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Exploratious and Adventures in Equatorial Africa, by Paul B. Dc Chaillu. (Published by Harper and Brothers.) Some months since we gave, in advance of its publication, a full analysis of this remarkable book. It has since been republished in England, where it has been subjected to the ordeal of the most searching criticism. Some obscurity in dates, arising from a desire to present the different journevs in a geographical connection rather than in strict chronological order, was made the pretext for throwing doubt upon the credibility of Mr. Du Chaillu's narrative. It was fortunate for the author that the collections of animals and implements which he brought with him furnished substantive proofs of the most incredible of his statements. One might have doubted his account of the gorilla were it not for the skins and skeletons contained in his collection. His account of the strange kind of semi-civilization existing among the interior tribes, who have never seen a white man, is corroborated by the numerous implements and manufactures which are wholly unlike any thing ever before brought before the civilized world. Professor Owen, the most eminent zoologist of the day, says that Mr. Du Chaillu has furnished "the amplest, rarest, and most interesting illustrations of the lower creatures that have ever reached Europe." His geographical theory of the existence of a chain of lofty mountains stretching across the continent from east to west, almost on the line of the equator, put forth against the express opinion of Barth, and the implied doubts of Livingstone, is confirmed by every traveler who has penetrated at all into that unknown belt of Africa. Captain Burton, whese exploratious come nearer to those of Du Chaillu than these of any other traveler, gives assurance of his full belief in the accuracy of Mr. Du Chaillu's accounts of the country and its inhabitants. The many hundreds of persons who became personally acquainted with him during the many months of his residence in this country while preparing his book, will need no guarantee for its truthfulness. They were sure, from the first, that it must be received as by far the most interesting as well as the most valuable of recent books of travel and adventure. It throws light upon a hitherto unknown part of that great continent which every thing goes to show will soon come to take a prominent place in the regard of the civilized world.

Framley Parsonage; a Novel, by Anthonv TrolLope. Mr. Trollope has within a few years, by a rapid succession of clever novels, won a place among the foremost of the younger writers of fiction. As a simple story-teller he fairly rivals Wilkie Collins. His characters are hearty rlesh-and-blood beings, such as one is quite sure are to be found in every town in England; they live, move, and talk in accordance with their nature. They go through no adventures which might not reasonably be expected would happen to them. "Framley Parsonage," which for many months formed the main attraction of the Cornhill Magazine, fairly eclipsing Mr. Thackeray's u Lovel the Widower," which appeared simultaneously with it, loses nothing by its publication in a collected form. The readers of "Doctor Therne," the best of Mr. Trollope's previous novels, will be pleased to meet with some of their old acquaintances. We have glimpses of Frank Gresham and Mary, of the Duke of Omnium, Lady Scatcherd, and of good Doctor Therne himself; and a full view of

queer, downright, sharp-sighted, clever Miss Dunstable, the millionaire proprietress of the Balm of Lebanon—one of the most thoroughly original characters of modern fiction. Taken altogether, '' Framley Parsonage" is one of the very best of the novels of a period which has produced "The Woman in White," "Adam Bede," "Silas Marner,"and "Great Expectations." (Published by Harper and Brothers.)

Military Dictionary. By Colonel H. L. Scott, Inspector-General U. S. A. (Published by D. Van Nostrand.) This is an Encyclopaedia rather than a Dictionary of Military Science; for while mere technical terms are defined as briefly as possible, all leading topics relating to the raising and maintenance of troops, materials and munitions of war, military law and administration, are treated inelaborate and exhaustive articles. Thus, from ten to twentv pages each are devoted to "Small-arms," "Artillery," "Booty," "Bridges," "Cooking," "Execution of the Laws" by military officers, " Injuries" inflicted by them, and the mode of redress. The article on "Rifled Ordnance" is especially valuable, containing illustrated descriptions of the Lancaster, Whitworth, and Armstrong guns, Columbiads, James's projectiles. The description of the United States rifled musket is illustrated with more than one hundred diagrams, representing in detail every part of the gun and its appendages, with minute directions for cleaning, repairing, and keeping it in order. The article on " Cooking" embodies specific directions for preparing every article of food adapted for the army. The various articles on military law and its relations to the civil power are of the highest value both to soldiers and civilians. While the plan of the work embraces every topic pertaining to military science, the position and acquirements of the author furnish abundant guarantees for its accuracy and reliability. The work has not been hastily compiled to meet a temporary emergency; but has been the labor of years. It should be made a text-book for the study of every volunteer officer. Any one of competent natural capacity who, in addition to the ordinary drill duties has mastered the contents of this work, ought to be able to take command of a company in camp or field.

