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from rank to rank like a young officer, and sustaining the most ar duous toils. The fight was very obstinate, and continued from morning till night, but at last the Carthaginians gave way: Scipio used to say afterwards, that he had been present at many battles, but at none with so much pleasure as this; having never before beheld so formidable an army engage, without any danger or trouble to himself. And being very conversant in the writings of Homer, he added, that, till his time, there were but two more who had the pleasure of being spectators of such an action, viz. Jupiter from mount Ida, and Nep. tunè from Samothrace, when the Greeks and Trojans fought before Troy. I know not whether the sight of 100,000 men for (so many there were) butchering one another, can administer a real pleasure; or whether such a pleasure is consistent with the sentiments of humanity, so natural to mankind.
The Carthaginians,* after the battle was over, entreated Scipio to terminate their contests with Masinissa. Accordingly, he heard both parties, and the Carthaginians consented to yield up the terri tory of Emporium, which had been the first cause of the dispute, to pay Masinissa 200 talents of silver down, and 800 more at such times as should be agreed. But Masinissa insisting on the return of the exiles, and the Carthaginians being unwilling to agree to this proposition, they did not come to any decision. Scipio, after having paid his compliments, and returned thanks to Masinissa, set out with the elephants for which he had been sent.
The king, † immediately after the battle was over, had blocked up the enemy's camp, which was pitched upon a hill, whither neither troops nor provisions could come to them. During this interval, there arrived deputies from Rome, with orders from the senate to decide the quarrel. in case the king should be defeated; otherwise, to eave it undetermined, and to give the king the strongest assurances of the continuation of their friendship; and they complied with the latter injunction. In the mean time, the famine daily increased in the enemy's camp; and to add to their calamity, it was followed by a plague, which made a dreadful havoc. Being now re duced to the last extremity, they surrendered to Masinissa, promising to deliver up the deserters, to pay him 5000 talents of silver in fifty years, and restore the exiles, notwithstanding their oaths to the contrary. They all submitted to the ignominious ceremony of passing under the yoke, and were dismissed, with only one suit of clothes
App. de bell. Pun. 40.
Emporium, or Emporia, was a country of Africa, on the Lesser Syrtis, in which Leptis stood. No part of the Carthaginian dominions was more fruitfu than this Polybius, l. i. says, that the revenue that arose from this place was so considerable that all their hopes were almost founded on it, èv ais (viz. their revenues from Emporria) είχον τάς μεγίστας ελμίδας. To this was owing their care and state-jealousy above mentioned, lest the Romans should sail beyond the Fair Promontory, thai lay be forr (arthage; and becoine acquainted with a country which might induce them io atteinpt the conquest of it.
t Appian. de bell. Puri. p. 40. Bills furent lous passés sous le joug Sub jugum missi ; a kind of gallows (made
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for each. Gulussa, to satiate his vengeance for the ill treatment, which, as we before observed, he had met with, sent out against them a body of cavalry, whom, from their great weakness, they could L.either escape nor resist. So that of 58,000 men, very few returned to Carthage.
The Third Punic War.
than either of the two fornier, with regard to the numAnt. J. C. 149. ber and greatness of the battles, and its continuance,
which was only four years, was still more remarkable with respect to the success and event of it, as it ended in the tota. ruin and destruction of Carthage.
The inhabitants of this city, from their last defeat, knew what they had to fear from the Romans, who had uniformly displayed great ill-will towards them, as often as they had addressed them upon their disputes with Masinissa. To prevent the consequences of it, the Carthaginians, by a decree of the senate, impeached Asdrubal, general of the army, and Carthalo, commander of the auxiliary forces,f as guilty of high treason, for being the authors of the war against the king of Numidia. They then sent a deputation to Rome to inquire what opinion that republic entertained of their late proceedings, and what was desired of them. The deputies were coldly answered, that it was the business of the senate and people of Carthage to know what satisfaction was due to the Romans. A second deputation bringing them no clearer answer, they fell into the greatest dejection; and being seized with the strongest terrors, from the recollection of their past sufferings, they fancied the enemy was already at their gates, and imagined to themselves all the dismal consequences of a long siege, and of a city taken sword in hand.
