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Market west of Schuylkill Eighth street, twenty-five feet front, by one hundred and eighty deep, $2175. No.

9, on the North side of Filbert east of Broad street, $4200. No. 10, on the east side of Fifth street between Spruce and Pine, subject to a ground rent of thirty-two dollars, $5975. No. 11, the N. E. corner of Market and Eighth streets, eighteen feet seven inches on Market, and ninety-six feet on Eighth, $18150.

No. 12, at 93 Green street between Third and St. John, subject to a ground rent of forty dollars, $1325. No.

13, on Church Lane in Germantown, $350. The lot in Fifth street between Spruce and Pine, we understand was purchased by the Baptist Church in Spruce below Fifth, and we are chagrined to learn that it will be converted into a graveyard —U. S. Gazette.

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WATER.—It is a prevailing opinion with many, and one which is generally well founded, that water becomes scarce in a newly settled district in proportion as the timber is felled and the population of said district increases. An exception to the truth of this position is however evidenced in this neighborhood where no diminution of this vital element is perceptible, but on the contrary, the water courses would seem to have increased in magnitude. This unlooked for plenteousness is reasonably accounted for on the principle that in penetrating our mountains for minerals, we never fail to open new sources' of a supply. Innumerable tunnels and drifts which every where abound, serve as tributary channels, somewhat to the dissatisfaction of their owners, to our smaller streams, and hence the obvious accumulation of the contents of the latter. We have noticed this subject in the belief that the phenomenon with its plausible explanation, may not be as extensive. ly known at home and abroad, as its importance demands.-Pottsville Miners’ Journal.

I M P R O V E M E N T S.

PARcn MENT MANUF Acton Y. —A Parchment Manufactory has been for some time established by Mr. Brick, Hately from Philadelphia, in our borough, the business of which has yielded a remuneration equalling the most sanguine expectations of the proprietor, owing to the advantage in the price of fuel derived from this locality. We have specimens at our Office, which we consider of superior quality, being unusually free from stains and blemishes, and presenting a beautiful and equal sur. face. These we should be happy to exhibit to any of our friends who may favor us with a call. The owner of the establishment informs us that he is enabled to send his parchment to Philadelphia and dispose of it in that city at a good profit, the charges of transportation being more than counterbalanced by the diminution in the cost of fuel and house rent at this place. This statement, which is corroborated by frequent practice, is entitled to full reliance, and the result is as conclusive as the knowledge of it is important to those who are engaged in business elsewhere, under less favorable circumstances.—Miners’ Journal. o

DuNDArf, Susquehanna Co. Nov. 18.

The Glass Factory, belonging to Phelps, Phinny & Co. in this borough, is now in the “full tide of successful operation.” During the week ending Monday the 14th, there were made fifteen thousand twenty-five hundred feet, or 350 boxes 8 by 10 glass. The quality of this glass is represented to us by blowers and others to be of the very first quality.

There are erected for the different processes of glass making, five buildings, the largest of which is 120 feet by 40—another of which is 60 by 55. The buildings are all conveniently located, and the furnace, flattening ovens, drying ovens, &c. probably for durability of onaterials, and strength of workmanship, are not surpassed by any in the country.

It is a matter of much credit to the enterprize of this company, and of much interest to our citizes generally, that this factory has been established. On the first of April last, the timber, of which the buildings are constructed, was growing in the forest; the stone was lying in the quarry; the clay unburnt in the earth, and the sand, the principal article in the manufacture, untried in the lakes.

It is for the encouragement of such enterprizes as this that the friends of home industry aim. Twenty years ago, nearly all the glass used in this country was imported from abroad, and that too at an expense exceeding the present price of more than four fold.— Everything that tends to bring into use our hitherto untried sources of wealth must be an advantage to our citizens—more especially when the wood of our forests, and the sand of our lakes, give a new impulse to the industry of our inhabitants.

