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tory requirements. The dental examiners of New Jersey and Pennsylvania having been indorsed by the New York state dental society as more nearly approximating the New York standard than any other state boards, the New York state dental examiners, at a meeting held Oct. 7, 1899 recommended to the regents the indorsement of New Jersey and Pennsylvania licenses granted under the new plan, provided the preliminary and professional education of applicants meets the New York statutory requirements. The regents will probably act favorably on the recommendation if the New Jersey and Pennsylvania boards agree to establish a standard in preliminary general education fully equal to that required by the 'New York law."

Legislation - In Alabama in 1841, the first state law regulating the practice of dentistry was enacted. This was probably the first dental legislation in any country. The next state to pass a dental law was New York, but this action was not taken till 1868. The English law was enacted in 1878, and those of other countries about that time or later.

The practice of dentistry is now regulated by statute in almost all political divisions of the United States.

Synopsis of present requirements — In 23 states dental diplomas do not now confer the right to practise, an examination being required in all cases : Alabama Connecticut Florida

Idaho Colorado Delaware Georgia

Maine

i The New Jersey statute demands “a preliminary education equal to that fur. nished by the common schools.” The secretary of the New Jersey dental commission writes Oct. 17, 1899 that this has been construed to mean graduation from a registered four years' high school course. “We have, however, agreed to require only a three years' high school course up to Jan. 1, 1901 when the full requirement shall take effect simultaneously with New York. This agreement is made with the full knowledge and approval of the governor and the superintendent of public instruction and you may rest assured that New Jersey will live up to the spirit as well as the letter of the agreement... We look on the interchange of licenses with New York as the greatest educational advance that has yet been made in the dental profession, the formation of a nucleus around which all other states must rally."

Massachusetts New Jersey Pennsylvania Virginia Minnesota New York Rhode Island Washington Mississippi North Carolina South Carolina West Virginia New Hampshire Oregon Vermont

The following require for admission to the licensing examination :

Colorado, diploma from legally organized reputable dental school

Connecticut, diploma from recognized dental school, or three years' instruction or three years' practice

Delaware, diploma of recognized dental school
Florida, diploma from reputable dental school
Georgia, diploma from reputable dental school

Idaho, three years' experience, certificate from another state board, or diploma from legally organized dental school

Minnesota, diploma from reputable dental school, or evidence of 10 years' continuous practice previous to September 1889

New Jersey, common school education, diploma from recognized dental school or a written recommendation from five experienced dentists

New York, full high school course, degree from registered dental school or medical degree with a special one year's dental course

Oregon, diploma from dental school in good standing, or study and practice in Oregon prior to this act

Pennsylvania, good common school education, diploma of recognized dental school

Virginia, a fair academic education

Washington, diploma from recognized dental school or evidence of 10 years' practice

The following require the licensing examination only: Alabama Mississippi Rhode Island Vermont Maine

New Hampshire South Carolina West Virginia Massachusetts North Carolina

In the following political divisions either approval of dental diploma or examination by state or other duly qualified board is required: Arizona Kansas

Montana Oklahoma California Kentucky Nebraska South Dakota Dist. of Col. Louisiana Nevada

Tennessee Hawaii

Maryland New Mexico Texas Illinois

Michigan North Dakota Utah Indiana Missouri Ohio

Wisconsin Iowa

The following requiring either approval of diploma or examination, admit to examination on:

Iowa, satisfactory evidence of three years' study

Missouri, three years' study with legally registered dentist or license from another state

Montana, three years' practice or three years' study under licensed dentist

North Dakota, three years' active practice or three years' study with practitioner

Utah, two years' practice or two years' study under licensed dentist

Arkansas requires only a diploma approved by the board

One state, Wyoming, requires only presentation of diploma to unqualified local officers

In Cuba, the Philippines' and Puerto Rico' the requirements are in process of transition

Alaska and Indian territory have no laws

1 See note under medicine.

6 PHARMACY Early schools of pharmacy — The first meeting in this country to consider the question of systematic pharmaceutic education was held in Philadelphia in 1821. At this meeting the apothecaries of Philadelphia formed a society to provide a system of instruction in pharmacy and to regulate the conduct of their business. The outcome of this action was the Philadelphia college of pharmacy, which was chartered by the Pennsylvania legislature in 1822. The school opened in 1821–22 with a course of lectures on materia medica and pharmacy, and a course on pharmaceutic and general chemistry. The first class was graduated in 1826. In the early years of the institution committees were appointed to expose adulterations of drugs and a library and cabinet were established. The need of a medium of publication was soon felt. In 1825 the Journal of the Philadelphia college of pharmacy was started, which became in 1835 the American journal of pharmacy.

The Philadelphia college of pharmacy was followed in 1823 by the Massachusetts college of pharmacy, in 1829 by the New York college of pharmacy, in 1838 by the department. of pharmacy of Tulane university, in 1841 by the Maryland college of pharmacy.

Prior to 1840 pharmacists were not recognized in pharmacopæial conventions. In 1850 the chartered schools were invited to send delegates to the decennial convention. In that revision and in the revisions of 1860, 1870 and 1880 pharmacists were well represented. In the convention of 1890, 16 of the 26 members composing the committee on final revision were pharmacists.

Growth — There has been a remarkable increase in schools of pharmacy and students of pharmacy in the past 21 years. In 1878 there were 13 schools with 1187 students. In 1899 there were 52 schools, with 3563 students. The increase in students in 21 years has been 200 per cent. 36 of these schools maintain day sessions, 9 have evening sessions, 4 have both, 3 do not report this item. 14 are separate institutions, 38 are departments of other institutions. 45 grant degrees. 2 of the 52 schools were established between 1801 and 1825, 4 between 1826 and 1850, 8 between 1851 and 1875, 38 between 1876 and 1900.

Apprenticeship - The University of Michigan is said to have been the first institution in this country to graduate pharmacists without any practical experience. In 1898, 24 schools of pharmacy reported that they did not require any practical training. The original object of the early schools of pharmacy was to give a theoretic knowledge of pharmacy as a science and a higher degree of familiarity with botany and chemistry than could be attained in the limited term of apprenticeship. It was not intended that these schools should take the place of an apprenticeship in a pharmacy.

In recent years there has been no little discussion as to whether schools of pharmacy should require work with a druggist as a condition for graduation. The schools that do not exact this requirement admit its necessity to success as a pharmacist, but they claim that it is impracticable to determine whether or not the necessary practical training has been acquired by their matriculates, and that by providing under proper instructors suitable laboratory facilities for actual work with the drugs, they can give more practical experience than that afforded in many pharmacies where the prescription department is of little importance. There is force in this position in the case of schools that give thorough courses requiring the full time of students, specially if matriculation requirements insure a fair general preliminary education. Dr Gregory, dean of the Buffalo college of pharmacy writes as follows touching this matter : “ Prior to 1880 the diploma of a school of pharmacy was generally the sole evidence of fitness as a pharmacist. Now the license is demanded. No one denies the value of experience in a pharmacy, but the responsibility of testing its character

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