Primary Object Lessous: a Manual for Teachers and Parents, by N. A. Calkins. The fundamental idea of this work is that primary education should aim to develop the observing powers, rather than, as is the usual plan, to exercise the memory. For this purpose a series of interesting exercises has been framed to develop the ideas of form, color, number, size, weight, sound, and place. The idea of the work is an admirable one; and no parent or teacher who will master its plan can fail to appreciate the advantages which it offers. (Harper and Brothers.)

The Fifth Reader of the School and Family Series, by Makcids Willson, develops still further the admirable idea upon which the series is based—that of combining useful knowledge with instruction in reading. This volume contains carefully prepared introductions to the study of Botany, Chemistry, several departments of Zoology, Human Physiology, Arehitecture, Natural Philosophy, Physical Geography, and Geology. Each of these departments of knowledge possesses a literature of its own, some of the cheicest specimeus of which are given as illustrations in connection with more formal lessous. Thus Holmes's " Living Temple" appears in the section on Physiology; Mrs. Sigoumey's '' Coral Insect" and Bryant's "Prairies" in Physical Geography; Longfellow's " Sea-Weed" in Botany. This arrangement can not fail to impress upon the mind of the learner the cardinal principle that in the department of imaginative literature, as every where else, truth to nature and fact is an essential element of beauty. Mr. Willsou modestly calls his scientific sections "Introductions." They are more than this: they are so far complete treatises that the more advanced pupil, who has repeatedly gone over them merely as ordinary exercises in reading, will have almost insensibly acquired an amount of information greater than that possessed by most well-educated people. The illustrations to this volume are excellent. Those in the different departments of Zoology are equal to any thing to be found in the best foreign scientific works; and those in each division being drawn to a uniform scale, the pupil sees at a glance not only the form, but the relative size of the animals represented. In respect to excellence of plan, completeness of execution, and beauty of appearance, this series of Readers is far in advance of any thing which has ever before been attempted in this department of school books. (Published by Harper and Brothers.)

Vetromile WewessiUbibian: elifbiklang'sa K'trhiuldmeuhdnganal—("Of Vetromile's Noble Bible: Such as happened Great-Truths"). This volume, published by Rennie, Shea, and Lindsay, at Manhattan Uden'ek (" New York Village"), is prepared by "eugene Vetromile, Indian Patriarch, Corresponding Member of the Maine Historical Society, etc." {Alnambag Patlias, Maine Haunekanadzemuhdngdn Ketchi-awikhighe), for the benefit of the Penobscot, Micmac, and other tribes of the Abenaki Indians. It contains a summary of Biblical History and Catholic doctrine in the Penobscot and Micmac dialects, with a literal English translation. In a few years this book will be a curiosity in literature, as a memorial of a language no longer spoken or understood. We give the Lord's Prayer in both dialects. In Penobscot it reads: "Tani edutchi aiamihan, k'ditamen. K'mitankusena, Spomkik eyane, weweselmogwodetch eliwizyane, ketepeltemwangan petzussewitch; keteleltamwangan uli kiktangwadetch tali kik tahanlaho te Spomkik. Manmiline nikwamb' bemghiskak et&skiskwo n'tapan'mena; te anehcltamiwine nepalalokkewangaunawal, tanhanlawi nyona eli aneheltamahukt ewaupalellokedjik; te ekkwi elossaline unemihotwanganek, wetchi kighehieku taunil mematchikkil. Nialetch." In the Micmac it reads: "Elajudmayogwel n'didochep, Nuschinen wajok ebin, tchiptook delwigin meguidfcdemek, wajok n'telidanen tchiptook ignemwick, ula nemulek uledechinen; natel wajok deli ch&edulk, tchiptook deli chtedulek makamiguek eimek. Delamukubeniguel echemieguel, apch neguech kichkook delamuktech peneguunemwin nilunen; deli abikehikta&achik wegaiwinametnik, elpkil deli abikchiktwin elwbultiek; melkenin mech winnchudil mu k'tygalinen, keginukamkel winnchigwel twaktwin. N'delietch." The literal English rendering is as follows: "When you pray, say, Our Father, who are seated in heaven; that your name be respected; grant to us to see you in heaven; as they obey you in heaven, so may we obey you upon the earth, where we are. In the same manner that you have given it to us, so also at present give to us our nourishment; as we forgive them who have offended us, in the same manner you forgive us our faults.

