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4919. In each profession there has been a growth which is greater proportionately than the growth in population.'
Preliminary general, education for licenses — In New York state a preliminary general education equivalent to graduation from a four years' high school course after a completed eight years' elementary course is prescribed by statute as the minimum standard for license to practise medicine. This standard approximates that required in continental Europe. New Hampshire has similar requirements, but they are not as rigidly enforced. The statutes of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey and Pennsylvania prescribe a “common school education.” Louisiana demands “a fair primary education." The rules in Vermont prescribe a high school course; in Illinois and Iowa less than one year of high school work; in Virginia, "evidence of a preliminary education.” In remaining political divisions laws and rules are either silent in this respect or so indefinite (Arkansas and other political divisions) as to be of little value.
In New York and Illinois (after Jan. 1, 1900) a preliminary general education equivalent to a three years' high school course is required for admission to the bar. Connecticut demands a high school education or an indefinite preliminary examination. The minimum requirement in Michigan (in case of examination) is less than two years of high
* These returns were first given in 1860 when the ratio to population (31,443, 321) was : clergymen (37,529) i to 837, lawyers (33,193) 1 to 947, physicians (54,543) 1 to 576, dentists (5606) i to 5608. Following are the figures for 1870, 1880 and 1890 :
Students at these periods were reported as follows in 1897 by the American bar association :
school work, in Colorado it is one year of high school work, in Minnesota (in case of examination) it is less than one year, in Ohio it is a common school education. If anything is demanded in other political divisions the requirement is not sufficiently established (excepting a few local cases) to find a place either in statutes or court rules.
The New York law exacts a full high school course as one of the requirements for license to practise dentistry." New Jersey demands by statute “a preliminary education equal to that furnished by the common schools," Pennsylvania “a competent common school education,” Virginia a “fair academic education.” In other political divisions there is no such requirement. Louisiana, Michigan, South Dakota, Wisconsin, and, in case of examination, California and Texas are the only political divisions which mention in their rules preliminary general education as a requirement for license to practise pharmacy. An elementary education only is prescribed. The completion of a full high school course or its equivalent is one of the statutory requirements for license to practise veterinary medicine in New York. Pennsylvania demands “a competent common school education.” There is no such requirement in any other state.
Preliminary general education for degrees — In New York, high standards in preliminary general education are demanded both for degrees and for licenses,' and in each case the question of attainments is determined by a central authority, the University of the State of New York. As a rule in other states the professional schools conduct their own entrance examinations, and the tests are often mere matters of form, even though the standards may appear satisfactory on paper.
For matriculates before Jan. 1, 1901, 3 years in a high school are accepted. * See section on Dental societies. * For matriculates before Jan. 1, 1901, 2 years in a high school are accepted. •Excepting licenses to preach and licenses to practise pharmacy.
Entrance requirements In 4 theological schools there are no entrance requirements; in 24 schools they are indefinite. 19 demand a grammar school education. I, 6 and 19 require respectively one, two and three years of high school work. 18, 3 and 71 demand respectively one, three and four years of college work.
In 16 law schools there are apparently no entrance requirements whatever; in 8 schools they are so indefinite as to be practically worthless. 26 schools demand a grammar school education. 8, 11, 12 and 3 require respectively one, two, three and four years of high school work. Harvard demands an education equivalent to that required for admission to the senior class. The Columbia law school will be maintained as a graduate department after 1903.
In 2 medical schools the requirements are indefinite; 29 demand a grammar school education; 97, 12, 3 and 12 require respectively one, two, three and four years of high school work. Johns Hopkins requires a college course, Harvard also after Sep. 1901.
In 3 dental schools the requirements are indefinite; 18 demand a grammar school education ; 18, 11 and 6 require respectively one, two and three years of high school work.
In 6 schools of pharmacy there are no entrance requirements; in 4 schools they are indefinite. 24 demand a grammar school education ; 11, 6 and i require respectively one, two and three years of high school work.
In i veterinary medical school the requirements are indefinite; 9 demand a grammar school education ; 1, 5 and 1 require respectively one, two and three years of high school work.
Professional students with college degrees — The 1894 U. S. education report states that probably nearly one half of the theological students held either B.A. or B.S. degrees (46 1-2 per cent), as compared with only about 20 per cent of law students. The corresponding returns from medical schools were so imperfect that they were not tabulated. Tables in the 1897 U. S. education report indicate that of
schools reporting graduate students 49 per cent of the students in theology, 24 per cent of those in law and 14 per cent of those in medicine held either B.A. or B.S. degrees. The corresponding returns for 1898 were 53 per cent in theology, 29 per cent in law, and 21 per cent in medicine.
Following is a classification of schools 1) that report graduate students, 2) that report no graduate students, 3) that do not report this item :
Courses in theology, law and medicine are naturally graduate courses and will eventually be maintained as such by leading universities. It is believed, however, that it would not be advisable or even desirable for the state to make graduation from college the minimum requirement in general education for degrees even in these faculties. High school graduation is sufficient for the minimum state requirement. Anything farther than this should be left to individual initiative.
Not reported. ? There are few graduate students in dentistry, pharmacy or veterinary medicine. In library science, however, which under New York's leadership will develop rapidly throughout the United States, a thorough college training will soon be the usual requirement of all strong schools for admission to the professional course. In 1900 for example all but two of the entering class of 31 at the New York state library school are graduates of colleges or universities registered as maintaining proper standards. In public accounting which was raised by New York to the dignity of a profession in 1896 the New York requirement of a full four years' high school course will doubtless be accepted generally as the standard in preliminary general education. Additional requirements in New York for full C. P. A. (certified public accountant) certificates are three years' satisfactory experience in the practice of accounting (one of which has been in the office of an