. ben. 1 13 8 3 in contrast with Alexander, a brigand from childhood, Hercules nihil sibi vicit: orbem terrarum transivit non concupiscendo, sed vindicando. cf. the famous myth of Prodicus (Xen. mem, II 1 & 21. Cic. off. I § 118 Beier). Hercules is distinctly called a phi. losopher. Max. Tyr. 21 § 6 Herakles was wise; yet not for himself wise, but his wisdom extended over every land and sea. It was he that was the exterminator of beasts of prey, chastiser of tyrants, liberator of slaves, legislator of the free, establisher of righteousness, inventor of laws, truthful in words, reformer in deeds. But if Herakles had chosen to retire and live at ease and in leisure, and to pursue an inactive wisdom, he would have been instead of Herakles a sophist, and no one would have dared to call him son of Zeus, ib. 3 $ 7. 58 8. 31 § 7. 388 7 on the pleasure and reward which he derived from his labours. chron. pasch. 1 78 Bonn 'in the days of king Phoenix was Herakles the philo. sopher, surnamed the Tyrian, who discovered the purple dye.' Tzetz. chil. v 129—33 Herakles wrote an inscription (in hexameters which are given 135—7), for he was universally accomplished, poet, astrologer, philosopher, magician, physician, and all else that Orpheus and other authors describe him to have been. Sery. Aen. I 741 constat enim Herculem fuisse philosophum: et est ratio, cur omnia illa monstra vicisse dicatur. More than one treatise of Antisthenes, founder of the cynic school, bore the name of Herakles DL. VI SS 16. 18. He shewed that labour was a good by the examples of Herakles and Cyrus ib. § 3. Eus. praep. eV. XV 13 8 7 p. 816» Αντισθένης, Ηρακλεωτικός τις ανήρ το ppornua. epist. Socrat. 9 Aristippos to Antisthenes in mockery: 'I will send you large white beans, that when you have exhibited Herakles to your pupils, you may have something to munch. cf. Auson. epigr. 27. 28. Kleanthes was called a second Herakles DL. VII § 170. Apul. fi. IV 22 of Crates, follower of Diogenes, quod Herculem olim poetae memorant monstra illa immania hominum ac ferarum virtute subegisse orbemque terrae purgasse, similiter adversum iracundiam et invidiam atque libidinem ceteraque animi humani* monstra et flagitia philosophus iste

