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REGISTER OF PENNSYLVANIA.
In EW oth. D TO THE PRESERVATION OF EVERY ki ND of Us EFU L INFORMATI on in Esph.cti N G the st’ At E.
[FROM THE PEMBER roN MANUschipts.] Minutes of Conference between the Government of Pensilvania and Teedyuscung, King of the Delaware Indians, &c. (Taken by Charles Thomson, Secretary for Teedyuscung.) [Concluded from page 87.] March 24th, 1758.-As the Governor deferred his answer, Teedy uscung upon hearing that a number of the Cherokees were come to Virginia, with a design to
go to war, was very uneasy that his messenger was not ||
dispatched, and fearing some ill consequences might ensue from detaining him any longer, he went to the Governor's but not meeting with the Governor, he went to the Secretary's with Isaac Still his interpreter, Welamekigkink the messenger and Moses Tetamy and spoke as follows. Brother, I would have this messenger, who came with me dispatched as soon as possible, to carry back to the Indians the good news of what we have now done. Brother, You must have heard that the Cherokees are come down to go to war. Now as several of our friends, who have joined with me live near, and some anong the French, it is necessary the messenger should be sent before to tell them to separate from the French, that they may not be cut off with them. Brother, I would have you aiso dispatch a messenger immediately to the Cherokees, to inform them of what is done, and to stop them. For if any mischief is done, it will not be said the Cherokees did it, but that you have done it, who hired and sent them; and this will undo all that we have done. But when the Indian Nations are informed of the peace we have made, then all those Indians will come and join the Cherokees and be all friends with the English and all together will go against the French. Being asked, what sort of message can be sent to the Cherokees that will not do harm; for should any Indians, come down with Frenchmen at their head, as they have always done, what then must be done? Teedyuscung replied, I would therefore have the messenger sent, as soon as possible to prevent any of the Indians joining with the Freneh. He farther said, Brother, here is our messenger between us both, I leave it to your generosity what you shall give him.— When a man is travelling he must eat and drink. He may also lose his horse, which is the case with this man who lost a very stately horse in coming down. All these things should be considered. There were nine other messengers who came with this man, all those should be rewarded; they make in all ten; three here and seven at Bethlehem. Brother, since I have been in town, I have been obliged to run in debt at two or three houses in town, in treating my people, I hope you will enable me to discharge it.
PHILADELPHIA, AUGUST 13, 1831.
NO. 189. Allen, I sent Captain Harrison and three other Indians to the assistance of that place. They were there on service ranging in the woods two weeks. I desire they may be rewarded for their service.
I desire you will order the messengers guns to be mended at Bethlehem.
A copy of the above being made out by Charles Thomson, was delivered to the Secretary who was desired by Teedyuscung to send it immediately to the Governor, which the Secretary promised should be done.
On the same day the following message was sent to the Governor from the Assembly. May it please your Honor—
We beg leave to observe that by the Minutes of the Conference, laid before us from time to time, since the Treaty of Easton, it does not appear that any effectual measures have been taken to recover our fellow subjects, from the captivity they are under with the Indians, with whom a peace has long since been concluded, nor even to remind them of their engagements to restore them. We, therefore, think it our duty, to recommend it to your honour, before the Indians depart from this City, to make some enquiry after the Captives, and to take such measures as shall be most likely to restore them to their country, families, and friends. We also think it absolutely necessary, for the welfare of this Province and the promotion of his Majesty’s Indian interest in America, that a friendly and kind invitation should be given to the Chiefs of each of the eight tribes, of Indians, that have, by a late Messenger, shewn an inclination to enter into an alliance with his Majesty, and take up arms against his enemies, that some of them would, when it was convenient to them, take an opportunity of visiting this Government, and further ratifying the good work of peace so happily begun, and now almost perfected.
The good effects this Province has already felt, and his Majesty's interest in general is like to receive from the late Conference with them, are such proofs of the good policy of such an invitation, that we need not add any thing further to enforce it.
- Signed by order of the House, THOMAS LEF.CH, Speaker.
March 24th, 1758.