Hold us strongly by the hand, that we may not fall; remove from us sufferings, evils. May it be so."

Harper and Brothers have recently added to their collection of Greek and Latin Texts Ciesar, Cicero de Senectute, and Lucretius, put forth with the same accuracy and neatness which characterize the former volumes of the series. Farraday's Chemical History of a Candle, a series of lectures delivered before a juvenile auditory, is a perfect model of what a popular lecture on a scientific subject should be. The phenomena presented in the manufacture and combustion of a candle are presented in such a form as to be comprehensible by any intelligent youth; yet there is not a law under which any part of the physical universe is governed which does not come fairly into play, and may not be illustrated in a lecture on

a candle—provided that the lecturer is Farraday.

The History of Margaret of Anjou is another of the admirable series of biographies produced by Jacob Abbott. The lives of few historical women present so many remarkable personal and political vicissitudes as that of the Queen of the feeble Henry VI. of England, whose career is well worthy of narration in a separate form.

Great Expectations, by Charles Dickens. In this novel Mr. Dickens has put forth his full strength. The conduct of the story is indeed something wonderful. Written to be read in parts issued from week to week, it was essential that the reader should not be able to anticipate the course of the story, while it was equally essential that when subsequently reviewed it should appear consistent. These two conditions have been perfectly attained. Each part of the story involves a surprise; yet the reader feels that he ought not to have been surprised. He sees that every leading incident was clearly foreshadowed long before. Thus, when it is finally revealed who Pip's benefactor really was, we wonder that we should ever have been mistaken in the person. "Great Expectations" adds some absolutely new characters to our literature. Joe Gargery, a rough blacksmith, with the chivalric soul of Sir Philip Sidney; Pumblechook, whose name, like that of Pecksniff, has already given us an adjective descriptive of a special phase of meanness; Jaggers, the great criminal lawyer, and Wemmick his clerk, officially as hard and unsympathetic as the ice which girdles a continent, privately as gentle as the waves which ripple over a pebbly beach; and, above all, Abel Magwitch, criminal by birth, outlaw by training, desperado by circumstances, yet having within him such untold capacities of love and devotion: this one character is worth all the "Prisoners' relief" reports ever published. "Great Expectations" will take place if not as absolutely the best, yet certainly as one of the three best, of the long series of works with which Mr. Dickens has enriched the world. (T. B. Peterson and Brothers.)

Carthage and her Remains, by Dr. N. Davis, F.R.G.S. This elaborately illustrated work, the result of an exploration undertaken under the sanction of the British Government, embodies all that can now be known of the site of the ancient rival of Rome. Its value is not inferior to Mr. Layard's works upon Nineveh and Babylon, while the incidental pictures of life and manners among the people who now occupy the region once inhabited by the countrymen of Hannibal are graphic and lively. The work fills a place heretofore wholly unoccupied, and presents many points of special interest to the student of history. (Harper and Brothers, Publishers.)

