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and practical facility in, the art of mechanical drawing,” becomes absolutely indispensable; consequently, this elementary branch of industrial art clearly forms an essential factor in modern industrial education, and, of necessity, holds place in all the elementary and higher schools of technology ; hence, though its relation to the so-called “high arts " may at times seem somewhat remote, its claim to a place in this report on art and industry is unquestionable.

To close this sketch of the beginning and progressive development of this important educational movement, without making honorable mention by name of some, at least, of the many enthusiastic supporters and earnest co-workers with the three men who were literally the pioneers in this momentous experiment, is to leave it incomplete, indeed. To give here a complete list of the many educators and lovers of beauty who gave it warm welcome; of the modest teachers who shrank from no labor in the effort to fit themselves to teach the unfamiliar lessons, were an impossible task. Great effort was made, however, by the writer in the volumes of the art and industry report, to secure full record of the names of all workers for this special branch of education. It may be said, greatly to the credit of our countrymen, that while there was at first, on the part of many, great and freely outspoken opposition to the movement, yet very many of the acknowledged leaders in educational circles — state or city — school superintendents, with professors in colleges and normal schools, gave instant and hearty welcome to Walter Smith and his methods; that the press generally gave support to the efforts to put both drawing and manual training in the schools, and that, as rapidly as the purpose and methods of industrial drawing were generally known, that movement won for itself popular support, while the movement for manual training in the schools was at once heartily welcomed by the great majority of the people.

One movement, almost cotemporary, for promoting instruction in the fine arts, both in the institutions of learning and in the community at large, met with cordial response

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from many of the colleges and from numerous liberal citizens. As the result of generous gifts, public collections of casts from the antique became accessible in many institutions of learning and in many localities where, before 1870, they were absolutely unknown.

To patronize artists, and also to make art gifts to public museums and to colleges, became a fashion, so that great numbers of examples of the best modern art masters of Europe, are now in this country, either in the hands of private owners or in public art galleries. Meantime numbers of young American painters and sculptors are winning favor in Europe and America, while the art schools in this country are thronged with eager aspirants. Enough has been cited of American art accomplishment to convince us that one would no longer be justified in saying of this “era” of 1899, as was said of another era at the opening of this chapter, that “the one element absolutely lacking in all American education was the æsthetic !” Industrial art proves its worth to a country by its results, as shown in the industrial output. To record the amazing variety and exquisite charm of the countless productions of art work in metals, ceramics, and fabrics by Americans of this “era” would demand volumes.

FOR THE UNITED STATES COMMISSION TO THE PARIS EXPOSITION OF 1900

MONOGRAPHS ON EDUCATION

IN THE

UNITED STATES

EDITED BY

NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER Professor of Philosophy and Education in Columbia University, New York

15

EDUCATION OF DEFECTIVES

BY

EDWARD ELLIS ALLEN

Principal of the Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the Blind,

Overbrook, Pennsylvania

THIS MONOGRAPH IS CONTRIBUTED TO THE UNITED STATES EDUCATIONAL EXHIBIT BY THE

STATE OF NEW YORK

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