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entering veterinary student 18 scholarships of an annual value of $200 and to veterinary graduates a fellowship of an annual value of $500.

Action in Massachusetts — The legislature of Massachusetts has recently appropriated $25,000 for a veterinary laboratory and stable hospital in connection with the state agricultural college. Beginning with Jan. I, 1899 there is to be an annual appropriation of $1000 as a fund for the maintenance of the veterinary laboratory

Higher standards — An impartial survey of the entire field shows a marked tendency toward higher standards and, as an important step in this direction, the assumption of the work of veterinary education by the state under such university supervision as will give it character and eliminate the disturbing element of personal pecuniary speculation.

Army veterinary service — The United States army has long had its nominal veterinarians, but many of these were uneducated men, appointed by political influence or advanced from the position of farrier major, and there was little to tempt professional men of character and ability into this service. The army veterinarian had practically no army status, no rights, no prospects. He was not even enlisted, there was no special provision for him during service and no pension if he had to retire disabled. In the last session of congress the first step was taken for the improvement of the army veterinary service by enacting that the army veterinarian of the first grade must enter on the basis of an examination to be prescribed by the secretary of war, and that he shall have the pay and allowances of a second lieutenant of cavalry, while those of the second grade shall have $75 a month and the allowances of a sergeant major.

Veterinary workers in agricultural colleges and experiment stations — A steadily increasing recognition of the veterinary profession is seen in the appointment of veterinarians to chairs in state agricultural colleges and to positions in agricultural experiment stations. Here too the selection thoroughly sustains the growing demand for higher standards.



32 such positions are filled, practically without exception, by men who have passed an exacting matriculation examination and have had a prolonged course of veterinary study. Many add to their veterinary degree the academic B. A., B. S., B. Agr., or the professional M. D.

Municipal, state and national veterinarians — Since its organization in 1882 the United States bureau of animal industry has provided the different states with the funds necessary for the eradication of the cattle lung plague which had been imported from Europe in 1848, the expert and other employees having been made both national and state officers so that they could act as one or the other as the case demanded. It has done most valuable work on Texas fever, anthrax, emphysematous anthrax, hog cholera, swine plague and many other epizootic, enzootic, dietetic and contagious diseases, following the lines of prevention, immunization and serum therapy. It has continued the quarantine of imported animals since it superseded the treasury cattle commission in 1882. It has instituted meat inspection by experts in national employ, at the great packing centers, of meats intended for the export or interstate trade. In a number of states, a state veterinarian and even assistant state veterinarians have been appointed and, though in some instances the old spoils system has retained sufficient vitality to have the inexpert appointed to do expert work, yet in the main the interests of the public and of the profession have been consulted in the appointment of men educated in the duties of the office. In many of the larger cities too, the veterinarian has been recognized in his appointment as municipal meat inspector or as stock inspector. With the continued improvement of the civil service and the imperative demand for public servants who are specially trained and efficient in performing their respective duties, this recognition must soon become the rule.

Indications from veterinary literature — A review of recent veterinary literature shows much thought and research, yet as an indication of the predominant influence of sanitary science and the control of contagious diseases, it need only be said that of papers presented before the American veterinary medical association two thirds have been on such subjects. This indicates a healthful interest in the most vital and promising fields of veterinary research, and speaks well for the supply of experts to work in this field in the future. It is worthy of note that in all strong veterinary schools work in bacteriology is made a first consideration.

Field for educated veterinarians - In 1888 there were 6 veterinary schools with 323 students. In 1899 there were 17 schools with 249 instructors and 378 students. 6 of these 17 schools are separate institutions, ii are departments of other institutions. 7 maintain day sessions, 3 have both day and evening sessions, 7 do not report this item. 16 schools confer degrees.

There is a broad field in the United States for educated veterinarians, and in view of this fact it is surprising that there are not more veterinary medical students. To assert that this is due to the lengthening to three years of the courses in the veterinary medical schools and to the use of bicycles and electric cars as substitutes for horses is not a satisfactory explanation. Horses will always be in large demand. Furthermore, the close relation between the health of man and that of the domestic animals, specially those that furnish meat and milk, shows the necessity of careful attention to their health. The reports of the department of agriculture give a value of about $2,000,000,000 to the live stock of the United States, and the protection of these enormous interests demands the services of trained veterinarians. The science of meat inspection has not as yet commanded with us the attention it should receive. The work of the national government in this respect is confined to international and interstate trade, principally to the large western packing houses. Local municipal inspection is in its infancy and state legislatures have not as a rule enacted special measures of protection. There now seems to be, however, an increasing demand for scientific work

along these lines and the best veterinary schools are recognizing this necessity in their courses of study.

Synopsis of requirements — The first law restricting the practice of veterinary medicine was enacted in New York in 1886. In 1899, 12 states had veterinary medical laws.

In 5 states a veterinary diploma does not admit to the practice of veterinary medicine, an examination being required in all cases : Minnesota New York North Dakota Pennsylvania Virginia

The following require for admission to the licensing examination:

Minnesota, diploma from veterinary school

New York, full high school course, diploma of veterinary school with satisfactory standard

North Dakota, diploma from veterinary school

Pennsylvania, competent common school education, approved diploma from legally incorporated veterinary school having a course of three years

Virginia requires the licensing examination only

Illinois requires approved veterinary diploma or 3 years' practice or examination

Ohio requires approved veterinary diploma or examination by state board

California and Maryland require veterinary diploma approved by state board

New Jersey admits on veterinary diploma submitted to unqualified local authority

Wisconsin admits on veterinary diploma or certificate submitted to unqualified local authority, and practitioners five years prior to 1887

Michigan registers veterinary medical degrees without examination and issues certificates of “veterinary surgeon” to those who pass the examinations of the state veterinary board.

The other states and territories have no laws on the subject.

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