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a Extinct Litchfield school and first attempts at college of Philadelphia and Columbia.

PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

I GENERAL Preacademic, grammar or common school work refers to the eight years of ele. mentary instruction; secondary or academic work, to the four years of secondary instruction between elementary school and college; college work, to the four years of higher instruction, following the four years of secondary. Professional institutions are uniformly called schools.

Authorities — It is impossible within the limits of this monograph to give more than a brief outline of professional education in the United States. For detailed information touching laws, regulations, location of schools, and courses of study the reader is referred to Professional education in the United States, published by the University of the State of New York.

Of the many authorities consulted the following have proved most helpful : U.S. education reports; Eliot's Educational reform; U. S. census reports; Briggs' Theological education and its needs ;- Dyer's Theological education in America ,,2 Jessup's Legal education in New York ;3 Wellman's Admission to the bar ;4 Hammond's American law schools, past and future ;5 Reports of the American bar association ; Toner's Annals of medical progress in the United States ,;Davis' Medical education and medical institutions in the United States ,;? Journal American medical association ; Shepard's Inaugural address at the World's Columbian dental congress; Proceedings of the American pharmaceutical association. These and other authorities have been used freely, but limited space makes it impracticable to give in many cases more than this general acknowledgment. .

Forum, January 1892. Penn monthly, August 1880. See the History of the bench and bar of New York. • American law review, May 1881.5 Southern lazo review, August 1881. 6 U. S. education report, 1874. 'U. S. education report, 1877.

Assistance rendered by specialists is acknowledged in the chapter relating to each profession.

Growth — At the time of the declaration of independence there were only two professional schools in this country, the Medical college of Philadelphia (1765), now the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, and the medical department of King's college (1768)."

The following statistics, summarized from Professional education in the United States, show unprecedented growth :*

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In 1898, 286 of the 532 schools reported total property amounting to nearly $50,000,000 (New York 33 per cent),

1 King's college is now Columbia university.
'The 1898 U. S, education report gives the following:

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3 Excluding graduate schools, but including 3 medical preparatory schools. * Including Department of pharmacy, University of Washington, which has suspended temporarily.

In these totals training schools for nurses are not included. The Philadelphia lying-in, charity and nurse school was opened in 1828, but it is said that systematic training in schools for nurses was not given till 1873. The 1898 U, S, education report.gives 377 of these schools with 8805 students. The course of study is usually two years in length though nearly 1-4 of the schools now require three years. Most of these schools are connected with hospitals where medical, surgical and obstetric cases are treated. The course of study embraces anatomy, phys. iology and hygiene, and obstetrics.

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