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Suares says,* (In 3, disp. 41, p. 629) Christ hath not merited remission of sins for all men as to its efficacy, because he hath not applied his merit so that all men should infallibly obtain such an effect. Therefore, to merit effectually, or as to its etńcacy, is to apply his merit to some persons with that intention, that they should infallibly obtain from it the effect of eternal life. He says a little more plainly, (p. 635) The merit of Christ equally regards all men as to its sufficiency, not, as to its efficiency; which is to be uảderstood not only on account of the effect, which is produced in one and not in another, but also on account of the will, by which Christ himself offered his merits in a different way for different persons. Thirdly, all those testimonies of the Scriptures which set before us the death of Christ connected with the certain purpose of redeeming his sheep, gathering together the children of God, purchasing the church, cleansing and preserving a peculiar people, and others of that kind beforementioned, plainly shew that this efficacy of which Divines speak, is to be entirely separated from the will of Christ in dying, and not to be sought from the contingent act of the human will. Christ, by some special application of his
• SUARES or SUAREZ (Francis), a learned theologian, born at Grenada, in Spain, in 1548. After having completed his education as a law student at Salamanca, he entered into the Society of the Jesuits, who employed him to teach philosophy at Segovia, and he subsequently occupied the Chairs of theology at Valladolid, Rome, Alcala, and Salamanca. T'he first Profes. sorship in the University of Coimbra becoming vacant, it was bestowed on Suares by Philip II. at the request of the heads of that Institution. He took an active part in the disputes which originated from the Theological doctrine of Father Molina, on the subject of Grace, which Suares endeavoured to explain by means of the principle termed “Congruism." He published a work against our King, James I., in defence of the Roman faith, for which he received the public thanks of the Pope and the King of Spain ; but the book was prohibited in England and France, and ordered to be burnt in London by the common hangman. His death took place in Sept. 1617, at Lisbon, whither he had gone to be present at Conferences to be held before the Legate of the Holy See. His works, extending to twentythree Volumes folio, were published at Mentz and Lyons, 1630, &c. and reprinted at Venice in 1740. His “ Tractatus de Legibus, ac Deo Legis. latore," esteemed his best work, was printed in London, 1679, folio. An abridgment of the works of Suares, by Father Noel, appeared at Geneva, 1732, two Vols. folio.-Moreri.--Biog. Univ.
offering, obtained that it should be rendered effectual to the elect; but the elect did not render it effectual to themselves by any special apprehension flowing from their own free-will.
ARGUMENT 5. We shall take our fifth argument from the Divine predestination. Since, the predestination of certain persons before the foundation of the world being admitted, it is necessary to admit that in the will of Christ in offering himself there was some regard and respect to their salvation to be produced by the merit of his passion. For whether we place the Divine election (according to our mode of understanding it) before the decree of his suffering, or place it afterwards, yet it will always remain firm, that in the will of Christ, whether as about to suffer, or as suffering, there was some effectual and singular intention of effectually saving these persons, whether elected or to be elected. Since the will of Christ is never without conformity to that of his Father: Therefore it is incredible (as Suares hath rightly remarked, in 3. disp. 31, § 2, p. 635) that Christ did not otherwise offer his merils for those whom he knew to be elected by his Father than for others, since he saw that it was the will of the Father that they should be infallibly saved, and not the others ; and to his will he conformed himself in all things. To this also refer the words of the prophet before quoted (Isa. liii. 10,) The pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand. Therefore, the election of some persons to eternal life, which proceeds from the gratuitous will of God, is put in execution through the merits of Christ, and therefore it is not to be doubted, that the meritorious death of Christ was specially and effectually destined by the Redeemer himself, and offered to the Father for the infallible redemption and salvation of these elect persons. Excellent is the observation of Scotus on this passage, (lib. 3, dist. 19, p. 74) Christ saw beforehand that his passion was to be offered to the Father for the predestinated and elect, and thus in reality he offered it effectually; and the whole Trinity thus effectually accepted it on their behalf, and for no others was it effectually offered or accepted from eternity. By effectual offering and acceptance he means nothing
more than that the offering and acceptance was joined with an absolute purpose of saving those for whom it was offered and accepted in this manner. Malderus, Bishop of Antwerp, relying on this argument, rejects the contrary opinion of those who think that Christ died for all equally as to the efficacy of his death, and concludes thus (page 137,)* Predestination being supposed, it follows, that Christ conferred by his death much more on these predestinated persons than on others. · ARGUMENT 6. Sixthly, we may argue from that proposition which is to be retained between the offering of Christ for men, and his prayer or intercession for them. That Christ prayed or interceded with his Father for the elect, that they might retain a firm and invincible faith to the last, and might effectually obtain salvation, may be collected from John xvii., and from his prayer offered for Peter by name, that his faith should not fail. And truly, he who should deny that the excellent gift of perseverance was obtained for particular persons by the special prayer of Christ, would refer the greatest of all spiritual benefits to the acceptance of free-will. This being admitted, I will add, As Christ specially prayed for special benefits to be conferred on the elect, so he specially offered up him. self in order to merit the same benefits. Of this special prayer and oblation Suares says (in 3, disp. 41, p. 635,) As Christ prayed for men in a different way, so he merited differently ; on which account, although he is the universal Redeemer of all men, and a sufficient cuuse of salvation, yet in a special way he is the effectual cause of salvation to those whom