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Hercules fuit, eas omnes pestes mentibus exegit, familias purgavit, malitiam perdomuit; seminudus et ipse et clava insignis. id. mag, 22 for the resemblance in exterior between the hero and the Cynics. They bear the club Aug. civ, D, XIV 20 we still see Cynic philosophers; hi enim sunt, qui non solum amiciuntur pallio, verum etiam clavam ferunt. id. c. Acad. § 17 of the braggart Academic de omnium scholis non ferulis, quod esset deformius quam molestius, sed illorum palliatorum clavis et fustibus proicietur, non enim magnum negotium erit contra communem pestem velut Herculea quaedam postulare auxilia Cyni. corum. Sidon, ep. iv 11. Ix 9 p. 579 non caesariem pascere, neque pallio aut clave velut sophisticis insignibus gloriari, Prud. hamart. 201 hinc gerit Herculeam vilis sapientia clavam. The Cynic Alkidamas Lucian conviv. 16 to a bride προπίνω σοι, ω Κλεανθί, Ηρακλέους αρχηγέτου. And when all laughed, έγαλάσατε, ώ καθάρματα, εί τη νύμφη προϋπιον επί του ημετέρου θεού του Ηρακλέους; he then compares himself to his patron god in indomitable strength, in freedom of mind, in robust body, which he exhibits in order to prove his point; he might have done some mischief with his club, if he had not chanced to espy a largo cake. The Cynic asks ib. Cynic. 13 do you think that Herakles, the bravest of all men, a man divine and justly esteemed a god, roamed abroad because of his unhappiness, with no attire but a skin, and with none of your wants ? nay, he was not unhappy, who relieved others also from suffering ; nor yet poor, who was master of earth and sea,' etc. id. vit. auct. 8 Diogenes is asked Whom do you emulate?' Herakles." Why then do you not also don the lion's skin? for as to the club, in that you are like him.' “ This threadbare cloak is my lion's skin, like him I wage war upon pleasures, not by order, but of my own free will, making it my vocation to purge life of them.” id. Demon. 1 Sostratos of Boeotia, a contemporary called Herakles by the Greeks, for his bodily strength and his labours in suppressing brigandage, making roads through trackless wilds and building bridges, DChrys. or. 4 1 151—2 R 'men of old called by the name of sons of Zeus those who enjoyed virtuous training, and were brave of soul, trained like the famous Herakles. Iulian or. 6 p. 187 S.the more generous Cynics aver that the great Herakles also, as he became the author of our other blessings, 80 also left to mankind the chief pattern of this (Cynic) life too. Eus. pr. ev. xv 4 7976 "those Herakleian and divine doctrines, that virtue is a thing strong and exquisitely fair, never lacking anything for happiness, never parted from it, but though poverty, disease, disgrace, torments, burning pitch and the cross, and all sufferings of tragedy should pour upon him at once, still the just man is happy and blessed.' The Christian fathers have an easy task in accepting the challenge Quis vituperavit? [Iust. mart.] or. ad gent. 3. Theodoret. gr. aff. cur. VIII p. 113 27 άνδρα ου σώφρονα ουδέ φιλοσοφίαν ηγαπηκότα, αλλ' ακολασία και λαγνεία ξυνεβηκότα. Clem. Al. protr. 2 & 33. Arnob. IV 26. (Partly from Brucker. I have not seen G. C. Mezger de Hercule sapientis stoici exemplo. Aug. Vind. 1829. 4to). 362 PLUMA 1 159 n. Tibull. 1 2 77. Sen. de prov. 3 § 10 of Maecenas tam vigilabit in pluma, quam ille (Regulus) in cruce etc. Mart. 1x 92 3 4 dat tibi securos vilis tegeticula somnos, | pervigil in pluma Gaius ecce iacet. Cypr. ad Donat. 12 of the rich man cum epulis marcidum corpus torus mollior alto sinu condidit, vigilat in pluma nec intellegit miser, speciosa sibi esse supplicia, auro se alligatum teneri, et possideri magis quam possidere. Cic. Att. x 8 § 7 nisi forte me Sardanapalli JUV. II.

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vicem in meo lectulo mori malle censueris quam in exsilio Themistocles. Max. Tyr. 10 S 9.