In the mean time,f the senate debated at Rome on the measures it would be proper for them to take; and the disputes between Cato the elder, and Scipio Nasica, who entertained totally different opinions on this subject, were renewed. The former, on his return from Af. rica, had declared, in the strongest terms, that he had found Carthage, not as the Romans supposed it to be, exhausted of men or money, or in a weak and humble state; but, on the contrary, that it was crowded with vigorous young men, abounded with immense quantities of gold and silver, and prodigious magazines of arms and all war-stores; and was so naughty and confident on account of this force, that their hopes and ambition had no bounds. It is farther said, that, after he had ended his speech, he threw, out of the lappet
by two forked sticks, standing upright) was erected, and a spear laid across, under which the vanquished enemies were obliged to pass. Festus.
* Appian, p. 41, 42.
! The foreign forces were commanded by leaders of their respective nations, who were all under the command of a Carthaginian officer, called by Appian Bant dep gos.
Plut. in it. Cat. p. 35
enemy and us.*
of his robe, in the midst of the senate, some African figs: and, as the senators admired their beauty, Know, says he, that it is but three days since these figs were gathered. Such is the distance between the
Cato and Nasica had each of them their reasons for voting as they did.t Nasica, observing that the people had risen to such a height of insolence as led them into excesses of every kind; that their prosperity had swelled them with a pride which the senate itself was not able to check; and that their power was become so enormous, that they were able to draw the city, by force, into every mad design they might undertake; Nasica, I say, observing this, was desirous that they should continue in fear of Carthage, in order that this might serve as a curb to restrain and check their audacious conduct. For it was his opinion, that the Carthaginians were too weak to subdue the Romans; and at the same time too strong to be considered by them in a contemptible light. With regard to Cato, he thought that as his countrymen had become haughty and insolent by success, and plunged headlong into profligacy of every kind; nothing could be more dangerous, than for them to have for a rival and an enemy, a city that till now had been powerful, but was become, even by its misfortunes, more wise and provident than ever; and not to remove the fears of the inhabitants entirely with regard to a foreign power; since they had, within their own walls, all the opportunities of indulging themselves in excesses of every kind.
To lay aside, for one instant, the laws of equity, I leave the reader to determine which of these two great men reasoned most justly, according to the maxims of sound policy, and the true interests.of a state. One undoubted circumstance is, that all the historians have observed that there was a sensible change in the conduct and government of the Romans, immediately after the ruin of Carthage :f that vice no longer made its way into Rome with a timorous pace, and as it were by stealth, but appeared barefaced, and seized, with astonishing rapidity, upon all orders of the republic: that the senators, plebians, irr a word, all conditions, abandoned themselves to luxury and voluptuousness, without moderation or sense of decency, which occasioned, as it must necessarily, the ruin of the state.
The first Scipio, says Paterculus, speaking of the Romans, had laid the foun dations of their future grandeur ; and the last, by his conquests, opened a door. to all manner of luxury and dissoluteness. For, after Car thage, which obliged Rome to stand for ever on its guard, by dis
* Plin. f. xv. c. 18.
† Plut. ibid. in vitâ Cat. | Ubi Carthago, æmula imperii Romani ab stirpe interiit, fortuna sævire ac miscere omnia cæpit. Sallust. in bell. Catilin.
Ante Carthaginem deletaın populus et senatus Romanus placidè modestèque inter se Remp. tractabant.-Metus hostilis in bonis artibus civitatem retinebat. Sed ubi formi. do illa mentibus deressil, ilicet ea, que secundæ res amant, lascivia atque superbia in
Idem in bello Jugurthino o Potentiæ Romanorum prior Scipio viam aperuerat, luxuriæ posterior aperuit. Quippe remoto Carthag nis metu, sublatâque imperii æmulâ, non gradu, sed præcipiu cursu à virtute descitum, ad vitia transcursum. Vel. Paterc. I. ii. c. 1.
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puting empire with that city, had been totally destroyed; the depravity of manners was no longer slow in its progress, but swelled at once into the utmost excess of corruption.
Be this as it may,* the senate resolved to declare war against the Carthaginians: and the reasons or pretences urged for it were, their having maintained ships contrary to the tenor of the treaty; their having sent an army ont of their territories, against a prince who was in alliance with Rome, and whose son they had treated ill, at the time that he was accompanied by a Roman ambassador.
