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the officers of the new regiments have been appointed from the regular army, and the other half from civil life Of the civilians appointed to regimental commands, "all except one are either graduates of West Point or have before served with distinction in the field; and of the lieutenant-colonels, majors, captaius, and first-lieutenants, a large proportion have been taken from the regular army and the volunteers now in service; while the second-lieutenants have been mainly created by the promotion of meritorious sergeants from the regular service." The volunteer system is commended by the Secretary; "experienced men, who have had ample opportunity to familiarize themselves with the condition of European armies, concede that in point of personnel this patriot-army is fully equal to the finest troops of the Old World." Special commendation is given to the manner in which some of the New England States have armed and equipped their quotas; this is attributed to the efficient home organization of the militia in these Slates. The deficiency in arms and munitions, arising from the bad faith of those intrusted with their guardianship, has been in a great measure overcome. "The arms and ordnance supplied from our national armories compare favorably with the very best manufactured for foreign Governments. The celebrated Enfield rifle is a simple copy of the regular arm manufactured for many years at the Springfield Armory. Arrangements have been made to rifle a large portion of the smooth-bored cannon now on hand. Arms have also been procured from private manufacturers, equal in quality and not much higher in cost than those made in the national work-shops. It is recommended that our troops be supplied from these sources, instead of making purchases abroad.—The large disaffection of army officers is referred to. "The majority of these officers solicited and obtained a military education at the hands of the Government—a mark of special favor, conferred by the laws of Congress on only one in 70,000 inhabitants. At the National Military Academy they were received and treated as the adopted children of the republic. By the peculiar relations thus established, they virtually became bound, by more than ordinary obligations of honor, to remain faithful to their flag." In view of this, it is suggested that there must be a radical defect in the system of education pursued at the Military Academy.—The appointment of a Military tribunal is urged, to have jurisdiction only in places where the functions of the Federal courts are interrupted.—The report closes with a tribute to "the veteran General-in-Chief of the Army, for the constant and self-sacrificing devotion to the public service exhibited by him in this grave crisis."
The Report of the Secretary of the Navy furnishes a complete abstract of the condition of that Department. On the 4th of March the total number of vessels of all classes was ninety, designed to carry 2415 guns; excluding those unfinished, those not worthy of repair, and those used for store-ships, the available force was 69 vessels, with 1346 guns; of these 42, with 556 guus, were in commission, the remainder being dismantled or in ordinary, nearly all of them being on foreign stations. The Home Squadron consisted of 12 vessels, with 187 guns, only 4 of which, with 25 guns, being in Northern ports. Of the 69 vessels regarded as available for service, the sloop Levant was lost in the Pacific, the steamer Fulton was seized at Peusacola, and one frigate, two sloops, and a brig were burned at Norfolk; the other vessels destroyed at this place were
considered worthless, and were not included in the list of available vessels. This left at the service of the Department 63 vessels carrying 1174 guns, all of which, with the exception of 4, with 153 guus, are or will soon be in commission. Nine steamers have been chartered, and 12 steamers and 3 sailingvessels have been purchased, making the entire naval force in commission 82 vessels, with upward of 1100 guns. The squadron on the Atlantic coast, under command of Flag-officer Stringham, consists of 22 vessels, with 290 guns and 3300 men. The squadron in the Gulf of Mexico, under command of Flag-officer Mervinc, cousists of 21 vessels, with 282 guns and 3500 men. The East India, Mediterranean, Brazil, and African squadrons, with the exception of one vessel each, have been recalled; this will add to the force for service on the Atlantic coast and in the Gulf about 200 guns and 2500 men.—Since the 4th of March 259 naval officers have either resigned or been dismissed from service. But while so many officers have proved unfaithful, the crews have throughout proved faithful.—Besides the vessels purchased, the Department has contracted for building 23 steam gun-boats of about 500 tons burden, and has made preliminary arrangements for several larger and fleeter vessels; the work on the eight vessels ordered to be built at the lost Session is now vigorously prosccut-d.—The appropriatious for the Navy Department, asked by the Secretary, amount to $30,609,000.