THE PEN AND THE SWORD.—We are all taught to hold the pen, and the man who can not write his name is hardly ranked among civilized persons. Yet the time was when it was thought of far more importance to know how to wield the sword; and many a renowned soldier upon whom high-born dames smiled and haughty princes waited, could not, to save his life, sign his name to the treaty which his valor had won. We wonder and laugh at such ignorance or stupidity, and boast that the age of the pen has put to flight the age of the sword, and the empire of ideas has succeeded the dominion of blows.

If any people have occasion for boasting what the pen can do, it is we, the people of these United States, this universally reading and writing nation, in this age of unstinted paper and print. The pen is mighty among us pre-eminently—not because we make better books than other nations, but because we make so many, and for so many eyes. Perhaps the very highest style of composition, whether in prose or verse, can not be claimed for our authors; and certainly no American in his senses will claim that our books are altogether better than the French or the English. Yet we do say that more power is wielded here by the pen than any where else. In the first place, it is undeniable that more of our people are readers than of any people on the globe, and that we have no class or caste of free inhabitants who do not read and write. In the second place, nowhere in the world does such universal and intense interest attach to what is written as with us; for here we are all voters, and called constantly to investigate the political questions and candidates presented to our judgment through the press. In the third place, the range of interests subjected to our decision is greater than any where else; and while a portion of other constitutional nations vote upon certain measures and men, all national and local affairs are laid before the people here, and the farmer or mechanic is obliged to have something like an intelligent opinion upon the merits of all candidates, whether for President or for tax-collector, and upon all questions, from the tariff to street-cleaning.

It is our press—especially our newspaper press— that enthrones the pen in America, and clothes it with such favor and such fear. The newspaper is every where; for every considerable village has its little sheet for local news and business, while the great journals of the cities, either in their weekly or their daily issues, circulate through the length and breadth of the land. The newspaper transacts our commercial, political, and no small portion of our religious business. The humblest reader is sure to find notice of the persons and enterprises of a public nature that are most interesting to him, while all men of any note are well aware that if the press has not made their reputation, it has done much to extend it, and may do much to destroy it. In fact, no class of men have by their position so much influence as editors; and as our poor human nature is never slow to discover its own consequence, it is not strange that the lords of the quill have found out their importance, and sometimes pervert it by illnature and dishonesty and exaggerate it in conceit Perhaps, however, the abuse is in the inverse ratio of the actual power: for as far as our observation goes, we have never seen so much spite and recklessness in the great metropolitan organs as in the petty village oracles; and probably the reason is

that the great newspapers have fair game enough constantly before their eyes, while the village pen is obliged to make game of some unoffending person or party to keep its ink flowing and its readers awake. Every where, however, our press has full enough license, and woe to the man of sensitive nerves who falls under its displeasure. In some cases it is a fearful tyranny, and some of our leading journals show a spirit of dictation and denunciation that would be appalling were it not so much qualified by rival sheets that often defend the victim of obloquy, not so much to secure his rights as to wreak their own vengeance and fight their own battles.

The pen, in great emergencies, assumes the office of dictator to the people and the Government, and we have had lately grave and sad reason to fear that the press has forced our army into hasty and rash movements, and the pen insists upon being master of the sword. We are waiting somewhat anxiously the issue of the claim, convinced that we are near great events, and that evil days must come unless we have wise and strong men for our rulers, who can do their work and hold their tongues without asking leave of the knights of the quill what orders they shall issue or what blows they shall strike, Tho men who have done great things with the sword have not generally been great talkers, and we are soon to know whether our soldiers are to be ruled by men of deeds or of words. The war would be a small affair if the Government would only be as wise as the dauntless editor who never wielded a stouter weapon than his steel pen, and who plans the campaign with all the more certainty because not hampered by any knowledge of the subject, and therefore able to project movements into the enemy's territory as easily as he moves his impatient pen over the unresisting paper. What a great nation we might have been if our generals were only as wise and heroic as our journalists!

