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utilitarian in accordance with Franklin's whole career and the general tendencies of the time, is thus defined in the original “proposal” :
“That the subject of the correspondence be all new-discovered plants, herbs, trees, roots, their virtues, uses, etc.; methods of propagating them, and making such as are useful but particular to some plantations more general; improvement of vegetable juices, or ciders, wines, etc.; new methods of curing or preventing disease; all new-discovered fossils in different countries, as mines, minerals, and quarries; new and useful improvements in any branch of mathematics; new discoveries in chemistry, such as improvements in distillation, brewing, and assaying of ores; new mechanical inventions for saving labor, as mills and carriages, and for raising and conveying of water, draining of meadows, etc.; all new arts, trades and manufactures that may be proposed or thought of; surveys, maps, and charts of particular parts of the seacoasts or inland countries; course and junction of rivers and great roads, situation of lakes and mountains, nature of the soil, and productions; new methods of improving the breed of useful animals; introducing other sorts from foreign countries; new improvements in planting, gardening, and clearing land, and all philosophical experiments that let light into the nature of things, tend to increase the power of man over matter, and multiply the conveniences or pleasures of life.”
The publication of transactions began in 1799 and of proceedings in 1838. 24 volumes of the former and 38 of the latter have been issued.
The American academy of arts and sciences, due largely to the efforts of Adams, was organized in Boston in 1780. Its object is said to be:
“To promote and encourage the knowledge of the antiquities of America and of the natural history of the country, and to determine the uses to which the various natural productions of the country may be applied; to promote and encourage medical discoveries, mathematical disquisitions, philosophical inquiries and experiments; astronomical, meteorological and geographical observations, and improvements in agriculture, arts, manufactures and commerce, and, in fine, to cultivate every art and science which may tend to advance the interest, honor, dignity and happiness of a free, independent and virtuous people.”
As the names indicate, the Philosophical society followed the example set in Great Britain, while the American academy was influenced by French models, but their original intention and subsequent history have, in many respects, been parallel. The academy publishes memoirs in quarto, of which 16 volumes have been issued, and proceedings in octavo, now consisting of 33 volumes. Its library contains 25,000 volumes.
Societies and academies similar to the Philosophical society of Philadelphia and the Academy of arts and sciences of Boston are to be found in many of the larger cities of the United States. They have been established during the present century, many of them recently, and in their scope and influence are chiefly local or confined to a single state These societies cover the field of the natural and exact sciences or of the natural sciences only, while special societies for different sciences have been founded in many cities. National societies have also been established for most of the sciences, and these are at the present time the most active of the scientific societies of the United States.
The New York academy of sciences, organized in 1817 as the Lyceum of natural history in the city of New York, is divided into four sections, each of which holds monthly meetings. These sections are: Astronomy and physics; geology and mineralogy; biology; anthropology, psychology and philology. The academy also holds general meetings and gives an annual reception and exhibition of scientific progress. It publishes annals in octavo and memoirs in quarto, and has a library numbering over 18,000 titles. In New York there is also a scientific alliance, including the academy and the following local societies : The Torrey botanical club, the New York microscopical society, the Linnæan society of New York, the New York mineralogical club, the American mathematical society, the New York section of the American chemical society, and the New York entomological society. Efforts are now being made for the erection of a central building for the societies composing the Scientific alliance.
Washington has recently become the chief scientific center of America, the government institutions and departments offering numerous and important positions for men of science. The Philosophical society was organized in 1871. This and the other societies of the city subsequently formed a joint alliance, which was transformed into the Washington academy of sciences in 1898. The societies united by
the academy are: The Anthropological society of Washington, the Biological society of Washington, the Entomological society of Washington, the Geological society of Washington, the National geographic society, the Medical society of the District of Columbia, and the Philosophical society of Washington. The academy and most of the separate societies publish proceedings.
