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cation remaining. Therefore this consequence is faulty; viz. The death of Christ was not applicable to the damned after their condemnation; Therefore it was never and in no way applicable to them.
Objection 2. Those who say that the death of Christ is applicable, from the ordination of God, to every individual, at the same time affirm, that God has provided for many persons a remedy, which he foresaw would never profit them. For God knew that none of the reprobate would be healed by the medicine of the blood of Christ, and delivered from eternal death. To what purpose therefore would he ordain so precious a remedy to be applicable even to those to whom it was most certain that it would never be applied ?
Reply 2. You cannot on that account infer, that it rightly follows from our opinion, that this remedy, even by the ordination and appointment of God himself, is applicable to innumerable persons to whom it will never be actually applied. I deny, therefore, that any thing false or inconvenient can be deduced from thence, although this be granted. Yea, it is evident, that many benefits have been provided by God for angels and men, I may also add, and conferred sometimes, and duly ordained to a certain end, which God at the same time knew would never profit them, nor avail to produce such an end. Those excellent gifts, which were conferred upon the apostate angels in their first creation, were duly ordained by God to produce in them firm and constant obedience, and to secure their blessedness; yet God knew that they would be rebellious, and would never use those gifts to the obtaining of that good for which they were destined. The same may be said of Adam in his state of uprightness, whom God endued with knowledge and holiness, and guarded with admonitions abundantly sufficient to preserve him in his duty; knowing at the same time that all these things, which were applicable to the promotion of his obedience and felicity, would never be applied. It is not therefore foreign to Divine wisdom to appoint and ordain means applicable to a certain end, although he may understand that the application would be hindered by some intervening obstacle, which he had not determined to remove. Here may be adduced that question of Aquinas on predestination, where he makes a difference between providence commonly taken, and predestination, which is a special part of providence. Providence, he says, respects only an order to an end: predestination respects the end or event of an order. Those things which are ordained to an end by that more common providence, do not always obtain the end ; but those things which are ordained by an individual predestination always obtain it. As therefore God, by that more extensive providence, is understood to have provided many bodily remedies applicable to the removing of certain bodily diseases from any persons, which nevertheless he hath not determined to be infallibly applied to any particular individuals; so also we affirm that God of his love to man, and that more common providence, hath provided and ordained the blood of his Son as a remedy applicable to the expiation of the sins of mankind in general, although he hath not determined from his individual predestination to have it applied to all men individually. But for what purpose is that ordained as applicable to all men, which is not intended to be infallibly applied to all? I answer, that from hence the good-will, mercy, and justice of God may appear more conspicuous, whilst that remedy which, from the ordination of God, is applicable to every one for salvation, is applied nevertheless only to certain persons, to whom God shews his compassion in a special manner; it is not applied to others, although God promises it and sets it before them, through their own wickedness.
Objection 3. If the death of Christ, by the ordination of God, is a remedy applicable to all for salvation, then God would take care that this death of Christ should be announced to all, lest any one might pretend that he perished only through ignorance of so efficacious a remedy. But experience teaches, that this remedy was not revealed, for some ages, not only to many individuals, but also to many nations : Therefore that was not appointed by God to be a remedy applicable to all men individually,
which was concealed from so many, God himself so order. ing it.
Reply 3. We willingly concede what relates to the minor proposition; which also the sacred Scriptures testify, and the Fathers acknowledge to be most true. In Acts xiv. 16, Paul shews, that in times pust God suffered all nations to walk in their own ways, without any knowledge of Christ. And on this account, in Colossians i. 26, 27, he calls the Gospel of Christ, the mystery which hath been hid from ages and from generations, but now is made manifest to his saints, to whom God would make known what is the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles. Hence Prosper says On free-will; It is not removed from common observation in how many ages what an innumerable multitude of men have died in their errors and impieties, without any knowledge of the true God. And, On the calling of the Gentiles (lib. ii. cap 7), In the extreme parts of the world there are some nations, on whom the grace of the Saviour hath not yet shone. The minor proposition, therefore, being granted, we say that the consequence of the major is invalid. For God is not bound to procure the application of his remedy to any individual to whom he hath willed that it should be applicable; which is evident as well in corporeal as in spiritual remedies. Although, therefore, the death of Christ is, from the ordination of God, and the nature of the thing, a remedy of that kind, that it may be both announced and applied to every individual of the human race for the remission of sins, yet God is not bound by any promise to procure that it should be announced and actually applied to every individual. God willed that the death of his Son should be a treasure as it were deposited in his own hands, from whence he might dispense to the whole human race whatsoever regards the obtaining either of pardon, or grace, or glory: but he willed also that the actual communication of this treasure should remain in his own most free power, and from thence he should bestow it upon men according to the good pleasure of his own will. Is it not lawful for me to do what I will with mine own? Matt. xx. 15. We say, therefore, that the death VOL. 11.