Convinced as we are that the insolence of onr men of words is to be mightily and wholesomely checked by the solid logic of deeds, and that public opinion is already beginning to pass very sober judgment upon the conceited writers and talkers who have been so much more successful in getting us into difficulty than in extricating us, we are moved to consider with some seriousness the relation between the pen and the sword in this country, and especially the need of bringing a powerful class of practical men to bear upon our current declaimers, and give us the solid generalship of the camp instead of the dashing generalities of the newspaper.

We must not indeed forget that the pen has already one important check upon its license which is not wholly evil: we mean the business interest, or what may properly be called tho parte. Money is not our God, yet we can not call it the devil; and we have no scruples to keep us from saying that the prosperity of business is often a very wholesome restraint upon the rashness of demagogues and the vagaries of theorists. Sometimes, indeed, wo must be ready to sacrifice wealth to principle; but it is no proof of the excellence of a scheme that it is likely to ruin the people; and it is well that our newspapers are kept from playing into the hands of destructives by the power of our substantial business interests. The money article is generally pretty judiciously written, and although not always free from fancy, it is never allowed wholly to part company with common sense. An independent editor may indeed make war upon some chartered monopoly, and read severe lectures to the proud lords of the exchange; but he can never assail the industry of the people, or strike at the foundations of capital, which is so closely the friend of labor, without finding speedy rebuke in the wrath of public opinion and the cutting off of his own supplies. The pen must be fed, and he who writes must have readers who will pay for the writing. We believe that the close connection of journalism with the business of the country has tended to give it good sense; and if some editors bow the knee too devoutly to Mammon, we do not think that our press, on the whole, can be justly accused of servility to the moneyed class. The pen need not play the libertine to prove its freedom; and we certainly look upon the press with far more respect from its being so much in the interest of popular industry, and being obliged to test every opinion and policy by its direct bearing upon the wealth of the nation.

Money to a certain extent, indeed, may be made by writing to the passions and vices of the baser sort of readers, yet it is found that what is decidedly evil does not pay; and although the law of the purse is not the best kind of censorship, it is a censorship, and the lowest class of journals die out quite as much by starvation as by prosecution. Whenever a thing does not pay, it is sure to die; and while some things do not pay because they are above the beads or hearts of the majority, most of the books and journals that die for want of support owe their demise more to the folly or dullness of the writers than to the prejudice or blindness of readers. The pen generally pleads its own case against the purse, and tells a doleful story of selfish publishers and the capricious public, who bear the purse; but the purse, in the grave silence of its closed mouth, carries a weighty meaning, and could evidently speak for itself most emphatically, if it only had motive enough to open its lips. Genius, indeed, will force open its lips; and any writer who can charm the public by his pathos or humor, or command them by his wisdom or eloquence, is sure of a golden harvest; but such genius is very rare, and it must be confessed that the greater number of writers feel somewhat bitterly the restrictions of the purse, and great as may be the number of books that are proscribed because offensive to the ruling powers, the number is far greater of those that never see the light because of not sufficient interest to find a publisher.

We have been somewhat accustomed to this strain of thought, and it has been one of the standing complaints of writers with us, as every where, that they are poorly paid, and sadly compelled to wait upon the humors of patrons. But in our day and country the pen has not yet been seriously called to measure its strength with the sword, and the present crisis is important as opening the lists for the encounter. We have been led for years by politicians and editors, and the nation has looked to newspaper articles and reports of speeches for political knowledge and training. Thus parties have been formed, candidates chosen, and elections held. Indeed it seems to be supposed by many persons that the talking and writing faculty is the sovereign power; and the glib speaker or writer, if he contrives not to run his head against the solid business interests of the country, is sure to carry the day against all opponents. We read, indeed, of a censorship of the press in the Old World; but mourn and marvel at the cowardice of the people that allows its journals to be overawed by the police, and rejoice that America has no Louis

Napoleon to silence the whole host of editors by his word. We do not look for any such dictatorship here, but we are convinced that public opinion with us is soon to undergo a great revolution in its estimate of its usual organs and leaders. We are to revise our free-and-easy methods of talking and writing, and see as never before the difference between doing things on paper and doing them in solid fact, or between the heroism that brandishes the pen and that which wields the sword.