In Philadelphia there are, in addition to the Philosophical society, several important institutions. The Academy of natural sciences, organized in 1812, possesses large endowments, a fine museum and a good library (50,000 volumes). Meetings of its different sections are held weekly, and the proceedings are now in their — volume. The Franklin institute was organized in 1824 for the promotion of the mechanic arts. Its Journal, published continuously since 1826, is now in its 147th volume. The institute has done much toward promoting industrial exhibitions, the development of the patent system of the United States, the laws on weights and measures, etc. It has a large library, and conducts classes and lectures. The Wagner free institute of science, organized in 1855, supports a museum and library, gives free lectures and instruction and publishes transactions.
The Boston society of natural history, founded in 1830, conducts a museum and a library, and publishes memoirs and proceedings. The Boston scientific society holds meetings partly popular in character. The Lowell lectures, endowed by Mr. John Lowell with $250,000, are an important foundation that may be mentioned in this connection.
Other cities of the Atlantic states possess academies, organized on the general lines of those already described. The Connecticut academy of arts and sciences at New Haven, founded in 1799 on the model of the Boston academy, is the oldest of these. The Maryland academy of sciences at Baltimore dates from 1819. Local academies, often with a museum and scientific library, or scientific societies, usually of more recent development than the academies, are to be found in many cities, including Salem, Worcester, Gloucester
and Williamstown, Mass.; Portland and Augusta, Me.; Hanover and Keene, N. H.; Brattleboro, Vt. ; Providence, R. I.; Hartford, Meriden, New Britain, Middletown and Bristol, Conn.; Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, Binghamton and Poughkeepsie, N. Y.; Reading and Media, Pa., and Wilmington, Del.
The conditions in the southern states before the civil war and in the years following were not favorable to the development of scientific institutions, but in recent years there has been much industrial progress, and educational and scientific institutions are increasing in number and in strength. An academy was established at Richmond, Va., in 1788, but scarcely survived its organization. There is an academy of sciences in New Orleans, La., and local societies at St. Augustine, Fla., at University, Ala., and at Chapel Hill, N. C.
The central states of the upper Mississippi valley maintain a population of high average intelligence, which is borne witness to by a great abundance of educational and scientific institutions. In several of the states — Ohio, Indiana, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado — there are academies that hold winter meetings, with programs covering the different sciences. There are also academies in many cities. The Chicago academy of sciences maintains a museum and a library, publishes transactions and a bulletin and holds sectional meetings for the different sciences. There is a society of natural history at Cincinnati, Ohio, a scientific association at Detroit, Mich., and an academy of sciences at St. Louis, Mo. There are similar societies in other cities including Brookville and Terre Haute, Ind.; Elgin, Peoria and Princeton, Ill. ; Davenport and Muscatine, la. ; St. Paul, Minn., and Topeka, Kans. On the Pacific coast the California academy of sciences in San Francisco was organized in 1853. It possesses a museum and a scientific library and publishes proceedings, occasional papers, and memoirs. There are local scientific societies at Santiago and Santa Barbara, Cal., and at Tacoma, Wash., and an Alaskan society of natural history
and ethnology has been founded at Sitka. California now possesses two of the important universities of the United States, and a rapid growth of scientific interest may be expected on the Pacific coast.
The societies and academies thus briefly reviewed suffer from the specialization which the growth of modern science requires. This has indeed been met in the larger centers by a subdivision into sections, but in many cases the societies are concerned only with natural history and often in an amateur and somewhat superficial manner. The differentiation in science which has interfered with societies covering a wide field has, however, been favorable to the establishment of local and national societies devoted to a single science, while professional and technical societies with definite interests to promote have in recent years grown greatly in number and in influence.
Of these societies the National educational association should be mentioned first. Its present name was assumed in 1870, but it was established as the National teachers' association in 1857, being then the outgrowth of the American institute of instruction, organized in 1830, and other societies.
The objects of the association, according to the preamble of its constitution, are “to elevate the character and advance the interests of the profession of teaching and to promote the cause of popular education in the United States.” The association has been extremely successful in attaining these ends. The annual meetings have been held in different states and in Canada, and the attendance at recent meetings tends to be as large as 10,000 members. The finances have been so administered that a large permanent endowment has been secured, and the annual volumes of the Proceedings contain papers and discussions of great educational interest and value. Until 1870 topics were discussed before the whole association as a body, but subsequently special departments have been organized, including school superintendence, normal schools, kindergarten instruction, elementary