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273

LESSON

PAGT
88. A Field of Battle, ........P. B. SHELLEY, .......213

Vitality of Truth, .........W. C. BRYANT, ....... 214

90. Too Late I Stayed, ......W. R. SPENCER, ....... 216

91. Bernardo del Carpio, ...... Henans and LOCKHART, .

95. The Light and Life, ....... THOMAS MOORE, . ....

98. Parting of Douglas and Marunion, . Sir Walter Scott, ...

100. The Death of Marmion, ..... Sir Walter Scott, ...

102. From a Prologue, ........0. W. HOLMES, .....

..251

103. The Graves of a Household, ..... Felicia HEMANS, ....

104. The Rescue of tho Lamb, ..... WM. WORDS WORTH, ...

107. Downfall of Poland, ....... Thomas CAMPBELL, ... 200

109. Sonnet, ............J. BLANCO WHITE, . ... . 264

110. From Young's Night Thoughts, ............... 206

112. Wolsey to Cromwell, ...... SHAKSPEARE, ..... 268

113. Speech of Van Artevelde, . .... Henry Taylor, . ... 269

116. Onward, ............J. K. LOMBARD, . ...

117. Whatever is is Right, ...... ALEXANDER Pope, ... 276

119. Battle Hymn and Farewell to Life, Korner, ....... 279

120. Waterloo, ........... Lord BYRON, . ..... 280

122. Be Just, ............

.......... Aaron Hill, .

289

123. To-morrow, ........... NATHANIEL Cotton, .... 290

124. Quotations from Poots, ................. 293

126. How to Have what we Like, ... HORACE SMITH, .... 1.300

130. Address to an Egyptian Mummy, .IIORACE SMITI, ... . 307

132. The Winds, ...........W. C. BRYANT, ....

134. Mark Antony's Address, ..... SHAKSPEARE, ..... 316

135. Address of Caradoc, the Bard, . . . Sin E. B. Lytton, .....

137. The Child of Earth, ....... CAROLINE Norton, ....

140. Hamlet's Soliloquy on Death, ... SAAKSPEARE, ....... 332

141. Catiline's Defiance, ....... Geo. CroLY, ........333

Immortality, .......... Saran F.

. . Saran F. ADAMS, ...... 334

142. The Unscarchable One, ...

5 GABRIEL R. DERZHAVINE, 2 o
Translated by J. BOWRING, Š •03

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DIALOGUES.

40. Quarrel of the Authors, ..... Paraphrase from MOLIERE, . . 111
54. The Hostess and the Quack, ... Altered from John TOBIN, . . . 143
68. Cato's Message to Cæsar, ..... JOSEPH ADDISON, ......175
94. The Reading of the Will, . .................. 230
108. The Inquisitive Man, ......John POOLE, ........ 261
122. The Choleric Father, .......R. B. SHERIDAN, ...... 286

PART I.

MARKS AND SOUNDS.

Good reading has been generally considered under three heads, namely, the mechanical, wnicu supposes the ability to speak the names of words on seeing them. ; the iniellectual, which includes a comprehension of the author's ideas; and the rhetorical, in which the tones appropriate to an expressiun of feeling are considered, together with such a management of the voice as may best convey to the hearer the full import and sentisrent or what is read.

The pauses and marks in reading are the comma (,), indicating the shortest pause ; the semicolon (;), indicating a pause somewhat longer than the comma ; the colon (:), indicating a pause longer than the semicolon ; the period (.), which indicates the longest pause.

To these we should add the interrogation mark( ? ), should we not? indicating a question ; the exclamation mark (!), indicating emotion ; the dash (—), indicating a sudden break; the parenthesis marks (as . here), used when words independent of the sentence are thrown in.

The apostrophe (') indicates the possessive case; as, Mary's book. It is alsс used to mark the omission of one letter or more; as, e'er for ever ; 'gan for began.

The hyphen is used to separate syllables ; also to connect compound words; as, in-ter-rupt, wood-shed.

The acute accent, as now generally used in English dictionaries, de notes that the stress of the voice should be put on a certain syllable ; as, fam'i-ly, in-tim'i-date, in'stant, in-sist'. The pupil should distinctly understand this, as the pronunciation of words is frequently indicated, in the following lessons, by the help of this little mark.

The diæ'resis, a Greek word, signifying a division, divides into syllao. bles two vowels that might otherwise seem to make a diphthong; as, Creätor. Here the e and a are separate in sound; but in creature, ca is a diphthong. The diæresis may be placed over a vowel, to show that tho

vowel ought to be pronounced separately, as if commencing a new syllable; as, wingëd, learnëd, blessëd, agëd.

Marks of quotation are used “ to denote that the words of another person, real or supposed, than the author, are quoted.”

The ma’kron, a Greek word, signifying long, is merely the hyphen mark placed over a vowel, and denotes that the quantity is long; as, hāte, mēte, hide, nõte, mūte. The breve (from the Latin brevis, short) denotes that the vowel over which it is placed is short ; as, hắt, mět, hit, hot, hŭt, myth.

Our language contains thirty-four purely elementary sounds, and six compound sounds, that are generally classed as elementary. Five of the letters, a, e, i, o, u, are called vowels ; the rest consonants, except w and y when they end a syllable, and then they become vowels.

These elementary sounds are a in far, fat, fate, fall; e in me, met; i in fit; o in note, not; u in bull; oo in fool; u in but; w in wet; y in yet; h in hot; ng in king; m in man; n in not ; 1 in let; r in run; p in pan, 6 in bag; f in fan, v in van; th in thin, th in thine ; t in tin, d in din; k in kind, g in gun; s in sin, z in zeal ; sh in shine, z in azure.

There are four compound vowel sounds sometimes classed as elementary ; namely, i in pine, u in cube, ou in house, oi in voice; and two com-“ pound consonant sounds, namely, ch in chest, j in jest.

The letters 0,9, and z, do not appear in the above list, because, as representatives of sound, they are redundant; c expressing only what is as well expressed by s or k (as in city, can); q being only kw; and x, ks or gs.

By cognate consonant sounds is meant a class of sounds allied or related to each other; as p and b, f and v, th in thin and th in this. The former, namely, p, f, and th in thin, are said to be aspirate ; the latter, vocal.

When two vowels unite to form a syllable, they are called a diphthong; as, aid, mean, hoist. When three vowels unite to form a syllable, they are called a triphthong ; as, beauty, view.

In the following exercises, words are arranged illustrating the sound to be enunciated. Let the pupil first pronounce the representative sound by itself, and then apply it to the letter or letters conveying it In the Exercises.

It should be explained that different letters are often used to express the same sound. In great and weigh, ea and eigh have the simple sound of long a as in fāte, and are its substitutes or equivalents.

Much trouble in the mispronunciation of common words, such as again, been, none, catch, evil, even, &c., will be avoided by drilling a class in the following Exercises, the words of which have been carefully selected.. ..

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(indeterminate, as in ask, grasp. By some authorities, including Walker and Smart, the a in this class of words has the sound of short a, as in hút. Good usage, in some parts of the country, gives it a sound as open as that of a in far, father. Worcester assigns to it an intermediate place between the sounds of a in fut and a in far. As this intermediate sound is necessarily vague and undefined, teachers must use their discretion in choosing from the authorities.) Mask, grasp, ad-vance', pass, bas’ket, branch, glance, dance, clasp, cask, flask, låst, mast, fast, grass.

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