A few days since, curiosity induced us to call at the factory of Messrs. George FABEm & Sons, in Wood st., to examine their machinery for making Cotton and Horse Cards, and we were greatly surprised and gratied. They have in operation six or eight machines, each turned by a small boy. Each of these machines supplies itself with the wire from a reel, pierces the holes in the leather for the teeth, forms the teeth, inserts them in the holes, and gives the necessary angle, at the rate of from one hundred and sixty to two hundred teeth o, minute.

The rapidity and accuracy with which these machines operate are truly surprising, and surpass any thing that we have ever witnessed. The machinery, we are told, is different from and less complicated than that invented by Whittemore, and the cards manufactured by it, we are assured, are preferred, by some of our manufacturers here, to any brought from the eastward.

Messrs. Faber & Sons, intend to erect a steam engine to drive their machinery in the spring.—Pittsburg Gaz.

STRAw Paren.—There is now being erected in this borough, by a Company of our citizens, a Mill House, 150 feet long, 50 wide, and three stories in height, in which it is contemplated to place eight machines, for the manufacture of Straw Paper. It is situated, on the site of the old paper mill, and will require nearly all the water power of the Falling Spring. This extensive establishment is expected to be in operation early the ensuing spring—when disbursements for the raw material, workmen, transportation, &c. of an immense amount drawn from a distance for the product of its labour, will diffuse wealth and activity in our community. We wish the enterprising

proprietors success in their undertaking. [Chambersburg Repository.

In Chester County on the farm of Thomas H. B. Jacobs, Esq. of about 150 acres, he has a stone barn, 100 feet long, with stabling under the whole, divided in the most convenient manner, for stall feeding, milk-cows, oxen, horses, colts, sheep, &c. It has two threshing floors, one smooth as any ball room in Richmond, and here, young and old, at Harvest Home, “trip it on light fantastic toe” to “the sweet sound of tamborine and viol.” On the plantation adjoining, belonging to Mr. J. B. Remington, there are two new elegant stone barns, the length of the two exceeding 100 feet.

While we boast of our farming, we must repeat again and again, the secret of our prosperity. It is a regular rotation of crops, making a little of many articles, rather than attempting to make much out of one; remembering the Scotch proverb, that “many a mickle makes a muckle'—together with heavy liming—LIMINg—LIMING. Many farms here, of an hundred acres, have had from 3 to 6,000 bushels of lime each, within the last ten years,

368

MISC eLLANEOUS.

DRCEMBER

We wish the Price-current makers in all our cities, would state the price of lime per bushel—or if by the cask, mention the number of bushels the casks hold. When the Valley Rail Road shall be completed, Chester County will pour a million of bushels into the city for exportation, if there is a demand abroad; and when

Anthracite Coal comes down to its minimum.
[Pillage Recorder.

WEAtheir–SNOW.

By the following notices, it appears that the storm which visited Philadelphia but lightly, on the 21st and

22d, was much more severe in other places.

On Monday night and Tuesday morning last, snow fell at this place, (Towanda, Bradford co.) about a foot in depth, and the pleasures of a sleigh ride were enjoyed by a goodly number of our citizens on Tuesday and Wednesday.

Bloom FIELD, Nov. 24.

The StonM.—The storm of last Monday night and Tuesday morning, was as unexpected as it was violent. It commenced in the early part of the evening, with what was considered rather a warm heavy rain. Towards 10 or 11 o’clock, the wind blew a hurricane from the north west, accompanied with torrents of snow, which was driven into heaps in some places on the road, to the depth of one or two feet. So fierce was the wind, that large trees and saplings, in great numbers, were twisted off, and others blown out of root, which, together with the innumerable limbs of trees thrown on and across the public roads, they have been for the last two or three days rendered almost impassable. Much damage, we learn, has been done to timber and orchards.-Perry Forester.

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| continued till the next night. It was quite an unexpected sight to awake and find the hills covered with a white mantle, it being the first warning of winter’s approach we have had. As yet we have not heard of any damage on the river; but on the sea-cost, if the storm extended there, we think some injury must have accrued. The weather now is more mild, although the air is very piercing.—Columbia Spy.

