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by practice, — you will be likely to read aright. “ Probably not a single instance," says Archbishop Whately, “could be found, of any one who has ate tained, by the study of any system of instruction, a really good delivery; but there are many — probably nearly as many as have fully tried the experiment who have by this means been totally spoiled.”

8. In familiar discourse we rarely fail to place the emphasis properly; and this is because we fully understand what we are saying. In order, therefore, to give the right emphasis to what we read aloud, we should acquaint ourselves with the meaning and construction of every sentence; for emphasis is, as it were, the invisible gesticulation of the mind through the voice, and all rules must give way to it.

9. Dispose the emphasis aright in the following sentence: “ The pleasures of the imagination are not so gross as those of sense, nor so refined as those of the understanding.” In this example, the emphatic words, gross and refined, are opposed to each other, and con. trasted with sense and understanding.

“He raised a mortal to the skies ;

She drew an angel down.” Here three emphatic words in the first line are upposed to three in the second.

10. In the following passage, from Addison's tragedy of “ Cato," the italicized words ought to be the most emphatic; and the parenthetical clause ought to be spoken in a lower tone of voice, and with a more rapid utterance, than the principal sentence; a slight pause, both before and after the parenthesis, being appropriate.

“ If there's a Power above us

(And that there is, all Nature cries aloud
Through all her works), he must delight in virtue
And that which he delights in must be happy.”

11. The reply of Mirabeau, to the messenger of the king, who had ordered the French National Assembly to disperse, presents two emphatic words, which the reader who comprehends and feels the speech will not be slow to detect: “Go say to those who sent you, that we are here by the power of the people, and that · we will not be driven hence save by the power of the bayonet."

12. The following passage, in the reply of Lord Thurlow to the Duke of Grafton, contains at least eight prominently emphatic words: “No one venerates the Peerage more than I do; but, my lords, I must say that the Peerage solicited me, — not I the Peerage. Nay, more, - I can say, and will say, that, as a peer of Parliament, as Speaker of this right honorable House, as keeper of the great seal, as guardian of his majesty's conscience, as Lord High Chancellor of England, — nay, even in that character alone in which the noble duke would think it an affront to be considered, but which character none can deny me, as a man,- I am, at this moment, as respectable -- I beg leave to add, as much respected as the proudest peer I now look down upon.”

13. Few positive rules for reading can be laid down, to which many unforeseen exceptions can not be taken. “Give the sense of what you read,” says Mr. Knowles. “Mind is the thing. Pauses are essential only where the omission would obscure the sense. The orator who, in the act of delivering himself, is studiously solicitous about parceling his words, is sure to leave the best part of his work undone. He delivers words, not thoughts. Deliver thoughts, and words will take care enough of themselves, — providing always that you have acquired the proper accuracy in pronunciation."

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1. If we are not fully prepared for war, let the sublime fact be soon exhibited, that a free and valiant nation, with our numbers, and a just cause, is always a powerful nation, — is always ready to defend its essential rights. In the Congress of 1774, among other arguments used to prevent a war, and discourage separation from Great Britain, the danger of hav. ing our towns battered down and burnt was zealously urged. . 2. The venerable Christopher Gadsden, of South Carolina, rose and replied to it in these memorable words: “Our seaport towns, Mr. President, are composed of brick and wood. If they are destroyed, we have clay and timber enough in our country to rebuild them. But, if the liberties of our country are destroyed, where shall we find the materials to replace them?

3. During the siege of Boston, General Washington consulted Congress upon the propriety of bombarding the town. Mr. Hancock was then President of Congress. After General Washington's letter was read, a solemn silence ensued. This was broken by a member making a motion that the House should resolve itself into a committee of the whole, in order that Mr. Han. cock might give his opinion upon the important sub.

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ject, as he was so deeply interested, from having all his estate in Boston.

4. After he left the chair, he addressed the chair. man of the committee of the whole in the following words: “It is true, sir, nearly all the property I have in the world is in houses, and other real estate, in the town of Boston; but if the expulsion of the British army from it, and the liberties of our country, require their being burnt to ashes, issue the order for that pur. pose immediately."

5. What inspiring lessons of duty do examples like these inculcate! War, fellow-citizens, is a great evil; but not the greatest of evils. Submission to injustice is worse. Loss of honor is worse. A peace purchased by mean and inglorious sacrifices is worse. That sordid or that self-indulgent spirit, which would lead a man to prize the satisfactions of avarice or of worldly ease above country, above manliness, above freedom, is worse, far worse.

6. I am no apologist of war. I hate and deplore it. It should be the last resort of nations. It should be shunned on every principle, Christian and humane. It brings tremendous evils in its train. It foments some of the vilest passions of our nature, even as it often develops the most heroic virtues. If the money lav. ished in keeping up great naval and military establishments were spent in employing labor, and educating the people, how much good night be effected, how much evil might be prevented!

7. But an ignoble peace may be even more demoralizing than a sanguinary war. It may corrupt all the springs of a people's energy and magnanimity. It may make them servile, sensual, selfish. It may be such an in'cubus on a nation's character, that every true patriot must feel crushed and degraded under its weight, till he could almost exclaim, with disgraced

Cassio, “O! I have lost my reputation. I have lost the immortal part of myself, and what remains is běstial. My reputation, Iago, my reputation !”

BROWN. (1812.)

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Pronounce Alicudi, Al-e-coo'de. The ph in atmosphere has the sound of f. Do not say trax for tracts. Perfume, the noun, has the accent on the first syllable, to distinguish it from the verb per-fume'.

1. At daybreak, we set off from Cata'nia, to visit Mount Etna, that venerable and respectable father of mountains. His base and his immense declivities are covered with a numerous progeny of his own; for every great eruption prodūces a new mountain, and perhaps by the number of these, better than by any other method, the number of eruptions, and the age of Etna itself, might be ascertained. The whole mountain is divided into three distinct regions, called the fertile, the woody, and the barren region. These three are as different, both in climate and productions, as the three zones of the earth, and, perhaps, with equal propriety, might have been styled the Torrid, the Temperate, and the Frigid Zone.

2. The first region surrounds the mountain, and constitutes the most fertile country in the world.

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