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many things which greatly conduce to the illustration of our opinion; this especially: As the Word foresaw that his passion would be offered to the Father for the elect, so he offered it effectually in the event, and the whole Trinity effectually accepted his passion for them; and for no others was it effectually offered, nor from eternity accepted. Scotus acknowledges, that, according to the eternal decree of the whole Trinity, the passion of Christ was offered and accepted in some singular way, and with some special intention for the elect.
Test. 5. Hugo de St. Victor (de Sacr. fid. lib. 1, part. 8, cap. 7, where he has a treatise on the passion of Christ) writes thus: Human nature was corrupted by sin, and altogether under the sentence of condemnation through sin ; and therefore if all had been condemned, there would have been no injustice. But grace came, and chose some out of the mass of munkind through mercy to salvation, and left others through justice in condemnation. Hugo plainly teaches that Christ in coming into the world and offering himself for the sins of the human race, had a special regard to the elect, whom he chose from the mass of mankind; and whom, according to the eternal good pleasure of God, he determined to bring to salvation through the merits of his death, and does always actually bring them to it.
Test. 6. Cajetan, in explaining Rom. viii. 32, He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things ? writes thus, Paul had perceived that the aforesaid argument of so many gifts did not effectually infer that God worked all Things to the elect for good; but that God worked for good to them; and therefore that he might effectually conclude that it was with respect to ALL THINGS, he added, that God had freely given even his Son for the elect, that thence he might infer that all things were given with the Son to the elect. These words of Cajetan cannot be accommodated to that universal giving of Christ, by which it is understood that he was equally given for the whole world : for this being granted, God would equally give all things
to all men; which is evidently false. Therefore some special giving must necessarily be admitted, according to which Christ may be understood to be given for the elect alone, and which alone brings with it an infallible and certain giving of all things necessary to salvation.
Test. 7. Stapleton, (Promptuar. moral. Dominic. 2, post. Pasch. p. 254) observes, Christ in dying died effectually indeed for his friends alone, and for those who would become his friends after the conversion of each of them, not for those who were his friends before. This Papist does not fear to acknowledge a special intention of Christ in dying as to the elect. For these were to be his friends after their conversion, for the effectual redemption of whom Christ laid down his life, when, together with others, they were ungodly enemies, sinners, dead in sins. He is said indeed to have died for all men, as to the sufficiency of his death; but for his sheep or his elect, as to its efficacy; that is, with the special intention of giving to them, through the merit of his death, that effectual grace by which they should believe and be saved.
Test. 8. Estius, on the words (Titus ii. 14) Who gave himself for us, says, that is, who having assumed our flesh delivered up himself, whether for all men, or especially for the elect, in whose person Paul often speaks. For the price of the death of Christ is sufficient indeed for the redemption of all men, but it is applied for salvation to the elect alone. Estius here intimates two things; first, That the oblation of Christ had a general regard to all men, but a special one to the elect; secondly, That the special regard ought to consist in this, that it should be joined with a certain intention of applying it. For he does not say, The elect alone apply this death of Christ to themselves for salvation through the strength of their free-will; but, It is applied to these alone for salvation; truly, by the special favour of God in choosing them and intending this great benefit for his elect through the death of Christ.
Test. 9. I come now to the Jesuits, who although they defend universal grace and universal redemption, yet dare not deny the special and effectual appointment and intention of this saving passion as to the elect. Let two of the most eminent, Suares and Vasques,* speak for the rest. Suares (in 3 Aquin. qu. 19, disp. p. 635, 41) remarks, As Christ prayed for men in a different manner; so he merited in a different manner, for some sufficiently, for others effectually. On which account, although he is the universal Redeemer of all, and a sufficient cause of salvation, yet he is in a special way the effectual cause of salvation to those whom he makes obedient to himself. For it cannot be supposed, that Christ did not otherwise offer his merits for those whom he knew to be elected by the Father, than for others, when he saw that it was the will of the Father that these should be infallibly saved, and not the others. Suares here allows, that the death and merits of Christ are effectual to the salvation of the elect on account of the special mode of the oblation, and the will of the Offerer; not on account of the causal or contingent act of the human will in apprehending it. .
Test. 10. Vasques (in 1 Aquin. qu. 23, disp. 49, cap. 3, p. 687) clearly acknowledges this special intention of Christ as to the elect in the application of his merits. I doubt not that Christ by his peculiar prayer and will applied his merits to those who were predestinated and elected. Again, (in 3 Aquin. qu. 19, disp. 77, cap. 5, p. 384) he produces Andreas Vegast asserting, That the merits of Christ did not profit all men effectually, because Christ did not pray, nor offer his passion for those whom they do not profit. We have
• SUARES, vide Note p. 529.–VASQUES, or Gabriel Vazquez, a Jesuit, author of various works collected in 10 vols. folio. Lugduni, 1620, containing Commentaries upon Thomas Aquinas, and similar works. He died at Alcala, in 1604, aged 55.- Antonii Biblioth. Hispania.)