and merit of Christ is, according to the revealed will of God, applicable to all men; and in this sense, that Christ died for all men, but not for the apostate angels. But this being assumed, we affirm nevertheless that God, who has absolute authority over his own gift, is not bound to make known, nor to apply this medicine to all mankind. So Augustine says, Whom he will not relieve, he does not relieve ; of whom in his predestination, he hath otherwise determined, secretly indeed, but justly. For there is no iniquity with God, but his judgments are inscrutable. Nor yet (as it was objected) will any one perish through ignorance alone of the remedy. For in all that perish there will be found causes why they perish, arising from their own demerits, their aforesaid ignorance accompanying only, not causing, their perdition. Thou hast destroyed thyself, &c.
OBJECTION 4. If the death of Christ is to be considered as a remedy or ransom applicable to every man, from the ordination of God, then also the resurrection, intercession, and mediation of Christ will have respect to all men in the same manner. But Christ was not raised up for all men, does not intercede for all, is not the mediator of all : Therefore, neither is his death to be extended to all. That these are never to be separated is proved from Romans viii. 34, where they are all joined together. It is Christ that died, yea, rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us. And Romans iv. 25, the Apostle teaches, that those for whose offences Christ died, for their justification he was raised again. But he was not raised again for all men; Therefore, neither did he die for all.
REPLY 4. If the ground of our defence be rightly weighed, it will easily appear that all these things are no detriment to our cause. For we do not contend that the death of Christ was, from the ordination of God, so applicable to each and every man, that on account of this propitiatory sacrifice, all men are at once placed in a state of grace and salvation; nor do we defend this, that from the special decree of God and of predestination, this death of Christ is infallibly to be applied to each and every man;
but that this death of Christ, God so ordaining it and rerevealing it in his word, is that ransom by which the sins of any man may be expiated who performs the conditions required in the Gospel. And hence it is that the preacher of the Gospel may confidently announce to every man in every part of the world, that salvation is procurable for him in the death of the Son of God, if he should believe. This cannot be promised to any of the fallen angels. Whence it is clear, that this conditional promise of salvation in the death of Christ, which may be announced to every man is founded on some ordination of the will of God, which regards men universally and individually, and does not regard angels. But let the opponents say what this ordination is, if it is not that which we assert concerning the death of Christ being applicable to the human race under the conditions of the Gospel These things being so determined, we come nearer to the solution of the aforesaid objection, that the death of Christ pertains to all men individually, as to his death itself, or the oblation made on the cross. For as we can truly announce to every man that his sins are expiable by the death of Christ according to the ordination of God, and will be expiated, if only be should believe in Christ; so also we can truly declare, that the same Christ was raised again, that he might justify him through faith, and was exalted at the right hand of God, that, by his mediation and merits, he might preserve him through faith in the favour of God, and at length might lead him to glory. Therefore we do not put asunder those things which God hath joined together; but we teach, that the death, resurrection, and intercession of Christ are joined together in indissoluble union, but in a different way. If we consider the whole human race, that is, each and every man, then we say, not only that the death, but the resurrection and intercession of Christ regards them, as to the possibility of their enjoying these benefits, the condition of faith being pre-supposed. If we consider the elect, we affirm that all these things regard them as to the infallibility of enjoying them, because of this condition of faith being destined for, and in time beVOL. II.
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