HARRIs hung, Nov. 23.

The Storm.–It commenced raging on Monday last, | 21st, about five o’clock, P. M., wind S.W. and continued without ceasing until about 11 o'clock, when the wind changed to the N. W. A heavy fall of snow cornmenced before 12, and continued with high wind until about 8 o’clock, on Tuesday morning.

This morning the snow and ice, give our streets the appearance of winter.

BelleroNTr.—On Monday night last, snow fell in this region of country, to the depth of three or four inches.

By referring to the Register of the winter weather which we published in our 2d vol. pages 23 and 383, from the first settlement to the year 1828, we find the following notices, which show, that the late severe weather in November, is not unprecedented.

“1809, Nov. 24.—Strange to tell to future generations, snow about one foot deep, and tolerable good sleighing, a circumstance not known for many years it ever, in this land. 25. –Sleighs and sleds in market—this morning at sun rise, the river Schuylkill, above and below the permanent bridge, was frozen over; a similar circumstance has not occurred for many years at so early a period. 30.-Skim ice. January 19.-Lowest tide for 14 years. 20.-Ice in the Delaware for the first time this season—being the most open recollected for many years, there not having even been skaiting on the ponds. 21.-1)elaware closed—boys skaiting on it and the ice did not disappear till 11th February. November 1.-First snow, also on 2d, 3d and 4th. November 19.-Snow. November 14.—Slight snow.” December 1.-A snow storm commenced last evening, and covered the ground—nearly all disappeared during the day. On the 22d of February last, the ice in the Ohio and Monongahela rivers moved so as to permit the commencement of navigation for the season. Since that day, nine months have elasped, and during this time navigation has continued without interruption.

1810,

1812, 1828,

1831,

Cyphen ING Slates.—At Delaware Water Gap, 20 miles above Easton, in Bucks county, where the rocks are piled up 1,200 feet high, James M. Porter has a manufactory of Cyphering Slates, operating by water power. They are smoothed, framed ready for sale, superior to imported ones, each in two minutes. Last year it made 4,200 dozen slates; and will finish 5,000 dozen the present year.

Printed every sa TURDAY MORNING by WILLIAM F. G.E.DDES, No. 9 Library Street. Philadelphia; where, and at the PUBLICATION OFFICE, IN FRANKLIN PLACE, second deor baek of the Post Office, (back room) subscriptions will be thankfully received. Price FIVE DOLLARS per anorman, payable annually by subscribers residing in or near the city, or where there is an agent. Ouhar subscribers pay in advance.

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DEWotr D To The PRESERVAtion or EV Eny kix D of Us EFU L INForMATION RESPECTING THE STATE.

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We notice with pleasure, that a valuable reflecting Telescope, the property of the late distinguished Major Gen. Anthony WAYNE, has recently been presented by his son the Hon. Isaac WAYNE, to the Cabinet of Natural Science of Chester county. Col. Wayne having intimated his desire of presenting the above instrument to some public institution in the native country of his illustrious father, the following correspondence took place between him and a committee appointed for that purpose on the part of the Chester County Cabinet. Hon. Is AAc WAYNE: Dear Sir–Some of the members of the “Cabinet of Natural Science, of Chester county,” have more than once heard it kindly as well as particularly intimated by you, that you desired to bestow upon some public institution of the county of your illustrious father, the very Telescope which was his own, his used and approved instrument—and your partiality for the borough of West Chester, and its inhabitants emboldened the Cabinet, at their stated meeting on Saturday last, (the 17th,) to appoint the subscribers as a committee to correspond or confer with you on the subject. There are three incorporated literary institutions in West Chester, in all of which the subscribers have an interest, the “West Chester Aeademy,” the “Chester County Athenaeum,” and the “Cabinet of Natural Science.” Without presuming to direct the course of your bounty, we would respectfully say that in our opinion the latter institution presents considerations which we beg leave to submit. It was formed a few years since by the voluntary association of a few gentlemen animated with a desire to improve them. selves in Natural Science, which in its wild extent embraces the knowledge of all created things in “the earth or in the heavens,” and to collect a museum of specimens and models, and of books and illustrative instruments: already is collected a valuable museum of nature in her botanical, animal and minerological products, some very valuable books, and other articles of curiosity and utility; and we contemplate to add to our means of knowledge, as our abilities shall warrant it, some other necessary aids to investigation, such as optical and astronomical instruments—in this Foint of light we should consider and cherish the Telescope of General Wayne, not only as a relique of that great man, and shining ornament of our country, and as sacred to his memory, but as a highly prized addition to our means of knowledge. The Cabinet found their effects and donations to increase in interest and value so rapidly that, nearly a year ago, a Charter of Incorporation was obtained to secure perpetual succession, and the protection of their property; and if you should, in your kind and patriotic disposition, think us not unworthy of your bounty, we can only promise thankfully to receive, carefully to preserve, and faithfully transmit to posterity, the choice and approved Telescope of Gen. Wayne. We would be glad to have the liberty of engraving upon it, the venerated name of its former owner, and Vol. VIII. 47

