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world. Full of these mournful ideas, he repeated the following ver ses of Homer:
"Έσσεται ήμας, όταν ποτ’ όλώλη “Ιλιος ερή,
And one prodigious ruin swallow all.-- Pope. Thereby denouncing the future destiny of Rome, as he himself confessed to Polybius, who desired Scipio to explain himself on that occasion.
Had the truth enlightened his soul, he would have discovered what we are taught in the Scriptures, that because of unrighteous dealings, injuries, and riches got by deceit, a kingdom is translated from one people to another.* Carthage is destroyed, because its avarice, perfidiousness, and cruelty, have attained their utmost hcight. The like fate will attend Rome, when its luxury, ambition, pride, and unjust usurpations, concealed beneath a specious and delusive show of justice and virtue, shall have compelled the sovereign Lord, the disposer of empires, to give the universe an important lesson in
. Carthage being taken in this manner,f Scipio A. Carth. 701. gave the plunder of it (the gold, silver, statues, and
other offerings which should be found in the temples,
excepted) to his soldiers for some days. He afterwards bestowed several military rewards on them, as well as on the officers, two of whom had particularly distinguished themselves, viz. Tib. Gracchus and Caius Fannius, who first scaled the walls. After this, adorning a small ship (an excellent sailer), with the enemy's spoils, he sent it to Rome with the news of the victory.
At the same time he invited the inhabitants of Sicily to come and take possession of the pictures and statues which the Carthaginians had plundered them of in the former wars. When he restored to the citizens of Agrigentum, Phalaris's famous bull,8 he told them that this bull, which was, at one and the same time, a monument of the crueity of their ancient kings and of the lenity of their present sovề. reigns, ought to make them sensible which would be most advantageous for them, to live under the yoke of Sicilians, or the government of the Romans.
Having exposed to sale part of the spoils of Carthage, he com manded, on the most severe penalties, his family not to take or even buy any of them; so careful was he to remove from himself, and all belonging to him, the least suspicion of avarice.
A. M. 3859.
A. Rom. 603.
Eccles, X. 8. † Appian. p. 83.
# Ibid. Quem taurum Scipio cum redderet Agrigentinis, dixisse dicitur, æquum esse illos cogirare utrum essei Siculis utimus, suu-ne servire, an populo R. obtemperare, cum idem monumentuin et domesticæ crudelitatis, et nostræ mansuetudinis haberent. Cic. Verr vi. n. 73.
When the news of the taking of Carthage was brought to Rome,* the people abandoned themselves to the niost immoderate transports of joy, as if the public tranquillity had not been secured till that in. stant. They revolved in their minds, all the calamities which the Carthaginians had brought upon them, in Sicily, in Spain, and even in Italy, for sixteen years together: during which, Hannibal had plundered 400 towns, destroyed in different engagements 300,000 men, and reduced Rome itself to the utmost extremity. Amidst the remembrance of these past evils, the people in Rome would ask one another, whether it were really true that Carthage was in ashes. All ranks and degrees of men emulously strove who should show the greatest gratitude towards the gods; and the citizens were, for many days, employed only in solemn sacrifices, in public prayers, games, and spectacles.
After these religious duties were ended,t the senate sent ten commissioners into Africa, to regulate, in conjunction with Scipio, the fate and condition of that country for the time to come. The first care was, to demolish whatever was still remaining of Carthage. I Rome, though mistress of almost the whole world, could not beli herself safe as long as even the name of Carthage was in being; So true it is, that an inveterate hatred, fomented by long and bloody wars, lasts even beyond the time when all cause of fear is removed, and does not cease till the object that occasions it is no more. Orders were given, in the name of the Romans, that it should never be inhabited again; and dreadful imprecations were denounced against those, who, contrary to this prohibition, should attempt to rebuild any parts of it, especially those called Byrsa and Megara. In the mean time, every one who desired it, was admitted to see Carthage; Scipio being well pleased, to have people view the sad ruins of a city which had dared to contend with Rome for empire.|| The commissioners decreed farther, that those cities which, during this war, had joined with the enemy, should be all razed, and their territories be given to the Roman allies; they particularly made a grant to the citizens of Utica, of the whole country lying between Carthage and Hippo. All the rest they made tributary, and reduced it into a Ro. man province, whither a prætor was sent annually.