On the 9th of June General Butler sent a strong detachment from Hampton and Newport News to attack two Confederate posts at Little and Big B"thel, about eight miles distant. The regiments were to unite at a point about a mile and a half from Little Bethel. Colonel Bendix's New York regiment had reached the spot, and Colonel Towusend's Albany regiment were coming up just at daybreak, when they were mistaken for enemies and fired upon by Bendix's regiment. The error having been discovered a junction was effected, and the troops, commanded by General Pieree of Massachusetts, advanced upon Little Bethel, which was abandoned at their approach. They then marched toward Big Bethel. They encountered a masked battery, of which they had no knowledge. They attempted to take this without success, and after fighting an hour and a half retreated. The loss in this affair was 16 killed and 57 wounded. Among the killed were Captain Greblo of the regular army, and Mr. Theodore Winthrop, one of the aids of General Butler. Of the 73 casualties in this action, 21 occurred by the firing upon each other of the New York regiments.——On the 17th General Schenck, with tho First Regiment of Ohio Volunteers, left the camp at Alexandria, to make a reconnoissance along the Alexandria and Hampshire Railroad. Guards were placed at various points, taking off a great part of the force. Near Vienna the road, after passing a deep cut, makes a sharp curve. This point was commanded by a battery hastily erected by the Confederate troops, of the existence of which General Schenck was ignorant. As the cars containing the remaining Ohio companies approached the spot a fire was opened upon them, killing about 12 men. The troops retired, carrying their wounded with them.
Harper's Ferry was abandoned on the 15 th of
June by the Confederate troops, commanded by General Johnson. The public works were burned and the railroad bridges partially destroyed. The garrison, numbering about 12,000, retired upon Martinsburg. The Savannxh, of Charleston, the first privateer liceused by the Confederate Government, has been captured by the United States brig Perry. She was provided with a crew of twenty men. Two days before her capture she had fallen in with the brig Joseph, of Rockland, Maine, from Cuba, loaded with sugar. The prize was taken to Georgetown, South Carolina, in charge of eight of the crew of the Savannah. The privateer mistook the Perry for a merchantman, and advancing to seize her fell an easy prey. Her crew were sent to New York, to be tried for
piracy. Several engagements, attended with no
important results, have taken place between the Government vessels in the Potomac and the Confederate batteries at various points on the shore. On the 27th of June Captain Ward, of the Freeborn, with his own vessel, the Pawnee, and the Resolute, left Washington, intending to erect a battery at Mathias Point. Thirty or forty men were landed for this purpose, when they were attacked by a large foree, whe had been concealed in the adjacent woods. The men returned to the boats, which lay near the shore, to protect them. Captain Ward was struck by a musket ball, and mortally wounded. Several skirmishes between outposts and advanced corps have taken place, but no action of decisive importance has occurred.
Our Record closes on the 7th of July. There is every prospect that decisive action will be had before this number of the Magazine reaches its readers. On the 2d of July General Patterson's corps crossed the Potomac into Virginia above Harper's Ferry, and advanced upon Martinsburg, which was occupied on the 3d, the Confederate troops after some skirmishing, falling back.—On the 7th of July large bodies of troops were sent from Washington across the Potomac.—John C. Fremont has been appointed Major-General, and placed in command of the Military Department of the West, embracing Illinois and the States and Territories west of the Mississippi, to the Rocky Mountains.