* MALDERUS, or John MALDER, who was first a Doctor in Theology and Regius Professor in the University of Louvain, was nominated Bishop of Antwerp by the Governors of the Low Countries, and on the 7th of August, 1611, look possession of his See, over which he presided 22 years, and died at Antwerp, Oct. 21st, 1633. He is said to have been a man of singular modesty and learning. Besides treatises on Confession, and on the abuses of Mental Restrictions, he wrote, what he called, a Refutation of the Synod of Dort, (vide p. 527) a Commentary on the Song of Solomon, Theological Meditations, and several Volumes of Commentaries on the Summa of Thomas Aquinas. (Richard et Giraud, Bibliothèque Sacrée, tom II. p. 381, et tom. XV. p. 493.) VOL. II.
he makes obedient to himself. Therefore the prayer which Christ specially and effectually put up for the elect, had its foundation in the oblation, in which he specially and effectually offered up himself for them. Observe the force of the argument; Whatever Christ obtains for individual persons by his special intercession, that he merited for them with the Father by the offering of himself which pertained to them especially : But by his intercession he obtains for the elect faith, perseverance, and salvation itself: Therefore he specially offered himself for them, that he might infallibly procure for them these benefits. I doubt not (says Vasques, in 1, qu. 23, art. 5, disp. 94, cap. 3,) that Christ by his peculiar prayer and will applied his merits to those who were predestinated and elected.
ARGUMENT 7. The death and merit of Christ is the mean ordained by God for the execution and accomplishment of the eternal counsel of God concerning the salvation of men. If, therefore, the will of God shews itself differently in effecting the salvation of men, then also the death of Christ will be differently disposed by it in the salvation of men, and will be differently applied ; since means are always used in order to the end, and the mode of application will be according to the intention of the agent. Now it is certain, and admitted by all sound Divines, That God does not will the salvation of all, in the same way as he wills the salvation of some : Therefore, neither hath he willed that the means by which he hath determined that the salvation of mankind is to be procured, namely, the death of Christ, should be so applied to all as to some. Whence it follows, that the death of Christ was so destined for those to whom God hath determined salvation by his effectual will, that by the merit of it, all things necessary infallibly to produce salvation should redound to them from it. And, on the other hand, to those whom he hath not decreed salvation by such a will, neither was the death of Christ destined for them in the same manner. The death of Christ, therefore, according to the special intention of God the Father, who ordained this sacrifice for the salvation of men, and of Christ, who offered up himself in conformity to the will of the Father, is understood to have been destined and applied to the elect, whom God hath determined infallibly to save by his death, in a different way from its application to others, whom God permits, notwithstanding this death, to perish through their own fault. Whoever denies that the death of Christ was offered for men, and that it is applied to them with this difference, may by the same means deny that God, who is most wise and most powerful, either knows not how or cannot design and accommodate differently to various persons the means which were instituted by himself, as the different manner of his will demands.
ARGUMENT 8. It is certain from the event that some men apply to themselves the death of Christ, with its infinite merit, really and effectually for salvation. I ask, then, whether this application is made according to the antecedent and effectual intention of Christ in offering bimself on the cross, or contrary to it, or without any such preceding intention? If it should be granted, that Christ in dying had an antecedent and special will concerning the effectual application, which pertains to all the elect, and to them alone, this is the very thing we are endeavouring to prove, namely, that this death was destined, according to the special intention of God and Christ, to be effectually applied to the elect. But no man would say, that any person can effectually apply this death to himself contrary to the intention of Christ. There is but one thing remaining, viz. We say that this effectual application is made by some men according to the freedom of their own will, without any special, preceding, absolute, and effectual intention of the will of God. But religion forbids us to assert this: First, because in good and saving actions the effectual will of God is antecedent to the effectual will of man, For it is God which worketh in us both to will and to do of his good pleasure, (Philip. ii. 13) and he doth not work any thing in us antecedently which he hath not antecedently determined to work. Secondly, because in those works which pertain to salvation we can do nothing without Christ, (John xv. 5) Without me ye can do nothing. VOL. II.
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