+ ANDREAS VEGAS, or Andreas de Vega, a Spanish Franciscan, a Professor at Salamanca. He was at the Council of Trent in 1546, and was looked upon there to be a very able Divine, and had a great share in the Decrees of that Council concerning Justification. He wrote a defence of them in fifteen Books, in which he treats at large of Justification ; after which come fifteen questions upon the same subject, which are, as it were, an abridgment of that work, in which he treats of Faith, Grace, Good Works, and Merits, printed at Venice in 1548, and at Cologne in 1572 ; and, with a Preface by Canisius, at Aschaffembourg in 1621. This work of Vega's is a Commentary upon the Decrees of the 6th Session of the Council of Trent upon Justification.-[For a clear understanding of the different opinions on
then, not only the antient Fathers, but even the modern Papists, confessing what we are endeavouring to demonstrate, namely, That the death of Christ was so constituted by God to be an universal cause of salvation applicable to all men, that at the same time, through some special intention of him who offered and him who accepted it, it is constituted a particular cause of salvation to be infallibly and especially applied to all the elect, and to them alone. See also Malderi Anti Synod, p. 138.
Test. 11. Lastly, our own Divines, who do not deny that Christ suffered for all, yet at the same time profess that he redeemed the elect by his death in some peculiar manner Bucer expresses his opinion on these words, (Matt. i. 21) He shall save his people, that is, the elect, whom the Father brings to him. By his death he expiated the sins of all the elect, and merited that the Father being propitious to them should give them his Spirit. Here observe that Christ by his death merited something for the elect, which he did not merit for others : But what Christ merited for any one, he merited according to the appointment and acceptance of his Father: Therefore, according to the will and appointment of the Father, the death of Christ pertains to the elect in some special way, in which it is not extended to others. Musculus, who in his Common-places strongly urges, that Christ is to be esteemed an universal Redeemer, yet acknowledges a special intention of Christ concerning the redemption of the elect, (on Rom. 8) where he says, That Christ came into this world for the sake of the elect. Which cannot be otherwise understood than that he came into the world with a peculiar intention of infallibly saving the elect. Which special intention of obtaining for the elect the benefit of his passion to be applied to them, is so far peculiar to them, that it is not extended to others.
this important subject, and the point upon wbich all difficulty turns, the Editor would recommend to every doubting mind the perusal of Scott's Continuation of Milner, Vol. II. chap. xiii.]_ Vega wrote also a Commen, lary upon some other passages in the Council of Trent, printed at Alcala, in 1574. A Commentary likewise upon the Psalms, bearing his name, was printed at the same place in 1599.--( Du Pin.) VOL. 11.
Calvin, on Heb. ii. 13, at the words, Behold, I and the children which God hath given me, says, Christ brings none to the Father, but those whom He hath given him. But we know that this giving depends on eternal election ; because those whom the Father hath destined to life, he delivers into the custody of the Son, that he may preserve them in safety. Three things are here to be observed ; first, That God the Father hath specially destined some to life by the decree of election : secondly, That Christ the Mediator hath received these elect persons as peculiarly commended to him by the Father: thirdly, That Christ takes special care of these elect persons, and so defends and governs them in this life, that at length he may lead them to life eternal. Which things being granted, he would be destitute both of reason and religion who should deny that Christ, in the work of his oblation and of human redemption, intended the salvation of these persons with a peculiar, that is, with an absolute and effectual will. Zanchius (in Miscell. tract. de præd. Sanct. p. 14) observes, It is not false that Christ died for all men : for the passion of Christ is offered to all in the Gospel.
But he died effectually for the elect alone, because indeed they only are made partakers of the efficacy of the passion of Christ. But that they only are made partakers effectually of this passion, is to be referred to the special and effectual will of Christ in suffering, and of God the Father in accepting this sacrifice in a peculiar way for the elect more than for others : for in the participation of saving good, the will of God precedes the human will. Lastly, that I may not be tedious in bringing together many authors, Vorstius* him
• Vorstius (Conrad), an eminent Divine of the Arminian sect, born at Cologne in 1569, was the son of a dyer with a numerous family, who se. cretly seceded to the Protestant Communion. Conrad, who was destined to a literary life, after passing five years at a village grammar-school, was entered, in 1587, at the College of St. Lawrence, at Cologne, which he quitted without taking a degree, but was subsequently sent to Haerlem and Heidelburgh, at which University he was created a Doctor of Divinity. After visiting the Academies of Switzerland, and giving lectures on theology at Geneva, in 1596, he accepted the Professorship of the latter faculty at Steinfurt, where he also officiated as Minister until 1610, when he received a call to succeed Arminius in the professorship of Theology at Ley.