As the Public Treasury was exhausted, that the Indians might be furnished by the Public with what they wanted, the following Address was presented to the Assembly:
To the Representatives of the Freemen of the Province of Pennsylvania, in General Assembly met. The Address of the Trustees and Treasurer of the Friendly Association, for regaining and preserving Peace with the Indians, by pacific measures— Respectfully sheweth: That as we have, with the approbation of this Government, at several Treaties held with the Indians, at Easton and Lancaster, contributed freely towards the Presents made to the Indians, and defraying the expenses of the Messengers sent by the
Broer, I recommend my interpreter to you, I hope || King's Deputy Agent, to invite the Indians on the ohio
to renew their alliance with the Crown of Great Britain;
Bootho, I have to inform you that upon intelligence and as, by the blessing of Divine Providence, pacific received, that the French were coming against Fort ) measures have so far succeeded, that from the Messages
Vol. VIII. 13
now received from eight Tribes of those Western and other distant Indians, it appears there are just grounds to hope for the establishment of Peace with them; and the engaging a considerable number, with whom this Government hath not been acquainted, to enter into the alliance. We are heartily disposed to promote so desirable a service, and thereby to give a renewed tes. timony of our loyalty to our gracious King, and our sincere concern to advance the cause and interest of the Christian religion, and the Peace and prosperity of our Country; and being informed that the Public Treasury is exhausted—least these salutary measures should thereby be delayed, and the promises made by the Governor in behalf of this Province remain unperformed—we think it our duty to acquaint you, that, out of the fund of our Association, we are willing to supply you with such sums of money as may be immediately necessary, for carrying on these negotiations towards establishing Peace with the Indians, and to wait for the repayment of the money, out of the Public Treasury, till it can be conveniently done. If our proposal appears to you to be conducive to the public advantage, and meets with your approbation, we shall immediately direct our Treasurer to pay the Provincial Commissioners, or such other Committee as you may be pleased to appoint, such sum or sums as on consideration you may judge these exigencies may require. Signed by order, and on behalf, of the said Trustees and Treasurer, ABEL JAMES, Clerk,
The foregoing Address being read and considered by the Assembly, the following resolves were passed:
Resolved, That the thanks of this House be given to the said Society, for their friendly and generous offer.
Resolved, That this House do recommend it to the Provincial Commissioners, to borrow of the said friendly Society, such sum or sums of money as may be sufficient to answer the present Indian demands; and that the Representatives will use their care and endeavours, to se, ure the repayment thereof, when further supplies shall be raised for the public service.
4t a Conference with the Indians at the Governor's House, - 25th March, 1758. Pnesent—The Hon. William Denny, Esq. Lieutenant . Governor; William Logan, Richard Peters, Lynford Lardner, Esquires; the same Indians as before; Conrad Weiser, Esq.; Isaac Still, Interpreter.
The Governor, addressing himself to Tecdyuscung, and the Indians, spoke as follows:
Brother Teedyuscung—I fully expected I should have been able to have given you an answer to the request you made, respecting the assistance you wanted from this Government, in being supplied with proper Minis. ters, School-masters and Council, at your Indian Towns. I laid your request immediately before the Assembly, and they sent me word, that as it was an affair of such importance, they would take time to consider it well, and give me an answer. This they have not as yet done; and as you have acquainted me, that your Mössengers are very uneasy to return to inform the Indians of what has passed here, I must, for the present, defer giving you an answer to what you then desired; but you may depend on it, that everything this Government engaged to do at Easton, they will faithfully perform—what they are now considering, is only the method of doing it. This is my answer to what you mentioned the other day. Brother—You may remember I told you, on Wednesday last, that although I had then fully answered the Messoges you had brought me from the Indian country, yet I had something more to say to you. Brother—I think proper that our Peace Belt, that I gave you the other day, should be sent with the greatest dispatch, and in the safest manner you can, to the Indian Towns on the Ohio, and the other Towns who