We believe that we have made and are making very serious mistakes in our estimate of the human faculties, from the predominance of the talking and writing gifts and habits over active courage and energy. We have estimated ourselves more by our opinions and fancies than by our powers and deeds. We have had great success in business, and the population and wealth of the nation have been marvelously increased, and given us roseate visions of the future. We ore tempted to write and speak as if we had done these great things by our self-sacrifice and daring; and often the very men who have floated upon the tide of prosperity are led to believe that they control its stream, and to talk of things to come as in like manner subject to their word. The mistake, enormous as it often is, may be readily accounted for, and comes from the very nature of the human faculties. We are apt to confound literary ability with practical force, by overlooking the difference between the taste and intellect that criticise affairs and men, and the courage and force that actually command them. We forget that the mind, like the body, has two sets of nerves—the one sensitive, the other muscular—and sometimes the sensitive and perceptive intellect may be highly cultivated while the muscular will is neglected. This distinction may be obviously illustrated by comparing the very looks and habits of a sedentary author with an active worker; or, if you please, compare the writer with the soldier. Certainly no muscular force is needed to hold the pen, and he is the readiest writer who is most susceptible to impressions, and best able, by his quick perception, to give most readily his views of what he sees and hears. His temperament and constitution, like his pages, are apt to smell of the lamp, and the pale cast of thought is likely to be upon mind and body alike. He becomes sometimes little more than a susceptible medium through which impressions and ideas flow, with about as little modification from his personal will as the ink undergoes in flowing from his pen to the paper. Now, take such a man and put him through the drill with sword or musket, and straightway what a new set of faculties come into play as he grasps the solid weapon with his earnest hand, and drops the pen from his tremulous fingers! He finds out now not only that he has muscles as well as nerves, but that he has a kind of mental muscle that he before knew little of; and that, with the flow of animal spirits toward the hand, there goes forth also a force of will, an energy of mind, very different from the sensitive delicacy that had before seemed to him the most desirable quality and the truest mark of culture. He looks upon the complexions and studies the habits of his new companions of the camp, and he is sure to find some most wholesome points of superiority in the men of the sword over the usual type of the men of the pen. He sees that they are not only more robust, but more elastic and energetic; and that, while he may be more marked by nervous delicacy, they abound more in nervous foree—or, in other words, that if life centrestinost within him in the organs of sensation and perception, it centres in them most in the nerves of volition and activity. With him the tide mainly sets in from nature to the brain, while with them it sets in rather from the brain to nature; and the hand not so much is trained to record impressions as to make them, by bringing the stout will directly to bear upon the solid world.

There is indeed a courage of the pen as well as of the sword, and some men there are, like Luther, whose words are battles; but such men have had more than a merely literary schooling, and have learned heroism amidst the storms of revolution and the perils of the camp and the court. It may be said of writers as a class that they are lacking in active force and commanding will, and that their ideas are likely to be partial or erroneous from being busied more with the speculative than the actual side of life, and from recording rather the impressions which they have received from life by their quick perception than the impressions which they have made by their strong hand. We have suffered much from being under such imperfect counselors, and the whole country, so often and so greatly deceived by fluent and presuming paragraphists, is crying out for a more reliable class of guides. The men who are now answering the call are not those who have been most frequently heard of at our caucuses and in our newspapers. We are sick of talking oracles, and we want practical oracles who shall tell us what to do and help us to do it, instead of showing us how to think and feel and dream. We have certainly been sadly deceived by the most conspicuous pens of the country; and they who are too honest to vent falsehoods have not been so wise as to see actual dangers aud point out the solemn truth. We confess to a feeling of disappointment at the whole body of popular talkers and writers; and what we want more than any thing now is not men of words but of deeds. It has been hard to keep the talking mania from intruding itself into the ficld where deeper thunder ought to be heard; and we own to having some feelings not wholly of chagrin on learning that a check had been put upon newspaper gossip, and the telegraph was not to be permitted to blab the secrets or supposed secrets of the war to the curious world of readers.