All matters being thus settled, T Scipio returned to Rome, where he made his entry in triumph. So magnificent a one had never been seen before, the whole exhibiting nothing but statues, rare invalua
* Appian. p. 83. † Appian. p. 84.
# Wc may guess at the dimensions of this famous city, by what Florus says, viz. that it was seventeen days on fire, before it could be consumed. Quanta urbs deleta sit, ut de cæteris taceam, vel ignium mora probari potest; quippe per continuos decem er Beptem dies vix potuit incendium extingui." Lib. ii. c. 15.
Neque se Roma, jam terrarum orbe superato, securam speravit fore, si nomen us quam maneret Carthaginis. Adeo odium certaminibus urtum ultra metum durat, et ne in victis quidem deponitur, neque antè invisum esse desinit, quàm esse desiit. Vel Paterc. I. i. c. 12.
|| Ut ipse locus eorum, qui cum hâc urbe de imperio certârunt, vestigia calamitatio ostenderet. Cic. Agrar. ii. n. 50.
1 Appian. p. 84.
ble pictures, and other curiosities, which the Carthaginians had, for many years, been collecting in other countries; not to mention the money carried into the public treasury, which amounted to immense
Notwithstanding the great precautions which were taken to hinder Carthage from being ever rebuilt,* in less than thirty years after, and even in Scipio's lifetime, one of the Gracchi, to ingratiate himself with the people, undertook to found it anew, and conducted thither a colony consisting of 6000 citizens for that purpose. The senate, hearing that the workmen had been terrified by many unlucky omens, at the time they were tracing the limits, and laying the foundations of the new city, would have suspended the attempt; but the tribune, not being over scrupulous in religious matters, carried on the work, notwithstanding all these bad presages, and finished it in a few days. This was the first Roman colony that was ever sent out of Italy.
It is probable, that only a kind of huts were built there, since we are told, that when Marius retired hither, in his flight to Africa, he lived in a mean and poor condition amid the ruins of Carthage, consoling himself by the sight of so astonishing a spectacle; himself serving, in some measure, as a consolation to that ill-fated city.
Appian relates, that Julius Cæsar, after the death of Pompey, having crossed into Africa, saw, in a dream, an army composed of a prodigious number of soldiers, who, with tears in their eyes, called him; and that, struck with the vision, he writ down in his pocketbook the design which he formed, on this occasion, of rebuilding Carthage and Corinth; but having been murdered soon after by the conspirators, Augustus Cæsar, his adopted son, who found this memorandum among his papers, rebuilt Carthage near the spot where it stood formerly, in order that the imprecations which had been vented, at the time of its destruction, against those who should presume to rebuild it, might not fall upon him.
I know not what foundation Appian has for this story; but we read in Strabo,that Carthage and Corinth were rebuilt at the same time by Cæsar, to whom he gives the name of god, by which title, a little beforeill he had plainly intended Julius Cæsar; and Plutarch, 7 in the life of that emperor, ascribes expressly to him the establishment of these two colonies; and observes, that one remarkable circumstance in these two cities is, that as both had been taken and destroyed at the same time, they likewise were at the same tiine rebuilt and repeopled. However this be, Strabo affirms, that in his time Carthage was as populous as any city in Africa ; and it rose to
* Id. p. 85. Plut. in vit. Gracch. p. 839.
† Marius cursum in Africam direxit, inopemque vitam in tugurio ruinarum Carthaginensium toleravit: cum Marius aspiciens Carthaginem, illa intuens Marium, alter alteri possent esse solatio. Vel. Paterc. l. ji. c. 19.
Appian p. 85. Strab. l. xvii p. 833. li Strab. I. xvii. p. 831. | Page 733.
be the capital of Africa, under the succeeding emperors.