that of the kind giver, in suitable terms: in this, however, we shall be entirely governed hy your will. With perfect respect, we subscribe ourselves, WILLIAM DARLINGTON, ISAAC DARLINGTON, ROBT. B. DODSON, West Chester, Sept. 17, 1831. Committee.

Waynesborough Farm, Sept. 25, 1831. GENTLEMEN-Your address of the 17th inst. I yesterday had the honor to receive. Every relique of the late Major Gen. Wayne has been, and ever will be, very precious in my estimation. The Telescope, which I shall, speedily, have the pleasure to transmit, is not among the least of the highly prized mementos of the General; and what stronger proof could I offer for the sincerity of this assertion, than the transfer of that instrument to the “Cabinet of Natural Science,” located in the beautiful borough of West Chester, so distinguished for the worth, talent, and enterprise of its inhabitants. I am perfectly convinced, gentlemen, that you will “thankfully receive, carefully preserve, and faithfully transmit to posterity, the chosen and approved Telescope of Gen. Wayne.” I very cheerfully give my assent to your engraving upon the Telescope the commemorative words which you have mentioned, and permit me to tender my grateful acknowledgments for this additional evidence of respect towards the General, as well as his son. I wish all possible prosperity to your literary and scientific institution, to you, gentlemen, individually, and the other members of the Cabinet, each of whom I flatter myself, will consider me truly and sincerely his Friend, and obedient servant, I. WAYNE. WM. DARLINGTox, Isa Ac DARLIN Grow, l{obt. B. Dodsox, Committee of Cab't of Nat'l Science, &c.

Esquires.

West Chester, Nov. 24, 1831.

Dean Sin,--It becomes our grateful duty, by order of the “Chester County Cabinet of Natural Science,” to express to you the deep sense which is entertained, by that institution, of your munificence, in presenting to it the valuable reflecting Telescope, heretofore, a favor. ite instrument of your father, the late Major General Anthony Wayne.

Rest assured, sir, that the Chester County Cabinet will faithfully preserve a donation which will constitute, at once, a memento of the distinguished services of the sire, and the patriotic liberality of the son; and we cannot for a moment doubt, that our successors will continue to guard it, as a precious relique of the Hero and Patriot, whose name for ever adorn the annals of our republic, and reflect a special lustre upon this, his own native county of Chester.

With sentiments of the highest respect and esteem, we have the honor to be your friends and fellow citizens, WM. DARLINGTON, ISAAC DARLINGTON, ROBT. B. DODSON,

Committee of C. C. C.

Hon. Isaac warre. Chester county, Pa.

370

AIDDRESS OF THE TARIFF convention.

[DEc EMBER

Ann Ress or the FRIENDs of DOMESTIC INDUSTRY, .Assembled in Convention at New York, Oct. 26, 1831, To Tink PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATE S. [Concluded from page 358.]

