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Christ would profit him if he believed, we presume that it was destined for him, as applicable before he believed.

4. If all men, as soon as the doctrine of the Gospel concerning Christ the Redeemer enduring death on account of the sins of mankind, is made known to them, are bound to be grateful and obedient to Christ, then it is certain that this work of the Redeemer in offering himself as a sacrifice to God, is to be considered as a benefit generally applicable to all; for there is no cause why we should say that they are bound to gratitude, or to the duties of obedience, on account of the death of Christ, who are altogether excluded from that benefit: But an Apostle testifies that every man may be excited to obedience by this argument. For to all men, after this mystery of the death of Christ has been opened to them, that may be truly said which is contained in 1 Cor. vi. 20, Ye are bought with a price, therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God's. And also in 2 Cor. v. 15, He died for all, that they which live should not henceforth live unto themselves, but unto him which died for them and rose again. Unless the death of Christ be understood as a remedy applicable to all, the foundation on which the ministers of the Gospel build exhortations of this kind, will be always uncertain, and often false: Always uncertain, because it cannot be known by men who are the elect. Often false, as often indeed as it is exhibited to the non-elect, who by this kind of redemption are not bound to live to Christ, unless it be presupposed that the sacrifice offered by Christ for the redemption of the world was for them. Moreover, Christ could not claim for himself any supreme dominion over each and every man in right of his death, unless the merit of his death were, according to the ordination of God, applicable to all for salvation. Since, then, To this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living, Romans xiv. 9, we ought, to extend his death to all, at least as to the right and power of a saving application; although the Spirit of Christ (who bloweth where he listeth) gives to men the faculty and will of applying, as well as the benefit of the death applied, according to the decree of his special mercy.

5. That work which truly and deservedly, as soon as it is understood to have been agreed upon between God the Father and the Son, gives to Christ the name of the Redeemer of the world and Saviour of the world, is to be acknowledged as an universal cause of salvation, or an universal remedy, applicable to the whole human race: But such was the work of the obedience of Christ unto the death of the cross ; Therefore it is applicable to the whole human race. The major is confirmed from hence, that on account of the price paid, Christ would be only a partial Redeemer and Saviour, if the price paid were not, according to the ordination of God, applicable to every indivi. dual of the human race. We therefore, who give to Christ the title of Redeemer and Saviour of the world, ought at the same time to grant, that this redemption from whence he is so named, was the payment of the price due for the liberating of the human race; which so far avails with God, that he cannot require any other satisfaction in order to reconcile any man to himself; and it is so far profitable to us all, that any sinner may be delivered, provided he should believe in this Redeemer, and (what in respect to remedies ought to be done) should apply to himself this saving medicine by faith. In this sense we truly say, that Christ died for all men, and that this death of Christ, or redemption acquired by his death, is a merit applicable to all men individually, which cannot in any way be affirmed of the fallen angels. Christ Jesus is, therefore, the Redeemer and Saviour of all men causally, as the Schoolmen say, that is, by instituting and supplying a sufficient cause, ordained and accepted by God, for expiating the sins of all those who are willing to make use of this remedy. This is a sufficient foundation for the title of universal Saviour und Redeemer, although the will of believing is not given to all. Now let us go to the minor, which is so plain that it does not need any laborious proof. The Scriptures, by viewing this death of Christ as applicable to all, call

him, the Saviour of the wurld ; John iv. 42, This is indeed the Christ, the Saviour of the world. They call the death of Christ, a ransom for ull, 1 Tim. ij. 6, given for the redemption of all, and the propitiation for the siis of the whole world, 1 John ii. 2. The Catholic church also, in her public prayers, has always namell Christ the Redeemer of the world. But lest any one should pervert titles of this kind to that sense, as if Christ were called the Redeemer of the world because he hath effectually redeemed the elect dispersed through the whole world, I add this at the last, that both the Fathers and modern writers have asserted, that Christ is the Redeemer of the world in the sense laid down by us, namely, because his death is a ransom from the ordination of God applicable to all men individually. To this those words of Prosper apply (Ad Object. Vincentian. Resp. 1.) On account of one nature of all and one cause of all undertaken in truth by our Lord, all are rightly said to be redeemed, although all are not delivered from captivity. And a little after, The cup of immortality which is made up of our infirmity and Divine virtue, hath indeed in itself what may be beneficial to all, but if it is not drunk, it does not heal. Those words of Musculus before quoted refer to the same thing (Common-places, p. 151). We know that all do not become partakers of this redemption, but the perdition of those who are not saved does not prevent it from being called universal redemption. For it does not arise from any defect in the grace of God that reprobates do not receive it, nor is it just that on account of the sons of perdition it should lose the glory and title of universal redemption, since it is prepared for all and all are called to it. From all which it appears, that Christ is rightly called the Redeemer and Saviour of the world, because he has brought to the whole human race a remedy applicable to the procuring of the salvation of every individual.

