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8. The last argument is taken from a comparison of the twofold covenant, and according to it, of a twofold ordination of men to salvation. As, therefore, in the covenant of nature, that is, the agreement with Adam at the time of creation, salvation was procurable by Adam and all his posterity under the condition of obedience to be paid to the law of nature, and to the express commandment of God; so in the covenant of grace, which was confirmed by the blood of the Mediator, salvation is also understood to be procurable for all men under the condition published in the Gospel, that is, of faith in this Mediator, who hath made satisfaction for the sins of the human race. Moreover, as in the first covenant, God, who ordained salvation as procurable for Adam and his posterity, yet did not predestinate that either Adam himself or any of his posterity should be really saved by that covenant; so God, who in the second covenant ordained salvation as procurable for all under the condition of faith, yet hath not predestinated to give to all men individually this faith, by which they might infallibly obtain salvation. But lest the blood of the Son of God should flow, and through the fault of the human will the same should happen in the second covenant which had happened in the first, namely, that no one should enjoy the benefit of it, God resolved with himself a more deep and secret counsel, and determined of his mere and special mercy to give to some persons the ability and will to fulfil the aforesaid condition of faith, and further, that they should actually and infallibly fulfil it. But now, as he would be unjust towards God who should deny that salvation was ordained by God as procurable for Adam and his posterity under the covenant of nature; so he is more unjust towards Christ, who denies that his death was ordained by God, as a remedy for salvation applicable to all under the condition of the new covenant, although many do not obtain salvation by means of it. God himself gave to the world this remedy applicable to all mankind individually ; let the world concede to God the liberty of applying it, as it may seem

good to his wisdom and justice. Those who think in this manner of the death of Christ do not take away that common loving-kindness of God, of which the Scripture testifies; and yet at the same time they contend, that as many as are saved by the merit of the death of Christ, are saved by special and undeserved grace; and that as many as are not saved, perish through their own unbelief, or at least, through their own fault. I omit bringing forward any more arguments to corroborate this our opinion. Let us now attend to what is wont to be objected on the other side.



Before we explain those things which may be objected on the other side, it should be premised, that we do not undertake the cause of those who declare that Christ by his death obtained remission of sins, reconciliation with God, and a state of salvation for each and every man. Thus Borreus* seems to think with Arminiust (Reply of Armin. to Artic. 13, 14), who, leaning on this foundation, asserts, that all infants of all nations dying without actual sins, are saved, because God hath taken the whole human race into the grace of reconciliation. He thinks therefore that by the sacrifice of the death of Christ the whole human race was placed in a state of salvation, from which if they should not fall, they will undoubtedly obtain salvation. Many persons ascribe the same error to Huberus and Puccius. But our defence is, not indeed that by this death of Christ salvation is actually obtained for all man

* ADRIAN VANDER Borre, one of the ministers of Leyden ; a Remonstrant. Brandt's Reformation in the Low Countries, Vol. III. p. 351.

+ After what has been said relative to this eminent man in the life of Bishop Davenant, prefixed to these Volumes (see Life; Vol. 1. pp. xiixiv.) any thing further is almost unnecessary. Nor, while pursuing the course he has adopted towards others, need the Editor do more in this instance than remind the Reader that, as in the case of Calvin, the name of Arminius has been applied to many whose loose theology he would have despised, and whose irreligious practice he would have abhorred. It must be remembered, that it was the extremes of Ultra-Calvinism which reluctantly dragged him into the field of controversy-a scene ill-suited to the meek piety and huniility of his temper; that the support of his views exposed him to persecution and reproach of the bitterest kind; to which there is no doubt his life was sacrificed ; and that the whole tenor of his conduct, under circumstances the most trying, and the patient and fervent faith which he exemplified in the excruciating torments of the bed of leath, evince, as it

kind, or that by its benefit each and every man is received into favour, and placed in such a state as, if he should continue in it, he would possess eternal life : But that this death of Christ is, according to the determination of the Divine will, a remedy applicable for salvation to the whole human race, or to every individual of the human race, although in procuring and effecting its application, God in an especial manner has compassion on some, and not on others. You have heard this sentiment in some measure confirmed by arguments. We will now vindicate it from the objections which may be brought against it on the other side.

OBJECTION 1. First, therefore, it may be objected, That at the time when Christ suffered death, many had been adjudged to hell, and tormented there, but there is no redemption from hell: How then can we contend that the death of Christ was ever applicable in any way to these condemned persons ? Some, influenced by this argument, have concluded that the innumerable multitude of the wicked, who lived from the beginning of the world until the coming of Christ, and who, on account of their impiety, were cast into hell, had no more right in the benefit of redemption, before the sacrifice of Christ was offered up on the cross, than the devils themselves. Thus the Leyden Fathers speak in a writing which is extant in Vol. 9. Biblioth. Patrum, As the Lord Jesus Christ is by no means said to have suffered for the wicked and condemned angels, so it is not to be believed that he suffered all things for those impious and condemned men.

Reply 1. But I answer, When we affirm the death of Christ according to the ordination of God, and the nature of the thing, to be a remedy applicable to every man, we consider not merely the outward passion of Christ endured

ought to be acknowledged by every upright mind, that he was a sincere disciple and servant of the blessed Jesus.-In regard to the writings of Armi. nius, it may suffice to cite the remark of an eminently useful and candid Author. “ Sorr.e modern writers,” says he, “ would be surprised to find how Calvinistic Arminius is. He would certainly have been viewed by them as a Calvinist.” Bickersteth's Christian Student.

at the appointed moment of time, but the eternal virtue of the death of Christ, bringing salvation to mankind in every age. For Christ, as to the intention of God, was a Lamb slain from the foundation of the world, and the efficacy of this propitiatory sacrifice could extend itself as much to those who lived before Christ suffered, as to us who live after his passion. If therefore they only mean, that those could not be relieved by the death of Christ in time, who before his death were by an irrevocable decree adjudged to infernal punishment, we confess the same; because they had then ceased to be living in this world, and therefore were not capable of repentance and faith ; but if they mean to contend further, that the eternal virtue of the death of Christ was not applicable to such persons while they were alive in this world, because the passion of Christ did not regard them any more than the wicked and condemned angels, that we deny. For it may be truly said of Cain, Esau, or any man who died before Christ suffered, that he might have been absolved from his sins, and saved through the virtue of the sacrifice to be offered up by the Messiah, if he had believed in him; which cannot be said of the condemned angels: because the universal covenant of salvation under the condition of faith, embraces the whole human race, but does not embrace the fallen angels. It is therefore worthy of observation, that God would not that the death of his Christ should either be applied or applicable under any condition to any of the fallen angels: to all these, therefore, God conducted himself alike and equally. But not equally to mankind; for as to these, although he determined and declared that the death of his Son was applicable to any one under the condition of faith, yet he did not determine to cause it by the benefit of his special mercy to be applied equally to every one. We do not deny therefore what is evident, namely, that the differeuce between devils and men consists in this, that from the ordination of God, the death of Christ is a thing ordained for and applicable to mankind; but neither ordained for, nor applicable to devils; although after this life, to men placed in hell there is no further possibility of appli

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