SARDANAPALLI schol. S. rex Assyriorum luxuriosus. de quo Tullius in tertio de republica sic ait: S. ille vitiis multo quam nomine ipso deformior. Contrasted with Her. cules also by Kleomedes meteor. ΙΙ 8 91 εί τις τον Σ. επινοήσεις περί καρτερίας τώ Ηρακλεί συγκρίνεσθαι επιχειρούντα. His effeminacy proverbial paroem. gr. II 207 Leutsch Eapd. ÉTÈ Tv åßpodialtw. ib. 600 πάναβρός Σ. επί των τρυφώντων και πολυόλβων. ib. 1 449. Epiktet. diss. III 22 S 30 Happiness is not in royalty. Else Nero would have been happy and Sard. See Bähr's Ctesias 424-436. DS. 11 21—28. Iust. 13 S. the last king of Assyria, vir muliere corruptior. Arbactus, general of the Medes, having with difficulty gained admission to his presence, found him inter scortorum greges purpuras colo nentem et muliebri habitu, cum mollitia corporis et oculorum lascivia omnes feminas anteiret, pensa inter virgines partientem. quibus visis indig. natus tali feminae tantum virorum subiectum tractantesque ferrum et arma habentes parere, progressus ad socios quid viderit refert: negat se ei parere posse, qui se feminam malit esse quam virum. The plot is successful; Sard. burns himself with his treasures. cf. Oros. i 19. Plut. de Alex. fort. 1 2 p. 326f Fortune placed the royal diadem on the head of S. Troppúpav galvovti. ib. 2 3 p. 336 anyone seeing the life or tomb (for they are the same thing) of S. would say that it was a trophy constructed of Fortune's blessings. id. comm. notit. 13 § 4 p. 1065. [Plut.] pro nobil. 10 8 2 in Stob. fl. LXXXVIII 12 Sokrates more noble than 8. Lucian dial. mort. 2 § 1 8. in the lower world laments, remembering rîs nollas Tpuoñs. ib. 20 & 2 Menippos wishes to cuff, or to spit upon S. åvopogúvų ge Övri. cf. necyom. 18. rhet. praec. 11 mávaßpóv tuva 2. Iupp. conf. 16 2. Oñaus 6v. Iupp. trag. 48 think of the poverty of Sokrates, Ari. steides, Phokion, εν όσοις δε αγαθοίς Καλλίας και Μειδίας και Σ. υπερτρυpwvtes. DChrys. 1 1 1 12 D. not even Marsyas or Olympos could have roused S. ek toll Balduou napà twv yuvalkw. ib. 2 1 27 20 his jewels. ib. 3 1 51 27 proverbial for his softness. ib. 62 in 202 full account of his effeminate dress, attitude, complexion, 8v oỦk av ôlaywval twv rallakw. ib. 64 11 207 28. 78 11 280 8 •thinking S. to be envied, who said that he spent his life in feasting and wantonness with eunuchs and women.' Tert. de pallio 4 p. 938 Oehler. Mart. xı 11 5 6 te potare decet gemma, qui Mentora frangis | in scaphium moechae, Sardanapalle, tuae. Athen. 294, 412d. 528_530c Aug. civ. Dei 11 20 fin. DCass. LXXVIII 22 85. LXXIX 1 § 1. 2 8 4. 10 § 2. 11 § 3. 13 (in this book a nickname of Avitus or Pseudantoninus). Clem. Al. str. 1 $ 159. paed. Il § 70. Opposed to Cyrus Max. Tyr. 21 § 8. ib. 1 5. 3 SS 3. 9. 13 § 7. The authorities for two epitaphs of S. are collected in Näke's Choerilus 196—256; the one in Assyrian characters at Anchiale Strabo 672 (cf. Arr. anab. 11 5 4. Ath. 530b) . S. son of Anakyndaraxes built Anchiale and Tarsus in one day: eat, drink, and be merry, čo Ole, tîve, maiše, for all else is not worth this' (a snap of the fingers, cf. 1 Cor. 15 32): the other a Chaldean inscription on the tomb of Sard. at Nineveh, translated by Choerilus (Ath. 529f) into Greek. DChrys. 4 1 89 20 Dind. Ath. 335f seq. 4124. Clem, Αl. str. ΙΙ 8 118. DS. II 23 ταύτ' έχω όσσ' έφαγον και εφέβρισα και μετ' έρωτος | τερπν έπαθον, τα δε πολλά και όλβια κείνα λέλειπται, an epitaph, as Aristotle (Cic. Tusc. v § 101 Dav. finn, it $ 106. cf. Ath. 3354) says, fitter for an ox than a king. On S. the conqueror, the mighty hunter, his stately palaces, and rich library of brick books, of which fragments are preserved in the British Museum, see Rawlinson's five great monarchie3

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c. 9, Brandis · Assyria' in Pauly 1, and Georgii art. Sard. ib. with the authorities cited. Modern writers place him (or them, for some make as many as four of the name) at dates varying from the 10th to the 7th cent.

In classical antiquity he is the typical voluptuary, and the last king of Assyria Moderns (O. Müller, Movers etc.) find in him the Asiatia Hercules. W. C. Koopmans de Sard. Amst. 1819.

363 MONSTRO XIV 256. Gronovius on Sen, de ben, IV 28 shews that the word is technically used of physicians' prescriptions.

QUOD IPSE TIBI POSSIS DARE Cic. n. d. III SS 86-8 hoc quidem omnes mortales sic habent, externas commoditates, vineta, segetes, oliveta, ubertatem frugum et fructuum, omnem denique commoditatem prosperitatemque vitae a dis se habere; virtutem autem nemo umquam acceptam deo rettulit. nimirum recte ; propter virtutem enim iure laudamur et in virtute recte gloriamur : quod non contingeret, si id donum a deo, non a nobis haberemus ...... iudicium hoc omnium' mortalium est, fortunam a deo petendam, a se ipso sumendam esse sapien. tiam. id. Cat. mai. § 4. Hor. ep. I 18 111—2 sed satis est orare Iovem, qui ponit et aufert, | det vitam, det opes; aequum mi animum ipse parabo. Obbar ib. cites many parallels. cf. the distinction in Epikt. man. 1 between the things which are and the things which are not ¢¢ Muiv. It is the Stoic aútápkela Sen. ep. 9 & 19. 27 § 3 aliquod potius bonum mansurum circumspice. nullum autem est, nisi quod animus ex se sibi invenit. 31 g 3 unum bonum est......sibi fidere. 41 § 1 bonam mentem, quam stultum est optare, cum possis a te in petrare. 80 SS 3--5. Lasaulx Studien 146 adds Isokr. ad Demon. $ 34. Liv. XXXVII 45 § 11; but also passages from Bias, Pindar, Simonides, Kallimachos, which agree with Christian principle 1 Cor. 4 7. Markland cites in contrast 2 Cor. 3 5. Phil. 2 13. SEMITA properly a narrow track Phaedr. III prol. 38 ego illius pro semita feci viam. Mart. vii 61 4 et modo quae fuerat semita, facta via est. Often used metaphorically Hor. ep. 1 18 103 fallentis semita vitae. Obbar on Hor. ib. 17 26.