In Maryland the election for members of Congress took place on the 13th of June. The Union candidates were elected in all except the Baltimore district, where H. Winter Davis was defeated by Henry May, whose position is not clearly defined. He, however, received the secession vote. In Baltimore the feeling in favor of secession is very strong, and is apparently held in check only by the presence of the United States forces. General Nathaniel P. Banks, formerly Speaker of the House of Representatives, and more recently Governor of Massachusetts, has been placed in command of the Military Department of Annapolis, in which Baltimore is included. On the 27th of Juno he arrested George P. Kane, Chief of the Police, and superseded the authority of the Police Commissioners, appointing Colonel Kenly, of the Maryland Volunteers, Provost Marshal of the city. In a proclamation giving his reasons for this measure, General Banks says that it was not his purpose to interfere with the legitimate government of the people of Baltimore, or of Maryland; but there existed unlawful combinations for resistance to the laws, and providing hidden depots of arms and ammunition to be used agaiust the Government. The Chief of Police was not only aware of these facts, but was proved to be a protector of the parties engaged therein; the Government could only regard him as the head of an armed foree hestile to its authority, and acting in concert with its avowed enemies. Whenever a loyal citizen should be named as head of the police, the military would render him instant and willing obedience. A
large amount of arms and ammunition was found concealed in the office of the Chief of Police. The Police Commissioners and the Mayor protested against the action of General Banks, and said that while they yielded to the force of circumstances, and would do nothing to obstruct the execution of such measures as the military commander might take for the preservation of the peace of the city, they could not recognize the right of the police force, as such, to receive orders from any other authority than the Board; and that the foreible suspeusion of their functions suspended the operation of the police law, and put the men off duty for the present. Nearly all the policemen resigned, and General Banks directed the Provost Marshal to fill their places with others. The suspended Commissioners continued to hold their sessions, refusing to recognize the officers and men appointed by the Provost Marshal. General Banks thereupon, on the 1st of July, in pursuance of orders from Washington, arrested the members of the Board, with the exception of the Mayor, and placed a body of troops within the city.—The Legislature of Maryland adopted measures tending if possible to unite that State with the Southern Confederacy. Among these was a resolution declaring that the debt now being incurred by the General Government in prosecuting the war is unconstitutional, and of no binding force upon the States which do not consent thereto, and that Maryland will not hold itself bound for any portion of its payment.
In Kentucky the special election for Members of Congress resulted in the choice of nine Union Representatives and one "States Rights" man, Mr. Burnett, who was re-elected by a reduced majority. The majorities were very large, amounting in the aggregate to nearly 60,000. Among the representatives chosen is Hon. John J. Crittenden, late Senator in Congress.
The Virginia Union Convention re-assembled at Wheeling on the 12th of June. Arthur J. Boreman was chosen permanent Chairman. About one-third of the counties of the State were represented. A resolution proposing a separation of Virginia, the counties represented iu the Convention to be organized into a new State, was, after considerable debate, rejected by a vote of 57 to 17. On the 19th a Declaration and Ordinance for reorganizing the Government of the State was passed. The Declaration says that the Coustitution gave the General Assembly no power to call a Convention witheut the express consent of a majority of the people; that the calling of the Richmond Convention was a usurpation; and that the Convention also abused the powers nominally intrusted to it by requiring the people of Virginia to separate from and wage war agaiust the Government of the United States, trausferring the allegiance of the people to an illegal Confederacy of rebellious States, and placing the military force of the Commonwealth under the control of this Confederacy, and bringing the allegiance of the people to the United States into conflict with their subordinate allegiance to the State, thereby making obedience to their ordinance treason agaiust the United States. The delegates therefore declare that the preservation of the rights and liberties of tho people of Virginia "demand the reorganization of the Government of the Commonwealth, and that all acts of said Convention and Executive, tending to separate this Commonwealth from the United States, or to levy and carry on war against them, are without authority and void, and the offices of all whe adhere to the said Convention and Executive, whether legislative, executive, or judicial, are vacated." The ordinance for the reorganization of the State Government provides for the appointment by the Convention of a Governor and Lieutenant-Governor, to continue in office until their successors are elected and qualified; for a Council of five members to aid and advise the Governor. The Delegates elected in May, and the Senators who are entitled by the existing laws to seats in the next General Assembly, who shall appear and qualify themselves by taking the requisite oath of allegiance, are to constitute the Legislature of the State; a majority of the members so qualified to constitute a quorum. The following is the oath to be taken by all civil and military officers:
"I solemnly swear (or affirm) that 1 will support the Constitution of the United States, and the laws made in pursuance thereof, as the supreme law of the land, any thing in the ordinances of the Convention which assembled at Eichmond on the 13th day of February, 1861, to the contrary notwithstanding; and that I will uphold and defend the Goverument ordained by the Convention which assembled at Wheeling on the 11th day of June, lStll, and the Legislature, Governor, and all other officers thereof in the discharge of their several duties, as prescribed by tho last-mentioned Convention."