It existed for about
700 years after, in splendour, but at last was so completely destroyed by the Saracens, in the beginning of the seventh century, that neither its name, nor the least footsteps of it, are known at this time in the country. A Digression on the Manners and Character of the second
Scipio Africanus. Scipio the destroyer of Carthage, was son to the famous Paulus Æmilius, who conquered Perseus, the last king of Macedon; and consequently grandson to that Paulus Æmilius who lost his life in the battle of "Cannæ. He was adopted by the son of the great Scipio Africanus, and called Scipio Ærnilianus; the names of the two families being so united, pursuant to the law of adoptions. He supported, * with equal lustre, the dignity of both houses, by all the qualities, that can confer honour on the sword and gown. The whole tenor of his life, says an historian, whether with regard to his actions, his thoughts, or words, was deserving of the highest praise. He distinguished himself particularly (a eulogium that, at present, can seldom be applied to persons of the military profession,) by his exquisite taste for polite literature, and all the sciences, as well as by the uncommon regard he showed to learned men. It is universally known, that he was reported to be the author of Terence's comedies, the most polite and elegant writings which the Romans could boast. We are told of Scipio,f that no man could blend more happily repose and action, nor employ his leisure hours with greater delicacy and taste : thus was he divided between arms and books, between the military labours of the camp, and the peaceful employment of the cabinet ; in which he either exercised his body in toils of war, or his mind in the study of the sciences. By this he showed, that nothing does greater honour to a person of distinction, of what quality or profession soever he be, than the adorning his mind with knowledge. Cicero, speaking of Scipio, says that he always had Xenophon's works in his hands, which are so famous for the solid and excellent instructions they contain, both in regard to war and policy.
He owed this exquisite taste for polite learning and the sciences, to the excellent education which Paulus Æmilius bestowed on his children. He had put them under the ablest masters in every art ; and did not spare any expense on that occasion, though his circumstan. ces were very narrow : P. Æmilius himself was present at all their lessons, as often as the affairs of the state would permit: becoming, by this means, their chief preceptor.
* Scipio Æmilianus, vir avitis P. Africani paternisque L. Pauli virtutibus simillimus, omnibus belli ac toge dotibus, ingeniique ac studiorum eminentisismus sæculi sui, qui nihil in vitâ nisi laudandum aut fecit aut dixit aut sengit. Vel. Paterć. J. i. c 12.
| Neque enim quisquam hoc Scipione elegantiús intervalla negotiorum otio dispunxit: semperque aut belli aut pacis serviit artibus, semper inter arma ac studia versatus aut corpus periculis, aut animum disciplinis exercuit. Ibid. c. 13
* Africanus semper Socraticum Xenophontem in manibus habebat. Tusc. Quest t. ii 1. 62. DPlut. in vit. Æmil Paul. p. 258.
The intimate union between Polybius and Scipio put the finishing stroke to the exalted qualites which, by the superiority of his genius and disposition, and the excellency of his education, were already the subject of admiration.* Polybius, with a great number of Acheans, whose fidelity the Romans suspected during the war with Perseus, was detained in Rome, where his merit soon caused his com pany to be coveted by all persons of the highest quality in that city.
Scipio, when scarce eighteen, devoted himself entirely to Polybius; and considered as the greatest felicity of his life, the opportunity he had of being instructed by so great a master, whose society he preferred to all the vain and idle amusements which are generally so alluring to young persons.
Polybius's first care was to inspire Scipio with an aversion for those equally dangerous and ignominious pleasures, to which the Roman youth were so strongly addicted; the greatest part of them being already depraved and corrupted by the luxury and licentiousness which riches and new conquests had introduced in Rome. Scipio, during the first five years that he continued in so excellent a school, made the greatest improvement in it; and, despising the ridicule, as well as the pernicious examples, of persons of the same age with himself, he was looked upon, even at that time, as a „nodel of dis cretion and wisdom.
From hence, the transition was easy and natural to generosity, to a noble disregard of riches, and to a laudable use of them; all virtues so requisite in persons of illustrious birth, and which Scipio carried to the most exalted pitch, às, appears from some instances of this kind related by Polybius, which are highly worthy our admiration.
Æmilia,t wife of the first Scipio Africanus, and mother of him who had adopted the Scipio mentioned here by Polybius, had bequeathed, at her death, a great estate to the latter. This lady, besides the diamonds and jewels which are worn by women of her high rank, possessed a great number of gold and silver vessels used in sacrifices, together with several splendid equipages, and a considerable number of slaves of both sexes; the whole suited to the opulence of the august house into which she had married. At her death, Scipio made over all those rich possessions to Papiria his mother, who, having been divorced a considerable time before by Paulus Æmilius, and not being in circumstances to support the dignity of her birth, lived in great obscurity, and never appeared in the assemblies or public ceremonies. But when she again frequented them with a magnificent train, this noble generosity of Scipio did bim great honour, especially in the minds of the ladies, who expa
* Excerpt. è Polyb, p. 147-163. í She was sister of Paulus Æmilius, father of the second Scipio Africanus.