have now entered into our alliance, that they may be fully informed of what has passed here between us, and the good work we have done. Take this, my Calumet Pipe, with you, for our friendly Indians to smoke out of It is the Pipe our old Proprietor, William Penn, smoked in, on his first arrival into this Country, with all the Indians that entered into a Covenant Chain with him, and has been preserved by his order to this day for that good purpose. I recommend it particularly to the Dela. wares, our Brethren, and to their Grand-children, the Shawanese, to smoke out of it heartily, as it has now been filled with the same good tobacco. They, the Dela. wares and Shawanese, will then remember their Mother Country; for the Ground in Pennsylvania, is the Ground they came out of. Brother—You know when they first left us, they went only a hunting, though at too great a distauce from us, to a place where an evil Spirit reigned, where they lost themselves by the instigation of that evil Spirit, whose cunning and power they could not resist. Brother—I cannot help thinking, that their Thoughts must be often bent towards their Mother Country; as it is most natural for all sorts of People, to love that Ground best from which they first sprung. Brother—We remember very well how kindly you received our forefathers, when they first arrived in this Country. You secured their ships to the bushes, and kindled up a fire for them,and you entertained them with the best you had; and you must remember the mutual friendship that subsisted between us since that time; and I hope those black Clouds, that came from the North, will be now entirely dispelled, as the greater part of them already are. We shall then see one an. other with a great deal of pleasure, and the sooner it is done the better; and I assure you, nothing shall be wanting on my part, towards perfecting this good work. In confirmation of which, I give you this Best. [Gave a Belt.] Brother—I must put you in mind, at this opportunity, of our Children that yet remain among the Indians. I should be extremely glad to see as many of them as you can possibly bring; and as you are a wise man, you know that will give great satisfaction to me, my Council, Assembly, and all the good People of the Province. [A String.] Brother—You may remember that at first, when the Clouds were beginning to be dispelled, a little Foot Path was opened, by Fort Allan to Wyoming, for our Messengers to pass through with Messages; but as now the Clouds are entirely dispelled between us and the Indians on Susquehannah, I think it necessary to open a Great Road; that is, from Diahogo, and the heads of the Susquehannah, down to Fort Augusta, called by the Indians Shamokin; where you will always find protection in your Road to Philadelphia. [A Belt.] [N. B. Teedyuscung expressing some dissatisfaction at this proposal—the Governor added, that it was only a proposal to him to consult the Indians at Wyomink upon, and then he might give an answer, after knowing their minds. J Brother—I have now done; and shall, without delay, lav before his Majesty's Commander-in-Chies, and Sir Will am Johnson, the gentleman appointed to transact Indian Affairs in this district, all that has passed between us; and I make no doubt, but the resolutions of the Indians, with regard to the French, will be very agreeable to them; and they will immediately transmit it to his Majesty, who will be exceedingly pleased.
1831.] susquehanna AND PELAware. 99
In looking over a file of the Pennsylvania Chronicle for 1768, we met with the following remarks, on the improvement of the Schuylkill, and connecting the Susquehanna and Delaware; which subjects at present occupy so much attention. It is sometimes interesting to compare the views of past and present generations. NAVIGATION or THE SUSQUEHANNA AND DELAWARE RIVERS. It is a fact indisputedly certain, that what port soever on this continent can acquire the greatest share of its inland commerce, must proportionably advance in riches and importance; as whether manufactures be estab. fished or not, it is evident that no civilized people ever existed without having occasion, both for imports and exports of considerable value. Although this city has hitherto had a large share of the trade of this continent, yet the continuance of those advantages seems to depend on a vigorous exertion of those powers kind Providence has put in our hands.— The vicinity of the navigable parts of Potomac, &c. to the Ohio, and the extensive navigation from New York to Lake Ontario, seems to call loudly to us to exert ourselves to preserve the advantages, the industry and virtue our ancestors have gained, and to prevent the important commerce of the inland parts of this contiment from taking a different turn. The Schuylkill is a channel properly adapted, by Providence, for a communication between the rivers Delaware and Susquehanna; and the making an easy and commodious navigation, as far as possible, up that stream, is an object that deserves our serious attention, and is certainly much more practicable than many seem to imagine. It has been asserted,in the Chronicle,that the best way into the Indian country, is by Fort Augusta [Shamokinj, as the west branch of Susquehanna is many miles naviga. ble; and the straightening our roads and moderating the rate of ferriage have been well recommended therein, as measures absolutely necessary to preserve the commerce of our back counties, to this city, from which they receive protection. But the project in ques. tion would most effectually advance both these useful and advantageous designs; for the town of lreading being only fifty-three miles from Harris' Ferry, is consequently nearer to a great part of the country beyond the Susquehanna, than Baltimore, or any other southern part; and had that town a constant and ready communication by water with this city, it would be, I suppose, as good a market in all respects: And if some of the principal ferries on Susquehanna were at the same time made free, the e is no doubt but most of the commerce of those counties would center there. How important scever these considerations may appear at present, they are extremely trivial compared with what may probably be the case in succeeding ages, when all the interval of the mountains, the shores of Ontario and Erie, and the extensive plains of Ohio, &c. &c. may be filled with people, whose