We ask the attention to another topic. Revulsions in trade are unavoidable: the balance of supply and demand cannot always be regulated with precision. There is a tendency, growing out of the prosperous commerce, to push success to an extreme which produces reaction. To these periods of embarrassment, of general stagnation, and severe pressure for money, the United States have been peculiarly subject. We attribute this in a great measure, to our having depended, in so great a degree, for our manufactures, upon the nations of Europe. Importation is induced more frequently by the necessity or hope of the manufacturer to find a market, than by actual reference to the wants or means of the community. A reduction in the prices of exports, following an excessive importation causes a state of exchange which leads to an exportation of specie; the moment this exportation touches that portion of the precious metals necessary to sustain the money circulation, the operations of the banks become embarrassed, and distress and dismay are spread through all classes of the community. We believe that the system which furnishes a nation with manufactures, essential to its daily wants, from its own industry, is the best possible security against violent changes in its currency—changes which paralize all industry, and disturb all trade; and we therefore submit to the experience and judgment of the American people, whether the protective system is not, in this particular, more advantageous to the country than that which, aster deluging our markets with foreign manufactures, draws from us, in return, not a useless commodity, but the instrument by which our exchanges are performed, the very basis of our bank circulation, the 2ssential principle of commercial confidence. Mistaken opinions in regard to the effect of the tariff upon the prices of commodities used in the United states, upon which the protective system has been brought to bear, have furnished some popular, objections against the wisdom of the policy. It has been said that the effect of a duty is necessarily to increase the price of any article upon which it is laid to the full amount of tax. It would be easy to show, by a minute survey of the whole field of American industry, that, so far from this being true, the invariable operation of the tariff has been to lower the price to the consumer of every article that has been successfully manufactured under the protection. Such a survey would require more detail than the purpose of this address allows, but we propose to examine the operation of the tariff upon some of our most important staples. In the article of cotton, it is admitted. that our manufacture has arrived at such perfection, in the production of the coarse fabrics, that they are not only furnished at a little more than one half of the cost which the mported articles of the same kind bore a few years ago, but they are produced as cheaply at the present time, as our foreign rivals, under all the excitements of American competition, are able to furnish them. They have had a constant and increasing demand for several years, for exportation as well as for home consumption. None but the finer Qualities are now imported, which are little, if at all affected by the minimum duty. . The price of raw cotton has fallen but a cent a pound within the last four years, whilst the price of cotton goods—of sheetings, for instance, of more than three yards to the pound—has fallen nearly four cents a yard within the game period. Satinets, of wool and cotton, are made at