An event,t that chance occasioned to happen very
fortunately, at the time that the senate of Rome was debating on the affair of Carthage, doubtless contributed very much to make them take that resolution. This was the arrival of deputies from Utica, who came to surrender up themselves, their effects, their lands, and their city, into the hands of the Romans. Nothing could have happened more seasonably. Utica was the second city of Africa, vastly rich, and had a port equally spacious and commodious; it stood within sixty furlongs of Carthage, so that it might serve as a place of arms in the attack of that city. The Romans now hesitated no longer, but formally proclaimed war. M. Manilius, and L. Marcius Censorinus, the two consuls, were desired to set out as soon as possible. They had secret orders from the senate, not to end the war but by the destruction of Carthage. The consuls immediately left Rome, and stopped at Lilybæum in Sicily. They had a con. siderable fleet, on board of which were 80,000 foot and about 4000 horse.
The Carthaginians were not yet acquainted with the resolutions which had been taken at Rome. The answer brought back by their deputies, had only increased their fears, viz. It was the business of the Carthaginians to consider what satisfaction was due to them. This made them not know what course to take. At last they sent new deputies, whom they invested with full powers to act as they should see fitting; and even (what the former wars could never make them stoop to) to declare, that the Carthaginians gave up themselves, and all they possessed, to the will and pleasure of the Romans. This, according to the import of the clause, se suaque eoram arbitrio permittere, was submitting themselves, without reserve, to the power of the Romans, and acknowledging themselves their vassals. Nevertheless, they did not expect any great success from this condescension, though so very mortifying ; because, as the Uticans had been beforehand with them on that occasion, that circumstance had deprived them of the merit of a ready and voluntary submission.
The deputies, on their arrival at Rome, were informed that war had been proclaimed, and that the army was set out. The Romans had despatched a courier to Carthage, with the decree of the senate; and to inform that city that the Roman fleet had sailed. The
* App p. 42.
| Polyb. excerpt. legat. p. 972
To the Romaus
deputies had therefore no time for deliberation, but uelivered up themselves, and all they possessed, to the Romans. In consequence of this behaviour, they were answered, that since they had at last taken a right step, the Senate granted them their liberty, the enjoyment of their laws, and all their territories, and other possessions, whether public or private, provided that, within the space of thirty days, they should send as hóstages, to Lilybæum, 300 young
Cartha ginians of the first distinction, and comply with the orders of the consuls. This last condition filled them with inexpressible anxiety; but the concern they were under would not allow them to make the least reply, or to demand an explanation ; nor indeed would it have been to any purpose. They therefore set out for Carthage, and there gave an account of their embassy.
All the articles of the treaty were extremely severe with regara to the Carthaginians;* but the silence of the Romans, with respect to the cities of which no notice was taken in the concessions which that people was willing to make, perplexed them exceedingly. But all they had to do was to obey. After the many former and recent losses which the Carthaginians had sustained, they were by no means in a condition to resist such an enemy, since they had not been able to oppose Masinissa. Troops, provisions, ships, allies, in a word, every thing was wanting, and hope and vigour more than ail the rest.
They did not think it proper to wait till the thirty days, which had been allowed them, were expired, but immediately sent their hostages, in hopes of softening the enemy by the readiness of their obedience, though they dared not flatter themselves with the expectation of meeting with favour on this occasion. These hostages were the flower, and the only hopes of the noblest families of Carthage. Never was any spectacle more moving ; nothing was now heard but cries, nothing seen but tears, and all places echoed with groans and lamentations. But above all, the disconsolate mothers, bathed in tears, tore their dishevelled hair, beat their breasts, and, as if grief and despair had distracted them, they yelled in such a manner as might have moved the most savage breasts to compassion. But the scene was much more mournful, when the fatal moment of their separation was come; when, after having accompanied their dear children to the ship, they bid them a long last farewell, persuaded that they should never see them more: bathed them with their tears, embraced them with the utmost fondness ; clasped them eagerly in their arms; could not be prevailed upon to part with them till they were forced away, which was more grievous and afflicting than if thei irts had been torn out of their easts. The hostages being arrived in Sicily, were carried from thence to Rome; and the consuls told the deputies, that when they should arrive at Utica, they would acquaint them with the orders of the republic.
Polyb. excerpt. legat. p. 972