The posts held by all officers who fail to take this oath are to be declared vacant, and are to be filled byothers. FrankH. Pierpont was elected Governor, and Daniel Paisley Lieutenant-Governor. On the 22d the Governor issued a proclamation summoning the Legislature to meet at Wheeling on the first day of July. The President has formally recognized this new Government, by transmitting to it the official notice of the Congressional apportionment under the late census. — Governor Letcher has issued a proclamation to the people of the northwestern part of the State, in which he says that the people of Virginia, by a majority of nearly a hundred thousand qualified voters, have severed the ties that bound them to the Government of the United States, and united the Commonwealth with the Confederate States. The right to institute a new form of government was one that freemen should never relinquish. The people of the northwestern part of the State voted as well as those of the other parts; the majority was against them, and it was their duty to yield to the will of the State. There had been a complaint that the Eastern portion of the State enjoyed an exemption from taxation, to the prejudice of the Western part. The State, by a majority of 95,000, had put the two sections on an equality in this respect. By this display of magnanimity the East had shown itself ready to share in all the burdens of Government, and to meet all Virginia's liabilities.
In Tennessee the vote upon the ordinance of separation from the United States and representation in the Confederate Government was taken on the 8th of June. The result upon the adoption of the ordinance is officially stated by Governor Harris to be:
Separation. No Separation.
East Tennessee 14,780 32,923
Middle. Tennesseo 58,265 8,198
Went Tennessee 29,127 0,11T
Military Camps 2,741 ....
Total 104,913 47,238
The vote for " Representation" is about the same. On the 24th of June the Governor issued a proclamation declaring that "tho people of the State of Tennessee have, in their sovereign will and capacity, by an overwhelming majority, cast their vote for 'Separation,'dissolving all political connection with the late United States Government, and adopted the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of
America," Tennessee is therefore "a free and independent Government, free from all obligation to or connection with the Federal Government of the United States of America." In a Message to the Legislature, the Governor says: ''While it is to me a source of regret that entire unanimity was not attained at the ballot-box, in the decision of the vitally-important and exciting questions referred to, I have entire confidence that now, the deliberate and impartial judgment of the overwhelming majority of the people of the State having been recorded, the whole people, forgetting these differences of opinion, however earnestly and honestly entertained, will stand together as one man in maintaining the rights, honor, and dignity of Tennessee, and in preserving the domestic tranquillity of the community. The time for crimination and recrimination has passed. Threatened by a common enemy; imperiled by a common danger; bound together by ties which can not be severed, we are identical in interest: we must be so in action." He recommends that the payments upon the public debt, now by law to be made in New York, be made payable at Nashville, Charleston, or New Orleans, to "the people of all Governments which are on terms of peace and friendship with us, who are and were previous to the commencement of the war b1ma Jidc owners of our bonds, and that you adopt such policy toward the owners and holders of our bonds, whe are citizeus of States at war with us, as is recognized and justified by the law of nations, regulating their intercourse as belligerents."—In view of the impossibility of disposing for money of the State bonds authorized to be issued for the defense of the State, he recommends that three-fifths of the sum be issued in Treasury notes, which shall be received in payment of all taxes and Government dues.—He has caused to be organized and equipped twenty-one regiments of infantry now in the field; ten artillery companies and a regiment of cavalry are in process of organization; in addition to which there are three regiments mustered into the service of the Confederate States,
now in Virginia. A Union Convention of Eastern