necessaries, conveniencies, or luxuries must be a perpetual fund of employment and wealth to the sea-ports with which they communicate. And as many of the wide extended branches of Susquehannah, are or may be made navigable, a communication may be thereby opened from this city, of greater extent and consequence than can be easily conceived. But were our attention only extended, at present, to that part of the province situated on this side that river, the country along Schuylkill and above Reading is naturally very valuable, and would be more so, did not their excessive distance from markets reduce the value of their produce, and discourage the improvements which industry, constantly attentive to these objects alone, would certainly and soon produce. The taking our farmers from their habitations to come long journies to market, has besides the loss of
time and expense, many inconveniencs; it often debauches their morals, lessens their industry when at home, tempts their servants to commit disorders, and takes off that decorum which the eye of a wise man always produces among his dependants; so that every attempt to facilitate carriage may be considered as a moral as well as political advantage. our great and wise founder was a man of views sufficiently extensive to be convinced of the possibility and utility of this scheme. His atttempts to settle the city on the banks of that river are well known, and tho’ the short date of his life, and incumbered situation of his affairs, rendered his design abortive; yet the judgment of so great a man, may, I hope, be a means of procuring those proposals a fair and impartial consideration. The navigation of the Schuylkill has already attracted the attention of the legislature; but their attempt having consisted chiefly in clearing the passage through the rocks at the falls, the river is thereby rendered shallower above those obstructions, and the navigation rather less practicable than before, the depth of water being insufficient for vessels of any burden, ex: cept in great freshes, and then the natural rapidity of the current renders the passage downwards very dangerous, and the return almost impracticable; besides as these freshes seldom happen but in spring and fall, and not always then, so precarious a navigation is of very little consequence. Some have thought that contracting of the stream might be a means of improvement; but as that could only be done by deepening the channel, in the best of the current; and as the bottom cf the river is hard, and in some places rocky, and the distance great, such an attempt appears to me impracticable, and not likely to answer the intended design; for the velocity of the current would be thereby vastly increased, and the content of the water proportionably lessened, and rendered too shoal and rapid to admit vessels of any burden going down, much less returning: And as such a channel would be very small, compared with the body of the river, when raised by large freshes, the crookedness of the stream would, at such times, occasion its being filled up in many places, and the work be to do over again every year. The only possible method ef. fectually to compass this desirable event, is that which is so frequently practised in England, and elsewhere, viz. the moderating the current, and deepening the water by a number of dams across the river, accommodated with sluices or locks, to give passage up and down to flats or rafts, as often as occasion requires. It has been delivered as the opinion of good judges, that the surface of the water at Reading is not more than sixty feet perpendicular above the head of the tide; but admitting it should prove one hundred feet, yet sixteen dams, each six feet high, would reduce the water to a sufficient depth and stagnation, as only six feet descent, in near one hundred miles, must make the current very moderate and passible up or down with the greatest case. I am not much acquainted with the charge of making dams, but should think six thousand pounds abundantly sufficient to erect one over the Schuylkill, with proper sluices for the purpose of navigation; at which computation the cost of sixteen dams, amounts to ninety six thousand pounds. And considering the fertility of the land along that river, and the very great extent of country above Reading, the trade of which would cer. tainly and soon centre there; the quantity of goods transported downwards annually, may be computed at fifteen thousand ton, and five thousand ton returned: Allowing therefore a dollar per ton for toll to the proprietors of the navigation, it would amount to seven thousand five hundred pounds per annum; from which deduct five hundred pounds for the charge of collecting; the remaining seven thousand pounds amounts to seven per cent. interest upon the computed charges of erecting the works: And as the dams would produce very valuable seats for mills, the profits arising from that