It is evident that a certain style of mind belongs to the sword which is needed to check the sensitiveness and speculativeness of the pen. Our writers need to have their ideas turn more on the practical point which the soldier is bound to see, and upon the practical energy which he is trained to seek. The military mind is thus a necessary balance and finish to the literary mind; and the true virtue is lacking to us until we learn to dare and do as well as to criticise and scheme. True indeed that the sword is not the only implement of force, and men may be brave with the axe and plow and helm. It is none the less true, however, that all great strifes must be tested at last by war, and nothing so brings out courage and energy as the battle-fleld and its discipline. Its foree has, indeed, been called material and without spiritual ideas and inspiration, and it has been a standing argument for the pen against the sword that the former deals with things spiritual, the latter with things material. Channing has virtually taken this view in his famous article on Napoleon; but we do not think his position wholly sound, however justifiable in his strictures upon the great Corsican. The sword, like the pen, carries with it whatever is in the man who

wields it; and a battle, like a book, has most of its character from the spirit of the man who makes it. Napoleon himself wrote out the ideas of his time with the point of his sword, and the new age for France was spoken out more mightily at Marengo and Austerlitz than in the Parliaments of France or Institutes of Paris. To say nothing of the opinions which move great generals to their career, and are defended by their arms, we must remember that there is one kind of inspiration in which the great soldier abounds, and which is generally left out of sight by our superficial metaphysicians. The will has its afflatus as well as the intellect, and brave battle is as much an inspiration as is a true poem. Holy writ is full of illustrations of this fact, and the valor of David and his brother champions of the faith and empire was as impassioned and inspired as his Psalms. Even the great muscular hero, Samson, was inwardly moved, and was comparatively feeble when the afflatus was not upon him. But we need not recur to ancient precedent or sacred records to prove what we all ought to know, that courage is as much under inspiration as intellect or imagination, and a brave soldier is as mysteriously moved from within as a great poet. Our modes of education will be wiser when we learn this truth, and give the active will something of the same life and fire which we now claim for the reason and the fancy. What is this but saying that we want more spirit in our deeds, and that we suffer much because we have allowed our spirit to strike to the brain and nerves in mere talk or meditation, and have not trained it to flow forth in earnest action? We are all feeling this difference now; and, weary of the vain excitement in which we have been so long kept by the fevered press of the country, we are asking for a more wholesome stimulus, and looking for more practical and strengthening leaders.

It may, indeed, be said that, as the highest power is in the mind, and the world is ruled by thought, we are to look to the literary class for the governing force, and that an editor or orator may show the highest active qualities by his pen or voice. We allow that there is a virtue of the pen and the voice, and that the best eloquence has a heroic quality in its fire. But it is such mainly when it is militant in its tone, and thus borrows the very function of the sword, and not dwelling merely with ideas or sentiments, deals directly with man and nature, and strikes blows as in actual battle. In fact, the great orator is half a soldier, and needs only physical hardihood to enable him to marshal men as he marshals principles, characters, and arguments into the field; and it is not a casual coincidence that a Julios Csesar was as strong in the field as in the Senate, and that Napoleon could write sentences that were as heroic as his sword. The training of the practical orator, as distinguished from that of the mere rhetorician, brings him into direct contact with reality, and saves him from the mere intellectuolism and sentimentality too common with the writing and talking class. He fights not as one that beateth the air, but who knows how to hit the mark.

Here the second great distinction between the sword and the pen opens upon us. We have seen that writing is apt to quicken the taste and intellect without adding much of the force to the active powers of the will and the hand, such as the sword most calls out. We now remark that writing bears more directly upon the opinions than upon the conduct of men, and thus differs from warfare in its object, as we have heretofore seen it to differ in its

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