Tennessee met at Greenville on the 17th of June. Hon. Thomas A. R, Nelson was chosen as President. A declaration of grievances and a series of resolutions were adopted on the 21st. The declaration says that the election of the 8th was free, but with few exceptions, in no other part of the State than East Tennessee. In the larger parts of Middle and West Tennessee no speeches or discussious in favor of the Union were permitted. The unanimity of the vote in many counties where a few weeks ago the Union sentiment was strong proves that the Union men were overawed by the tyranny of the military power, and the still greater tyranny of a corrupt and subsidized press. For these and other reasous the Convention does not recognize the result of the election as expressive of the will of the people of Tennessee. Had the election been free the result would probably have been different. But whether this bo or be not the case, East Tennessee has a better right to remain in the Union than the other sections have to secede. Neither the Constitution nor Congress has wronged Tennessee; the President has made no threat against her law-abiding people; there is no cause for rebellion or secession. While peace and prosperity have been enjoyed under the Government of the United States, rebellion has paralyzed commerce, and lessened the value of property; it has changed the relations of States and adopted Coustitutious, without submitting them to the voto of the people; it has formed military leagues and opened the door for oppressive taxation; it has offered a premium for crime by directing the discharge of volunteers from criminal prosecution, and by recommending the Judges not to hold their courts; it has stained the statute-book by the repudiation of Northern debts; it has called upon the people to contribute their surplus productions for the support of a Government destitute of money or credit; it has attempted to destroy the freedom of speech and the press. In view of the foregoing list of wrongs, and many other grievances which are enumerated, "and of the fact that the people of East Tennessee have declared their fidelity to the Union by a majority of about 20,000 votes," the Convention passed a series of resolutions to the following effect: 1. Desiring the restoration of peace, and especially that East Teunessee should not be involved in civil war. —2. Pronouncing the action of the State Legislature in reference to secession and union with the Confederate States as unconstitutional, and not binding.— 3. Appointing Commissioners to prepare a memorial to the Legislature of Tennessee, asking its consent that the counties composing East Tennessee, and such counties in Middle Tennessee as desire to cooperate with them may form and erect a separate State.—4. Appointing an election to be held in these counties.—5. Requesting the Union members of the Legislature to resume their seats unless prevented.
In Missouri, Governor Jackson, after fruitless attempts to induce the United States commander to consent to a virtual neutrality, has taken ground against the Union. He demanded that no United States troops should be quartered in or marehed through the State, while General Lyon asserted the right of the Government to send troops into any part of the State, to protect loyal citizens or repel invasion. The Governor, on the 12th of June, issued a proclamation stating that all efforts toward conciliation had failed, and calling out 50,000 State militia " for the purpose of repelling invasion." The proclamation concludes as follows:
"In issuing this proclamation, I hold it to he my most solemn duty to remind you that Missouri is still one of the United States; that the Executive Department of tho State Government does not arrogate to itself the power to disturb that relation; that power has been wisely vested in the Convention, which will at the proper time express your sovereign will; and that meanwhile it is your d uty to obey all constitutional requirements of the Federal Government. But it is equally my duty to advise you that your first allegiance is due to your own State, and that you are under no obligation whatever to obey the unconstitutional edicts of the military despotism which has introduced itself at Washington, nor submit to the infamous and degrading sway of its wicked minions in this State. No brave-hearted Missourian will obey the one or submit to the other. Rise, then, and drive out ignominiously the invaders who have dan'd to desecrate the soil which your labors have made fruitful, and which is consecrated by your homes."
He then left the capital, giving orders to burn the railroad bridges behind him, and proceeded southward, pursued by the United States troops. A considerable body of the State militia having been gathered at Booneville, General Lyon advanced upon them on the 17th of June, and after a few minutes' action dispersed them with a loss of about 20 killed. Many prisoners were taken, who were subsequently set at liberty. General Lyon issued a proclamation inviting all who had taken up arms against the General Government to return to their homes, assuring them that they should not be molested for past actions, but warning them that this forbearance would not long continue.