less than one half the price of cassimeres, and are more durable. Cotton flannels formerly imported from China, at from fifty to sixty cents a yard, are now made, of a better quality, here, at from fifteen to twenty cents. Indeed we might enumerate every species of manufacture in which this material enters as a component part, to show that both in the character of the article and the cheapness of its price, the country has been a great gainer since the enactment of the system that has produced its fabrication. To the cotton planters of the United States, the system has undoubtedly yielded the most decisive advantages. It has created a certain valuable market for about one-fifth of her crop, and it has encouraged the consumption of large quantities of their staple, in fabrics to which it never would have been applied, if the manufacture had not been carried on in our own country. The establishment of cotton"mills amongst us has had the most visible tendency, to induce our manufacturers to apply cotton to uses which both the policy and the position of foreign manufactures, would have forever forbidden them from adopting. This fact is conspicuously seen in the application of cotton to sailcloth, and to all those articles of heavy clothing, in which it has lately been substituted for wool. It is now manufactured into carpets, blankets, cordages, twine, network, and a variety of other commodities, that may be said to be exclusively of American origin. Cotton being a product of our own soil, we have naturally an interest to extend its application to new uses, above what might be expected from other nations who are mere purchasers of the article, and who are as much, if not more concerned in preserving, and promoting the use of wool and hemp, in the fabrics to which we have applied our cotton. o Let us next consider the article of Iron, and we will introduce the notice of it with a quotation from that masterly report of the first secretary of the treasury, which, forty years ago, recommended prohibitory duties, in favor of manufacturers of this article:—“for” says the report, “they are entitled to pre-eminent rank. None are more essential in their kinds, none so extensive in their uses. They constitute, in whole or in part, the implements or the materials, or both, of almost every useful occupation. Their instrumentality is every where conspicuous. It is fortunate for the United States, that they have peculiar advantages, for deriving the full benefit of this most valuable material, and they have every motive to improve it with systematic care. It is to be found in various parts of the United States, in great abundance, and of almost every quality; and fuel, the chief instrument in manufacturing it, is both cheap and plenty.” This report, which is a treatise on: political economy, at least equal to any thing that has appeared since its publication, states that the average price of iron before the revolution, was about sixty-four dollars per ton, and that at the time of that report it was about eighty dollars. Soon after, it appears to have risen to ninety-five dollars, and in 1814, was as high as one hundred and fifty dollars. After the ineffectual tariff of 1818, which ruined numbers, induced by its vain protection, to make investments in the manufacture of iron, it rose from ninety to one hundred and five dollars per ton. Under the influence of the acts of 1824 and 1828, it has declined to its present prices of from seventy-five to eighty-five dollars per ton, and there is every reason for the confident belief entertained, that if our own market be protected against the formidable and incessant endeavours of the British manufacturers to control it, the price of iron will, before long decline at from fifty to sixty dollars per ton. Such is the irrefutable proof of all recent experience. Cut nails, which in 1816, sold for twelve cents per pound, are now sold for less than half that sum, under the permanent security of five cents per pound, which has given our manufacturers their own market. “The United States, (says Hamilton's report before mentioned) already in great measure, supply

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themselves with nails. About one million eight hundred thousand pounds of nails and spikes, were imported into the United States, in the course of the year ending the 4th of September, 1790. A duty of two cents per pound, would it is presumable, speedily put an end to so considerable an importation, And it is in every view proper that an end should be put to it.” Bar Iron which sold at Pittsburgh in 1829, at $122, sells there now at $95. Castings which were $63, are now 50 per ton. Such are the practical results, proving the operations of the tariffs on the markets for iron. The duty by the law of 1816, was so inadequate as to

cause nothing but ruin to those concerned, and en

hancement of price to the consumer. The act of 1818 was some amelioration; the acts of 1824 and 1828, which increased the duty, decreased the price. Hammered bar iron, under a duty of twenty-two dollars and forty cents a ton, is at a lower price than when under a duty of nine dollars a ton, and improved in quality from five to ten per cent. by the greater care and skill which more extensive investment has naturally created under more certain protection. The efforts of the English manufacturers to destroy the American manufacture of iron, and possess themselves of our market, have occasioned extensive bankruptcies amongst them in England, and reduced the price of iron considerably below the cost of manufacture; insomuch that a convention of iron manufacturers, recently held there, resolved to reduce the quantity made, twenty per cent. throughout the United Kingdoms. With the control of our market, they would infallibly regulate both the price, and the quantity of the iron in this country— thirty-one establishments of which have appeared in Western Pennsylvania alone, since the last tariff acts. The influence of protection upon wool, while it has been most beneficial upon the farming states, has had no tendency that we are aware of, to injure the plantation states. The number of sheep in the United States, is computed at about twenty millions: and their increase at about five millions since the act of 1828, which gave a great impulse to the stock. The farmers of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York, and other wool-grow. ing states, have an interest in this national property, taken at fifty-five cents per lb. nearly equal to the capital of the plantation states, in the cotton crop of this year, reckoning at thirty millions of dollars. There is no doubt that within three years to come, the farming capital in wool, will be more valuable than the plantatation capital in cotton. Without protecting duties, American wool would be reduced one-half in quantity and in price. The large flocks which now cover the immense and inexhaustable pastures of the United States, most of them more or less of the fine Spanish breeds, would be again slaughtered, as has been heretofore the case, for want of due protection, and this great capital in fleece sacrified to that of cotton, with enormous loss to one interest, and with no possible advantage to the other. For like every thing else, woollen goods have fallen from twenty to twenty-five per cent, since the last tariff. The immediate effect of that act, by calling a large number of additional clothiers into active enterprise, was to cause a decline in prices, ruinous to many of those before engaged in the occupation. Under the influence of the improvement in the [. of wool, woollen manufacturers have rallied again, ut, at least as respects them, the charge of monopolizing prices is a cruel mockery. The advantages of the tariff, in its operation upon wool, have thus far been confined almost exclusively to the farming interest; the manufacturers have yet all their way to win, and the effect of that competition, which is the result of protection, cannot be known until it has had longer time for operation. The finest cotton and woollen manufactures are not much made in the United States, but we may assert without fear of contradiction, that nine-tenths of the American people, who do not affect foreign luxuries