6. If it was the counsel and will of God, that Christ by dying should pay to Him a most full, perfect, and sufficient satisfaction, not only to deliver those who believe in the benefit of God, and thus eventually are saved, but also for those who continue in unbelief through their own fault, and thus eventually are condemned, then it must be confessed that this death of Christ is a remedy from the nature of the thing, and the ordination of God, applicable to all : But such was the counsel and will of God; which is evinced from the Divine promises, which make known his will to us. For God has promised salvation, under the condition of faith and repentance, even to those who would never perform those conditions. Thus remission is promised to Cain, if he should repent. Gen. iv. 7. Which salvation, or remission of sins, conditionally promised to such a person, clearly proves that a cause of salvation was procured and applicable to the same person, under the aforesaid condition. The same is evinced in that God in the work of redemption hath so ordered his counsel that no man can truly complain that he perished through a defect in the expiatory sacrifice. But he to whom the death of Christ is not applicable for salvation as a remedy according to the will of God, may not less truly affirm that a sacrifice was wanting for him, than for the wicked angels, for whom under no condition is the death of Christ ordained. And this is that counsel which the Pharisees are said to have despised. Luke vii. 30.

7. If according to the order and nature of the things themselves, and our consideration of them, the death and merit of Christ is to be assumed as a thing ordained and destined by God for the good of the human race before it can be understood for whom faith was destined, then it is necessary to consider it as a cause of salvation applicable to all before it be determined that it is applied or infallibly to be applied to this or that person. The argument of the consequence is this, That it is understood that the death or merit of Christ is not applied, nor to be applied to any one, until it is presupposed that faith is granted or to be granted to him. And on the contrary, the death of Christ is considered to be applicable to any one, before it is conceived that faith is denied or to be denied to him for ever. Now I add the minor, namely, that the death or merit of Christ, in his infinite mercy, ought to be considered as a thing determined on and destined for men before faith is destined for any individual persons. Which appears, in the first place, because the death or merit of Christ is the object of faith. But to what purpose would have been the gift of faith to Peter or Paul, unless a saving remedy had first been ordained applicable to any one through faith? Further, faith, like all other saving gifts, is conferred upon men on account of Christ and through his merit; therefore, in the order of the Divine decrees, the death of Christ precedes the faith of every Christian. To this those words of the Divines of the Palatinate refer, in their judgment exhibited at the Synod of Dort (Art. Synod. Dordrecht. page 88), The faith of the elect does not precede, but follows the death of Christ, because his death is the cause of faith, on account of which the elect are given to Christ, and the object of faith, which it beholds and embraces. Finally, it is decreed, that through the death of the second Adam, salvation is procurable for all men who are lost in the first Adam, before it is decreed to whom it may be given effectually and infallibly, and to whom it may not be given. It is to be confessed, therefore, that the Mediator Jesus Christ, with his death and the infinite treasure of his merits, is, from the ordination of God, applicable for salvation to the whole human race, although the most free, most just, most secret good pleasure of God intervenes, according to which he determines that faith (through means of which application is made) should be infallibly given to certain persons and not given to others. But why, in dispensing the treasure of the merits of Christ, which is sufficient for and applicable to all men individually, he acts so unequally with persons in equal circumstances, we ought not to inquire, since we cannot ascertain, but with the Apostle acquiesce in the secret will of God, He hath mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth. Romans ix. 18. No one hath first given to him, thut it should be recompensed unto him again. Romans xi. 35.

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