The present attitude of England and France in relation to America has evidently been taken in concert. It is one of absolute neutrality. The following dispatch, dated June 1, has been sent to the Governor-General of Canada, and similar orders have been given for other British possessions: "sir,—You are already awaie that the Queen is desir
'ous of observing the strictest neutrality in the contest which appears to be imminent between the United States
I and the so-called Confederate States of North America. I have now to inform you that, in order to give full effect to this principle, her Majesty has been pleased to interdict the armed ships and also the privateers of both parties from carrying prizes made by them into the ports, harbors, roadsteads, or waters of the United Kingdom, or any of her Majesty's colonies or possessions abroad. It is her Majesty's desire that this prohibition should bo forthwith notificd to all proper authorities within her dominions, and I am to desire that you take measures to secure its effectual observance within the limits of your Government."
In Parliament Mr. Gregory had given notice that he should present a motion for the recognition of the Government of the Confederate States. Being urged to postpone the motion he consented to do so. He, however, published in the Times a letter giving the reasons which he should have urged in favor of recognition. He writes: "I advocate the recognition of the Southern States, because I am of opinion that by this separation the area of slave-occupied territory will be circumscribed, instead of increased."
The Emperor of France has issued a decree stating that, "taking into consideration the state of peace which exists between France and the United States of America, he has resolved to maintain a strict neutrality in the struggle between the Government of the Union and the States which propose to form a separate Confederation." The following extracts from the decree define the position of the French Government:
u No vessel of war or privateer of either of the belligerent parties will be allowed to enter or stay with prizes in our ports or roadsteads longer than twenty-four hours, excepting in case of compulsory delay.—No sale of goods belonging to prizes is allowed in our ports and roadsteads.— Every Frenchman is prohibited from taking a commission under either of the two parties to arm vessels of war, or to accept letters of marque for privateering purposes, or to assist in any mauner whatsoever, the equipment or armament of a vessel of war or privateer of either party Every Frenchman, whether residing in France or abroad, is likewise prohibited from enlisting or taking service either inthelsndarmyor on board vessels of war or privateers of either of the two belligerent parties—Frenchmen residing in France or abroad must likewise abstain from any act which, committed In violation of the laws of the empire, or of the international law, might be considered as an act hostile to one of the two parties, and contrary to the neutrality which we have resolved to observe.—Every Frenchman contravening the present enactments, will have no claim to any protection from this Government against any acts or measures, whatever they may be, which the belligerents might exercise or decree."
The Spanish Government has issued a proclamation of similar import. The Queen is determined to maintain a strict neutrality. The building, arming, or equipment of privateers in Spanish ports is strictly prohibited. No privateer or prize can remain in any Spanish port longer than 24 hours, except in case of urgent necessity, and then they must leave as soon as possible. They can not ship any arms or munitions of war, and no articles belonging to a prize can be sold. Any Spanish subject engaging in privateering does so on his own responsibility, and forfeits all claim to protection from the Government, besides being liable to punishment.
Abdul-Mejid, the Sultan of Turkey, died on the 25th of June, aged 39. He was succeeded by his brother, Abdul-Azzis, bor n Feb. 9, 1829.
VALOR.—The mind of our people has most wonderfully changed its direction within a few months, and we who have for so many years given the peaceful, industrious faculties the highest place on the list of popular virtues, now find ourselves on the look-out for every trace of military genius, and ready to pardon any want of financial thrift in the man of undoubted and effective valor. We need not ascribe the change to any miracle, for it is no more than what was to be expected from our people under the circumstances. We have always liked pluck in every shape; and while business was our absorbing pursuit, other things being equal, we always gave the palm to the most enterprising, fearless merchant over the cautious usurer, and our model business men have a large spice of the soldier and sailor in their composition. Now that we have a new work to do, and a new capital to win, our common sense compels us to set a bounty upon the ability required for the object, and every shrewd man is well aware that in times of war the good soldier is the most practical of persons; for he saves the money of the nation, and secures the most speedy and the most advantageous peace. Meanwhile our instinctive respect for courage finds a more enkindling element; and we who are the children of brave sires find that the blood that has beat so long in the march of heroic industry, is all the more ready to answer to the old cradle songs of patriotism, and mount to the head at the names of the old battle-ficlds of liberty and nationality.