and fashions, may be clothed with woollen, cotton, fur, and leather fabrics of their own country, better and cheaper than either could have been obtained abroad, if the tariff had never been enacted. The greatest mistakes prevail in this respect; it is continually said, that hats, coats, boots and other articles of dress, are dearer here than elsewhere. Such is not the case with all those who are independent of foreign fashions. Those who enjoy superior wealth, and study superior elegance, are at liberty to gratify their caprice, at that additional expense which such a gratification costs in all countries—in none more than in Great Britain, where the opulent and noble are in the habit of paying more extravagantly for French, Asiatic and other luxuries, than some of our opulent citizens choose to pay, in like manner, for luxuries imported from abroad. Whilst we assert that it has been the effect of the protective system, to benefit the consumers by giving them manufactures cheaper than they had them before, we are willing to admit that prices have had a correspondent fall in the same articles abroad; but this fall of price abroad has been the result of the competition of American labor. It is impossible to advert to the fact, that the United States export to foreign markets, six times the quantity of domestic manufactures that they exported in 1820, and at present furnish incomparably the largest share of the home demand, without perceiving the tendency of such a competition to reduce the price of the same articles amongst all those nations who aim in supplying us. But we hold it to be a common error, to consider the comparative cheapness of the foreign and domestic commodity, a test of the value of the system. Even if it were true, that the domestic product were not reduced in price, and were to be procured only at a higher cost than the foreign, still the benefit of the system would be found in the fact, that it enables the domestic consumer to afford the higher price for the manufac. ture, and, thereby to furnish himself on better terms than he could have done when obliged to depend upon the foreign imported commodity—that, in other words, the increase of price, if it has taken place, cannot be called a tax upon the consumer, if the same system which has increased the price, has also increased his means of paying it. That this increased ability to pay has occurred to a most beneficial extent, is evident in the invigorated condition of our agriculture in the last three or four years, during which period the value of the labor of the farmer, and with it the value of his land, it is well known, has risen some twenty or thirty per cent. This augmentation in the value of agricultural labor and capital, can be ascribed to no other cause, than to the increase of the manufacturing classes, and to the rapid growth of our home market under the protective system. During this period, there have been no wars to create a demand abroad for our grain, but on the contrary, all the producing nations have been exerting their industry to the utmost, and maintaining a rivalry against our own citizens, which , would have visited them with the most disasterous consequences, if they had not found a steady and valuable market at home...The fact, too, that agricultural products have risen whilst manufactured goods have fallen, furnishes the best proofs that the fall of prices is to be mainly attributed to the competition of domestic labor. The loudest complaints of oppression procced from the South, particularly from South Carolina; but that these complaints are not owing to the tariff acts, is unquestionably proved by the fact, that their public press, their memorials to congress, and other mediums of complaint, were as much burthened with them before those acts, as they have been since. In the acquisition of the extensive and fertile territories annexed to the United Sates, by the purchase of Louisiana, the lands and property of the plantation states, could not fail to be depreciated by a vast accession of lands, at least as

fertile, for all similar purposes. But it is inconceivable

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