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lyn and at the capital in connection with the regents. New York also claims the distinction of being the first state in the world to make university extension an integral part of its educational system.” Consciously or unconsciously this policy is an historical expansion of that Hamiltonian idea of university control which the empire state shares with the University of France.

For a detailed study of university extension in America the following bibliographical references have been supplied at the state library at Albany by Miss Avery.

i University of the State of New York -- The extension bulletins devoted to that subject and published from year to year since the beginning of the movement in America are the most comprehensive sources of information. The university early reprinted articles by H. B. Adams on “university extension and its leaders," Review of reviews, July, 1891, and “university extension in America,” The Forum, July, 1891. See also Miss Katharine L. Sharp's regents' prize essay on "public libraries in relation to university extension," published in 1892, as a regents' bulletin, and republished by University extension world.

2 Philadelphia -- In Philadelphia a magazine called University extension was started in 1891. For three years it was a news magazine, but in November, 1893, a second monthly, The University extension bulletin, was started, which gave the news side and left the other magazine free for discussion of problems connected with the work. In March, 1895, the publication of both was stopped and they were replaced by The Citizen, devoted to university extension in its widest sense. Practically the magazine dealt with subjects of interest to the Civic league, and incidentally with extension subjects. The Citizen rendered very great service to the educational cause and to the promotion of good literature as well as of good government. The suspension of the journal in 1898 was widely regretted.

3 The Chicago University extension society, a city organization antedating the organized extension work of the university, published very early a periodical called The university extension magazine, which changed its form and character four times within a year and a half, and suddenly vanished out of existence. The result was a small collection of numbers of various sizes, volumed four times, with usually two monthly numbers to a volume. When the University of Chicago organized its extension division the Chicago magazine was practically replaced by the University extension world, which was first published as a quarto, and contained a good deal of local material. A change in the editorial staff resulted favorably for the reading matter and the size was reduced. Finally in 1894 the issue was changed from a monthly to a quarterly and printed on heavy glazed paper with wide margins. Cuts were frequently inserted and the magazine was changed to a high grade quarterly. Unfortunately with the issue for April, 1895, the magazine stopped, but the occasional publications of the university afford sufficient information regarding the continuation of extension work down to the present time.

BY FREDERICK WILLIAM ASHLEY, A. M., New York State Library School, Albany

I CHAUTAUQUA Adams, Herbert B. Chautauqua, a social ana educational study.

(See U. S. - Education, Bureau of. Report for 1894-95, v. I, p. 977–1077)

A graphic account of what Chautauqua is and what it is doing; its outward features clearly pictured and its manifold activities comprehensively treated,

from historical, social and educational standpoints. Also printed separately. Bernheimer, Charles S. National Jewish educational work. (See American monthly review of reviews, Ap. 1897, 15:442-45)

Includes brief account of the Jewish Chautauqua society. Portraits. Boyesen, Hjalmar Hjorth. The Chautauqua movement. (See Cosmopolitan, June 1895, 19:147-58)

Interesting judgment as to social and educational value. Illustrated. Chautauqua assembly. Chautauqua year-book for 1895, an official

publication of the Chautauqua system of education. 130 p. D. Chautauqua 1895.

No more published.

Cook, Albert S. Chautauqua, its aims and influence. (See Forum, Aug. 1895, 19:689-706)

Extent and scope of the system fully outlined; objections considered. Faxon, Frederick Winthrop, comp. Chautauqua, a bibliography

of the lake and assembly. (See Bulletin of bibliography, July

1898, 1:86–87) Fitch, J. G. The Chautauqua reading circle. (See Nineteenth century, Oct. 1888, 24:487-500)

A competent English authority's view of the work and its results. Foster, Solemn, ed. Second summer assembly of the Jewish

Chautauqua society; official account, issued by resolution of the executive committee. 63 p. Q. Phil. 1898. Jewish Chautauqua soc.

Includes brief review of the session, with abstracts of all addresses. Habberton, John. Chautauqua, the most American thing in America. (See Illustrated American, 20:10-14)

Illustrated. Hale, Edward Everett. Chautauqua. (See Lend a hand, Oct. 1891, 7:223–30; Sept. 1895, 15:163–67)

Discursive sketches of the work of the reading circles. - The Chautauqua literary and scientific circle. (See Century magazine, Nov. 1885, 31:147-50)

Outlines the general plan.

Chautauqua reading circles. (See Unitarian review, Sep. 1887, 28:233-48)

Good general view of plans and methods, including course of study for four

years. Harper, William R. The founder of the Chautauqua movement. (See Outlook, Sep. 1896, 54:546-50)

Appreciative judgment of Bishop Vincent's educational work. Illustrated. Noble, Frederick Perry. Chautauqua as a new factor in American life. (See New England magazine, Mar. 1890, 8:90–101)

Good description of the several branches of the system with brief satisfac

tory consideration of the results accomplished. Illustrated. Post, D. H. “Chautauqua”. (See Harper's magazine, Aug. 1879, 59:350-60)

An interesting early account; well written; illustrated. Tarbell, Ida. Bishop Vincent and his work. (See McClure's magazine, Aug. 1895, 5:240-56)

Excellent sketch; well illustrated.