Our readers are probably all ready for the topic under treatment, and may perhaps give us their ear, even in these exciting times, while we try to say a few words upon the nature and power of Valor. We use this term instead of others that generally signify very much the same thing, because it better defines the virtue that our people prize in that respect for which they most prize it. Bravery denotes a certain fearless impulse, and Courage a certain dauntless resolution, and both agree in expressing qualities which all men honor; but they both indicate emotions rather than purposes, and point to a certain enthusiasm rather than to a positive object. Valor combines both ideas; brings the right spirit to bear on the right object; and, better than any other word, carries the idea of power as a virtue. The valiant man is he who can do things, especially difficult things; and while much bravery and courage have been spent in fiery impulses and fruitless enthusiasm, valor adds practical point to flaming emotion, and never fires without being careful to hit the mark, and hit it with a bullet, not with scattering shot. Moral courage may mean very much the same thing, although it is used often to denote the moral fearlessness that scorns dangers; while bravery often coexists with a very low grade of character—as, for example, in many a coarse mercenary, who will fight to the last gasp under any flag that best pays for his service. True valor is that manly force which makes the Right prevail, and, as such, it is a pre-eminent moral and religious trait, for what is morality and religion but the spirit that makes the right principle triumph, and sets up God's kingdom among men? It is not enough to mean well, for every dreamy or sentimentalizing driveler, in his way, means well. It is our duty to do well; and he who does well, especially in the midst of dangers and difficulties, is by eminence the valiant man.
Do not smile at our simplicity or our excessive prudence in maintaining that the first element of valor is found in a true sense of value. Other things being equal, he is the most valiant man who sees the most and best and most lasting good to strive for; so that instead of trying to empty a hero of interest in his object, and making him supremely indifferent to whatever happens, the true course is to make him as much interested as possible. Whatever we regard as the highest good is sure to bring out all the strength of our nature; and he to whom the highest good is found in the absolute Right is moved to be valiant by the whole force of his affections and his conscience. Men, indeed, differ in the practical force of their character from certain distinctions of temperament, and some are brave by a native instinct, preferring a battle to a festival, and choosing the sword or lance instead of cards or dice for their play; but even these differences are, in a great measure, neutralized by master affections, and the most timid man becomes a hero when what he loves supremely is at stake. The most quiet citizen has the valor of a lion when his family is assailed, and, to defend his wife or daughter, he does not stop to ask how strong the adversary is. When her child is in peril every true woman is a heroine; and she who before trembled at the roar of the wind or the flash of the lightning, goes, by a divine instinct, through storm or fire or savage men to rescue the little creature whom God has confided to her care.
Even abject worldliness is valiant in its own way, and avarice and ambition can be daring when the gods of their idolatry are assailed. He to whom money is the supreme good may die rather than surrender his gold, and he who makes his idol of human breath will sooner renounce life itself than the world's favor. The great distinction to be marked in this respect is this, that some men measure value more by the amount of goods or wealth at stake, while others estimate it by the quality of the good or the worth at stake. We think it very desirable that both estimates should be regarded—that of goods or wealth, and of good or toorlh. The goods that make up wealth are certainly to be much valued, and it is every man's duty to keep and defend, by just means, his rightful property; and we are convinced that an advanced stage of civilization not only gives new comforts but new powers, from the ampler motives that it imparts to men to defend their possessions. Surely no savage can fight for his wigwam as bravely and persistently as the civilized man fights for his home, his country, and his altar. Yet the very list of goods that we have proves that the goods of a true civilization must needs ascend to the supreme good above all material things, or to a sacred justice which was in God before the world was made, and which is needed to keep the world within God's blessing, and to give to men the highest and most lasting motive. No man can love his home and family truly until he loves it sacredly, or under Divine law and grace, as well as under human affections; and the love of country as well as of kindred is never strongest apart from the inspirations of religion. For the supreme good crowns and blesses all other goods; and that is the strongest state of society which unites the most privileges under the highest and most lasting sanctions. This is the Christian State or Commonwealth; and certainly the facts of experience confirm the nature of