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for one nation, but for the whole world. A little afterwards : That reprobate and deplorably wicked men do not receive it, is not through any defect in the grace of God, nor is it just that on account of the children of perdition, it should lose the glory and title of universal redemption, since it is prepared for all, and all are called to it. To all these may be added Zanchius,* who so defends predestination, that at the same time he contends that Christ died for all. For when he had taught that Christ had not died for all, as it regards the omnipotent will of God, that is, his absolute good pleasure of conferring eternal life on all mankind, through the death of Christ, yet he subjoins, That it is not false that Christ died for all men as it regards his conditional will, that is, if they are willing to become partakers of his death through fuith. For the death of Christ is set before all in the Gospel, and no one is excluded from it, but he who excludes himself. (Miscel. de Præd. Sanctor. Explic. Thes. 13.) That I may not be tiresome, I omit the rest. This is one thing I should wish to be observed, That our orthodox Doctors so explained the doctrines of election and reprobation, that the decree concerning the chusing of certain individual persons to the infallible obtaining of eternal life, and passing by others, might not infringe the universality of the redemption accomplished by the death of Christ.
Hitherto we have briefly surveyed those things which relate to the historical knowledge of this controversy. From which it is manifest, not only that the antient Fathers, but also our modern Divines, confessed that the death of Christ pertained in some manner to the whole human race. Yet in our age it has pleased some Divines to pass over these limits, and openly to defend in exclusive terms this proposition, That Christ died for the elect alone. To whoin on the opposite side others reply, That Christ offered himself to God the Father to redeem all individuals equally. That we may throw some light upon this question, we will now enter upon that twofold consideration of the death of Christ of which we have before made mention, and will reduce it to certain propositions.
• Vide Vol. I. page 237, Nole. VOL. II.
DEATII OF CHRIST.
ON THE DEATH OF CHRIST, AS THE UNIVERSAL CAUSE OF
SALVATION, APPLICABLE TO ALL MANKIND.
WE enter now on our subject, and in the first place propose to consider the death of Christ as it is generally represented in the holy Scriptures, and ought to be regarded by us, as an universal remedy appointed by God, and applicable for salvation to the whole human race. Then we shall proceed to the other point in dispute respecting the death of Christ, and take into consideration how far it may be viewed as a particulur remedy, by the special decree of God to be efficaciously and infallibly applied to the salvation of particular persons. Should we be able to elucidate these two points, it will have a considerable tendency both to remove the difficulties with which the controversy on the death of Christ is involved, and to assuage the heat of theologians who have been warmly engaged in polemic discussion. In the former of these views with regard to the death of Christ, several propositions will occur to be discussed, of which the first and chief, as the basis of the rest, may be stated in these words :
1. The death of Christ is represented in holy Scripture as an universal remedy, by the ordinance of God, and the nature of the thing itself, applicable for salvation to all and every
individual of mankind. This proposition is first to be explained, then to be confirmed by testimonies and arguments, and lastly, to be defended against the objections which are brought against it. With respect to the explanation of the terms, when we speak of the death of Christ, we comprehend in it the whole obedience of Christ, active and passive, the completion of which, and as it were the last act, was effected in his death ; on which account Divines are accustomed by synecdoche to attribute to his death what relates to his entire obedience. Whatever therefore Christ did, and whatever he suffered, from the cradle to the cross, the whole of the meritorious and satisfactory work of the Redeemer we comprehend in our proposition to be allied to and connected with his death. Thus the Apostle, in Rom. v. 19, makes the obedience of Christ, universally considered, the cause of man's salvation, By the obedience of one shall many be made righteous. And in Phillip. ii. 7, 8, when it is said, That he humbled himself and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross, the Apostle does not exclude from his meritorious work any part of the antecedent obedience of Christ, but rather considers it included, and teaches that this meritorious obedience of Christ began at that time when he took the form of a servant, and was consummated when he of. fered himself on the cross. Under the word death, then, we comprehend that infinite treasure of merits which the Mediator between God and men, the man Jesus Christ, by doing and suffering, procured and laid up for our benefit. Again, when we say that this death or this merit is repre. sented in the holy Scriptures as the universal cause of salvation, we mean, That according to the will of God explained in his word, this remedy is proposed indiscriminately to every individual of the human race for salvation, but that it cannot savingly profit any one without a special application. For an universal cause of salvation, or an universal remedy, includes these two things: first, that of itself it can cure and save all and every individual : secondly, that for the production of this determinate effect in each individual it should require a determinate application. Not VOL. 11.
unaptly, therefore, did Aquinas say, The death of Christ is the universal cause of salvation, as the sin of the first man may be said to be the universal cause of damnation. But it is necessary that an universal cause should be applied particularly to each individual, that its proper effect may be experienced. Further, what we maintain in our proposition, that this universal cause of salvation is applicable to all and every individual of mankind, at once excludes the apostate angels, to whom (whatsoever may be thought of the intrinsic value and sufficiency of this remedy) according to the revealed will of God, its universality is not extended. Nor even with respect to men can it be extended so universally as to be applicable to every one under every state and circumstance. For it is not applicable to the dead or the damned, but to the living: nor to the living under every condition, but under the conditions ordained by God. The death of Christ was not applicable to Peter for salvation, if Peter had persisted in denying Christ to the last. And the same death of Christ was capable of application to Judas, if Judas had repented and believed in Christ. For. this cause, therefore, we have not merely said that it is applicable to all and every individual of mankind, but on this being added, fiom the ordination of God, and the nature of the thing. For there is in the Gospel a certain ordination of God, according to which the death of Christ is applicable to all and every living man; which cannot be truly affirmed of demons or the damned. To this those words in the conference at the Hague seem to relate, in which the Contra-remonstrants endeavoured to shew some difference between the state of the devils and certain unbelievers. For the devils, they say, a Mediator was not given or ordained, but for men (page 154). A little after, Unbelievers, although they have deserved condemnation. yet there is at present some way and means through which they may avoid it, namely, if they should believe (page 155). Any sinner may know, even before he departs this life, that Christ died for him also, as far as pertains to the sufficiency of his merits, and also as to their application, provided only he should believe in him (page 156). Such are their senti
ments. In which it is taken for granted, that the death of Christ is, according to the mode prescribed by God, applicable to any living person. And should it be objected, that it is not applicable to any person remaining in impenitence and unbelief, let it be remembered that the nonapplication in such cases arises not from the limitation of the remedy, but because the only mode of application appointed by God is obstinately rejected. For no remedy can be available if its application be obstinately refused and pertinaciously rejected even to the last.
Once more let it be observed, we do not affirm that the death of Christ at the moment of his dissolution, was actually applied to all and every individual of mankind, nor that after his oblation it was infallibly to be applied, but that, according to the appointment of God, it is applicable to all. For God hath ordained that it should be applicable to every individual through faith, but he hath not determined to give that faith to every individual, by which it may be infallibly applied. Why he should give this medium of application to some and not give it to others, ought not to be inquired, since it cannot be solved; but must be referred to the secret will of God. This may suffice for the explanation of our proposition : Let us now proceed to the proof of it.
And here it is to be shewn, not from human reason or fancy, but from the holy Scriptures, that the death of Christ, according to the will of God, is an universal remedy, by the Divine appointment, and the nature of the thing itself, applicable for salvation to all and every individual of mankind. From many testimonies I shall selett a few :
1. The principal is that of John ii. 16, God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever, believeth on him should not perish but have everlasting life. It is not difficult to deduce every particular of the aforementioned proposition from these words. For, in the first place, Christ given up by the Father to death, is here proposed as an universal remedy provided for the whole world. Then this panacea of the death of Christ is de