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in schools of the south, in 1896–97 (see table 7), speaks volumes, as compared to the 2,108 who were receiving collegiate education (see table 3), and the 2,410 who were receiving classical instruction (see table 4), and the 1,311 who were taking the professional course (see table 6) in the same year; making a total of 5,829 taking the higher education, or 7,752 fewer than were taking the industrial course. Indeed, the growth of the industrial theory of education among Negroes in the past decade has not only been phenomenal but it is by all odds the most encouraging fact in a situation not without its discouraging features.
It is a rare compliment to one of the wisest and best of the New England men who engaged in the southern educational work that his theory of industrial training has taken such a firm root in a rich soil. This good and wise man was General Samuel Chapman Armstrong. While other men and women were devoting themselves to the necessary work of founding schools of secondary and higher education for the freed people, General Armstrong, in 1868, busied himself in founding and developing the Hampton normal and agricultural institute at Hampton, Va., which, says the historian of the work, “beginning in 1868 with two teachers and 15 students in the old barracks left by the civil war, the Hampton school has grown, until at the beginning of the present year (1899) there were on the grounds 1,000 students. Of these 135 are Indians, representing ten states and territories. Of the 80 officers, teachers and assistants, about one-half are in the industrial departments. Instead of the old barracks there are now fifty-five buildings.”
The Hampton normal and agricultural institute is without doubt at the present time the center of all that is best, wisest and most permanent in the educational development of the black man in the south. It is by far the largest and most important seat of learning in the country for the development of the Negro. It has a large property now valued at over half a million of dollars, and has in constant operation all the industries by which the colored people find it necessary to make a living. Under the wise supervision of Dr. H. B. Frissell, the successor of General Armstrong, this institution is constantly growing, broadening and deepening its influence among the people. The work of the Hampton institute has not only resulted in turning the attention of the Negro population to the importance of industrial education, but has had a marked influence in shaping the education of the white south in the same direction.
It was the constant aim of General Armstrong to educate . the head, the heart and the hand of the student, to make strong school teachers and skilled mechanics and agriculturalists, and his aims have been amply justified by results. General Armstrong was born of missionary parents in Hawaii. He was educated in this country. He was a soldier in the war for the preservation of the union and commanded a regiment of black soldiers. His was a pious and lovable nature which delighted to do the Master's work by reaching out the hand of assistance to the lowest and most needy of the Master's children.
Out of the Hampton institute has grown the Tuskegee normal and industrial institute, located at Tuskegee, Ala., in the black belt of the south. The Tuskegee institute has grown from a log cabin to an institution possessing 42 buildings with 2,300 acres of land, 88 instructors and about a thousand students. It gives instruction in about twenty-six different industries, in addition to giving training in academic and religious branches. A large number of graduates of Tuskegeė are turned out every year and are at work in various portions of the south as teachers in class rooms, instructors in agricultural, mechanical and domestic pursuits. Quite a number of these graduates and students cultivate their own farms or man their own industrial establishments. The property owned by the Tuskegee normal and industrial institute is valued at $300,000, and the buildings have been very largely built by the labor of the students themselves. One rather unique feature of the Tuskegee normal and industrial institute is that the institution is wholly officered
by members of the Negro race. Aside from Hampton, Tuskegee is one of the largest and most important centers of education in the south, especially in the direction of industrial development.
The work of the Hampton institute and Tuskegee is not only proving itself valuable in showing the rank and file of the colored people how to lift themselves up, but it is equally important in winning the friendship and co-operation of the southern white people. The influence of the young men and women turned out from these two institutions, as well as from other institutions, is gradually softening the prejudice against the education of the Negro, and in many striking instances bringing about the active co-operation and help of the southern white man in the direction of elevating the Negro.
There have been many other schools than the Tuskegee institute founded on the Hampton idea, and the number is increasing every year. Nearly all the southern states are now maintaining industrial schools not only for the blacks but for the whites as well, for the education that is good and necessary for the black is equally so for the white boy.
From the facts and conclusions set forth, hastily withal, in this monograph it will readily be see cational point of view the Negro race has, since 1865, taken full advantage of its splendid opportunities, and that the present affords splendid promise that the future, which so many dread, will, in the providence of God, take care of itself.
TABLE 1 — Common school statistics, classified by race, 1896–97
TABLE 2 – Sixteen former slave states and the District of
COMMON SCHOOL ENROLLMENT
Expenditures (both races)
1870-71...................... 1871-72........ .... ........ 1872-73.................... 1873-74 ................ 1874-75 ..... 1875–76.. 1876–77... 1877-78 .... 1878-79..... 1879–80 1880-81. 1881-82. 1882-83 1883-84 1884-85 1885-86 1886-87 1887-88 1888-89 1889-90. 1890-91. 1891-92 .... 1892-93 .... 1893-94 ..... 1894-95 ..... 1895-96...... 1896-97 .