Vincent, John H. bp. Chautauqua, a popular university. (See Contemporary review, May 1887, 51:725-35)

Contains suggestions which led to the summer courses at Oxford and Cambridge in 1888.

Tlie Chautauqua movement; with an introduction by President Lewis Miller. 9+308 p. D. Bost. 1886. Chautauqua press.

The founder's story of Chautauqua's origin, development, aims and methods, with a candid discussion of objections. Condensed programmes and brief

accounts of other assemblies are included. Invaluable. Willoughby, Westel W. Chautauqua. (See U. S.- Education, Bureau of. Report for 1891-92, v. 2, p. 921-45)

Historical study, including short accounts of forty other “Chautauquas."

II SUMMER SCHOOLS Adams, Herbert B. The Catholic summer school of America.

(See U. S.- Education, Bureau of. Report for 1894-95, v. 1, p. 1065-77)

Clear, accurate and sympathetic account from the inception to the end of

the fourth year. Conventions and summer gatherings. American summer schools,,

1892–9. (See American monthly review of reviews, May 1892, 5:421-22; May 1893, 7:539-42; May 1894, 9:539-43 ; May 1895, 11:530–34; May 1896, 13:553–55; May 1897, 15:554-55; May 1898, 17:540–41; May 1899, 19:583-85.

Brief announcements of the more important schools; the contemporary outlook excellently presented from year to year. The first number is by Albert Shaw, the editor. Title varies slightly from the above in 1893, '96

and '97. Innovations at the University of Chicago. (See Nation, Oct. 1892, 55:255-56)

Doubts the wisdom of the summer term. Mosher, Warren F. & Conaty, Rev. T: J. Retrospective and

prospective views of the Catholic summer school of America. (See Mosher's magazine, July 1899, 14:161-70)

Origin, development and purposes clearly stated, by the secretary and a

former president. Mosher's magazine; monthly, official organ of the Catholic sum

mer school of America and Reading circle union. Jan. 1891date. v. 1-date. O. Youngstown, Ohio, 1891-date.

The Aug.-Sep. double number each year gives a detailed report of the sessions at Plattsburg, including abstracts of all lectures ; with briefer accounts of the Madison school. V. 1-12 bear title Catholic reading circle review.

Mullaney, Rev. John F. Summer schools and their relation to

higher education. (See N. Y. (state)- University. Proceedings of the 31st university convocation. 1893, p. 484-90)

The Catholic attitude toward the movement. The new home of the Catholic summer school at Plattsburg. (See Catholic world, Ap. 1893, 57:67–84)

Very readable illustrated description of the place and its surroundings. N. Y. (state)— Home education department. Summer schools,

report of the summer schools division, 1894-99. O. Alb. 1894– 99. (Home education bulletin nos. 8, 9, 13, 19, 25, 30)

Gives each year specific details of the more prominent schools, not only in New York but elsewhere in America and abroad; with announcements of educational conferences, and summer school statistics. An admirable yearly

survey of the entire field. Raymond, Jerome H. Continuous sessions for colleges and universities. (See School review, Feb. 1899, 7:117–24)

Enthusiastic sketch of the plan in operation at West Virginia university. The summer school. (See Dial, June 1895, 18:313-15)

Good brief historical statement. Thwing, Charles F. Summer schools. (See Harper's magazine, Mar. 1878, 56:501-10)

Interesting early sketch of the scientific schools, with brief view of the

whole movement. Illustrated. Weeks, Stephen B. Check list of American summer schools.

(See U. S.- Education, Bureau of. Report for 1894-95, v. 2, p. 1483-1503)

Includes excellent historical review, list of 319 schools arranged by states;

bibliography, 2 p. Willoughby, Westel W. History of summer schools in the United States. (See U. S.- Education, Bureau of. Report for 1891-92, v. 2, p. 893-959)

Comprehensive, scholarly monograph, specially valuable for earlier history.
The schools are classified according to their fundamental character.

III UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Adams, Herbert B. Progress of university extension. (See N. Y.

(state) — Home education department. Extension bulletin, no. 5, p. 179–84)

Reprinted from Congregationalist, 25 Aug. 1892.
Brief but adequate statement of results accomplished in the United States.

Seminary libraries and university extension. 33 p. O. Balt. 1887. (Johns Hopkins university studies, v. 5, no. 11)

Early suggestions for popularizing seminary methods.

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