consideration would probably exceed the expense of repairs. I suppose the present rate of carriage from Reading, may amount to about fifty shillings a ton, or more; whereas if a good hauling road was cleared along the banks of the river, and the current moderated by the means above mentioned, and kept up to the depth of three feet or upwards, the carriage by water might be afforded for fifteen shillings per ton; for a flat of 100 tons burden, might be navigated up and down the river, by four men and two horses, in a week or ten days; the charge of which would not amount to ten pounds a week, whereas allowing a dollar per ton for toll, the remaining dollar on 100 tons downwards and 25 tons upwards, amount to 46l. 17s. 6d. each voyage; a profit much more than sufficient. But the advantages derived to the country by this means, would be far more considerable; for admitting the advance on the value of wheat at Reading, to be only nine-pence a bushel, and that only an extent of fifty miles square could receive the benefit of this undertaking, it amounts to one million six hundred thousand acres, of which supposing only a twentieth part in grain, and to produce 20 bushels per acre, half of which to be expended in the country, the advance upon the half exported, at the rate above mentioned, amounts to thirty thousand pound; to which is the profits arising from moderating the carriage of iron, timber, masts and boards (which three last should pay but half toll) and also from the goods returned, be add. ed, the amount may be fairly doubled, amounting to sixty thousand pounds per annum,-a sum probaby equal to more than half the expence of erecting the navigation. To this it will be objected, that the freshes which arise at the breaking up of the winter, are commonly so great, the current so rapid, and the bodies of ice so |
forcible (accompanied with logs and other incumbrances) that no dams could possibly resist their force, but inevitably be torn down, and the whole project be thereby rendered abortive. I shall answer this by observing, that the rivers in England, in many places, are more rapid and furious than Schuylkill; and though the moderation of their winters, in the south of that kingdom, and near the sea, may prevent their rivers freezing, yet, in the mountainous parts of the north, this is by no means the case; they are frequently frozen over to a great thickness,
and as those frosts mostly break up with heavy rains, and the country has a great declivity, their rivers swell to a height, and pour down with a rapidity vastly supe. rior to Schuylkill, bringing ice and logs along with them; and yet many of those rivers are made navigable by the means here proposed, and those which are not, have dams across them for the benefit of mills, as well as bridges, many of which continue for ages: And if the trifling profits of a grist-mill (seldom amounting to fifty pounds per annum) can support the expense of a dam, how inconsiderable must it be, compared with the value of so important a navigation as here presents itself. 'Tis true, few of those rivers are as wide as Schuylkill; but as water acts not in proportion to its width but to its weight and rapidity, there can be no doubt but that if dams were erected with equal care and judgment, they would continue as well as those in England; especially considering that the present ve. locity of the stream, would, by these means, be much moderated, and its impression upon the dam proportionably lessened.—Admitting, therefore, the property in this navigation (computed at one hundred thousand pounds) to be divided into one thousand shares, and vested by law in the subscribers; together with an act of incorporation, and the necessary powers for putting the project in execution; each subscriber to be reputed a member of the corporation, and enjoy as many votes in the choice of managers, &c. as he subscribes shares, the payment to be made annually, at five per
cent. The first payment by way of trial: After which
ATMosph ERICAL VARIATION.
Days of month. M. .A.
1 28 2 days Showery Showery. 24 7 8 4. Cloudy Showery.
3 18 2 Rain Fair.
5 6 2 Showers Thunder gusts.
30 1 ()vercast Th., heavy rain.
On the 20th, at noon, Thermometer at 90°; the highest.
REMINISCENSES OF CITY OF LANCASTER.
REMINISCENSES OF LAN CASTER.—RAIL ROADS.
of this “swamp;” one on the lot occupied by Judge
We are indebted to a gentleman of this city, who has spent time and money, and exercised talents, on the subject of internal improvement, for the following letter from a congenial spirit. Our readers have once or twice been indebted to the same source, and through the same channel, for important information on the subject of rail-roads.-United States Gazette.
Conversation with Mr. Woodhouse, Engineer of the Cromford and Park Forest Rail-Way, when I visited that work, June 17, 1831.
This rail-way is 323 miles long, and has been in progress six years, and will be completed on the 1st of July, 1831, at an expense of £140,000. Of the whole length, only 113 miles are a double line of rail-way—the remaining 21 miles are a single line, but so constructed, that an additional tract can be laid at the moderate expense of £20,000. The rails are of cast iron, and are in lengths of 4 feet, each weighing 84 lbs., and they cost about 20 per cent. less than wrought iron rails. They are edge rails. The difficulties overcome are great. In the first place, there are 9 inclined planes, of which 5 overcome an ascent of 1000 feet from Cromford, and 4 a descent of 800 feet to Whaley Bridge. In the second place, there is much deep cutting, several tunnels (one of 590 yards long through a coal measure), and several expensive embankments. At the inclined planes, the steam engines (18 in number) are in pairs; of which, 7 pairs are of 20 horse power each, and 2 pairs of 10 horse power each. The longest plane is 850 yards. The greatest rise on the planes, is at the rate of 4% inches to the yard—the least is 2% inches to the yard. The velocity in ascending the planes is 4 miles per hour. The cost of transporting coal and lime, is 1%d per ton per mile—for merchandise, the cost is 3d per ton per mile. Horse-power is used on the levels, and is not intended to carry passengers. It is supposed this rail-way will