365 366 the same verses XIV 315 316'n. NULLUM NUMEN HABES Ov. f. vi 241 Mens quoque numen habet. amor. III 9 18 sunt etiam, qui nos (poets) numen habere putent. [Sen.] Oct. 933 nullum pietas nunc numen habet. Mart. VIII 80 6 et casa tam culto sub Iove numen habet.

HABES, SI SIT 339 n.

PRUDENTIA Sen. ep. 85 e. g. 8 2 prudens beatus est et prudentia ad beatam vitam satis est. $S 36—8.

366 xi 18 n. 20. Preller röm. Myth. 552–64. Philem. in Clem. Al. str. v § 129 oủk čoTLV nuîv oùdeuia Túxn 0e6s. Sen. n. q. III pr. SS 11–15. ep. 74. 98 e. g. 8 2 errant......qui aut boni aliquid nobis aut mali iudicant tribuere fortunam. de prov. 6 $ 6. de const. sap. 15 § 3 vincit nos fortuna, nisi tota vincitur. cf. Haase's ind. s. V. fortuna. Plin. II § 22 invenit......sibi ipsa mortalitas numen......toto quippe mundo et omnibus locis omnibusque horis omnium vocibus Fortuna sola invocatur ac nominatur,...... adeoque obnoxiae sumus sortis, ut sors ipsa pro deo sit, qua deus probatur incertus. Lact. III 29 § 1 fortuna ergo per se nihil est. § 7 is plane vulgi et imperitorum opinionibus credit, qui Fortunam putant esse, quae hominibus tribuat bona et mala. nam simulacrum eius cum copia et gubernaculo fingunt, tamquam haec et opes tribuat et humanarum rerum regimen obtineat. § 17 Fortunae vocabulum sibi inane finxerunt: quod quam longe a sapientia sit remotum, declarat Iuvenalis. his versibus NULLUM......LOCAMUS. § 18 stultitia igitur et error et caecitas et, ut Cicero [Acad. 1 $ 29] ait, ignoratio rerum atque causarum Naturae ac Fortunae nomina induxit. Aug. civ. Dei IY 18 19.

ADDENDA.

30 Greg. Νaz. Οr. 4 72 την Ηρακλείτου κατήφειαν. 36 four white horses Serv. Aen. IV 543. cf. DH. II 34.

50 VERVECUM Synes. 516_ el yap étéXbol piloo opeîv tos kplois. In the schools Odysseus and Demokritos were the stock examples of the topic though he came of a little birthplace, he won renown Theon progymn. in Spengel rhet. ii 111 23.

55 GENUA Serv. Aen. III 607 physici dicunt esse consecratas numinibus singulas corporis partes......genua Misericordiae: unde haec tangunt rogantes.

71 EPISTULA Tac. III 44 many blamed Tiberius, because in tanto rerum motu libellis accusatorum insumeret operam. an Sacrovirum maiestatis crimine reum in senatu fore? extitisse tandem viros, qui cruentas epistulas armis cohiberent.

117 custos ad Herenn. IV § 65 pedisequo puerorum, App. b.C. II 30.

271 272 CANINO RICTU Serv. Aen. III 6.
274 R. Schubert de Croeso et Solone fabula. Reg. 1868.

277 Ov. Pont. IV 3 45–47 ille Iugurthino clarus Cimbroque tri. umpho, I quo victrix totiens consule Roma fuit, I in caeno Marius iacuit cannaque palustri. ib. 37 38 Croesus (Iuv. 274 275). 41-43 Pompeius (Iuv. 283—6).

314 LAQUEOS Sen. Hippol. 124 125 Venus / per nos catenas vindicat Martis sui.

325 HIPPOLYTO Welcker gr. Trag. 394–402.

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