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dooty, tūne toon, &c. Long u after r, in the same syllable, owing to the trilled quality of the r, may take the sound of long 00; after the other consonants it should retain its normal sound.) Cube, dew, due, feud, knew, neu'tral, new, pro-duce', stew, stu'dent, stu'pid, tube, Tues'day, tu'mid, tu'tor, con'sti-tute, in'sti-tute,

view. ou:-(as in house. This sound is often perverted into ceow, as if house

were heeouse; cow, keeow. Nothing could be more offensive to correct ears.) Brow, cloud, down, dow'ry, crowd, drought, noun, county, now, out, pow'der, pro-nounce', town, vow, en-dow-ment.

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W and y, when they end a word or syllable, as in now, dow'ry, fly'ing,

try, become vowels. When they begin a word or syllable, as in will, n-ward', ye, they are regarded as having the force of consonants.


A feeble enunciation of the unaccented syllables is a common fault; but an over precision should be avoided ; practice the following: ev'er-y, de-liv'er-er, de-liv'er-ance, mu'sic-al, med'al, en'er-gy, rev'er-ent, civil,

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Of the perversion of the diphthongs ou and oi, by which count is converted into caount, town into taown, &c., and voice into vice, joint into jint, &c., .we have already spoken. Persons habituated to this fault are generally unaware of it.

Do not change the w at the end of the words saw, law, draw, &c., to r, as if they were sor, lor, dror, &c.

Do not give the sound of short u to short a before nt and ss, in a final unaccented syllable, as in ar'ro-gant, in'fant, tres'pass, main'te-nance, dor'mant, re-luc'tant ; or the same sound of u to the final syllables én, ent, and ěnce, as in con-tentment, gen'lle-men, prov'i-dence, in'so-lent. In these syllables there should be a delicate sound of short a and short e, without stress.

The vowel before final 1, in evil, driv'el, grov'el, &c., is unsounded ; but in most other words it should be sounded in the unaccented syllable ; as, pen'cil, an'vil, fi'nal, me'dal, nov'el, mod'el, parcel, chap'el, rev'el. Short i before n is subject to the same remark; as, Latin, matin, sat'in, cer'tain, mountain, cap'tain, fountain (pronounced certin, &c.) But in cous'in, ba'sin, &c., the i is not heard

Short e before n, when they make a final syllable not under accent, hould be sounded, in sud'den, kitch'en, slov'en, children, linen, chick'en, &c., and also before d in hun'dred; but in nearly all other words ending in unaccented en, the e of this syllable should be silent; as, heaven,

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In the spelling and defining lessons, the following abbreviations have jeen used : a for adjective ; ad. for adverb; con. for conjunction ; n. for name or noun ; obs. for obsolete; pl. for plural ; pp. for participle pas. sive ; ppr. for participle present ; prep. for preposition ; pret. for preterit tense ; v. i. for vérb intransitive; v. t. for verb transitive.

Forms indicating the pronunciation of the whole or a part of a word are sometimes placed in parenthesis between the word and the definition.

The long vowel mark, or makron, and the short vowel mark, or breve, · tre occasionally placed over vowel letters, in the text. This is generally done to indicate that the sound is apt to be slighted. Thus, long o in both, tone, most, is often robbed of its fullness ; and long u in 'tor, stū'pid, dūke, &c., is often perverted into the sound of oo in cool. The force of these marks, and also that of the ac'cent, should be well understood by the pupil.

The figures between marks of parenthesis, after the names of authors, are designed to indicate the dates of birth and death.



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1. READING aloud, when rightly practiced, is good exercise for the health. It brings into active play most of the muscles of the trunk, to a degree of which few are aware till their attention is called to it.

2. The sublimity of wisdom is to do those things living which are to be desired when dying. Death has nothing terrible in it but what life has made so.

3. He is a wise man who is willing to receive instruction from all men. He is a mighty man who subdues his evil inclinations. He is a rich man who is contented with his lot.

4. Lost! Somewhere between sunrise and sunset, two golden hours, each set with sixty diamond minutes. No reward is offered, for they are lost forever.

5. Be courteous. Remember that bad manners make bad morals. A kind no is often more agreeablo than an uncourteous yes.

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