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to a sudden halt by what seemed a wall of steel. In vain did they strive to break through that forest of lances presented by the foe. Their best and bravest were flung back, bleeding, and almost in despair. Every moment their peril was increasing. The wings of the Austrian army gradually advanced, so as to form a part of a circle, which, completed, would place the heroic Swiss all within the very jaws of death.
7. Who shall stop the approaching ruin ? Just as all seemed lost, Arnold Winkelried (ever honored be the name !), a native of Unterwalden, cried out, “I'll open a way for you! Take care of my wife and children! Switzerland forever! Make way for liberty!" Then, rushing upon the enemy, and “ gathering, with a wide embrace, into his single heart, a sheaf of fatal Austrian spears,” he made an opening, through which, with sword and ax, poured the impetuous Swiss. Nothing could withstand their fury. Leopold and his nobles were routed with terrific slaughter. Let James Montgomery describe the act of the martyr of liberty:
“ Make way for liberty !” he cried ;
Then ran, with arms extended wide,
LXXVIII.— NOTHING TO WEAR.
WRITHE (rithe), v. i., to twist one's | TIN'SEL, N., a kind of shining cloth; self violently, as if in pain.
any thing showy. RICK'ET-Y, a., affected with rickets ; PRE-TENSE' or PRE-TENCE', n., a false weak ; imperfect.
show or claim. TraP'PINGS, n. pl., ornaments. Dis-EN-CHANT', v.t., to free from spells.
Avoid saying spere for sphere (sfere); cuss for curse; spile for spoil; relum for realm. In such words as helm, elm, chasm, &c., some speakers have a bad habit of introducing a decided vowel sound before the m.
O! LADIES, dear ladies, the next sunny day
Grope through the dark dens, climb the rickety stair To the garret, where wretches, the young and the old, Half-starved, and half-naked, lie crouched from the cold!
See those skeleton limbs, those frost-bitten feet,
From the poor dying creature who writhes on the floor Hear the curses that sound like Hope's dying farewell,
As you sicken and shudder and fly from the door; Then home to your wardrobes, and say, if you dare, Spoiled children of Fashion,- you've nothing to wear
And, O! if perchance there should be a sphere
Must be clothed, for the life and the service above,
W. A. BUTLER.
Student. How shall we know what words we ought to make emphatic, in reading aloud ?
Professor. The only sure rule is this: Acquaint yourself fully with the meaning and spirit of what you have to utter, and then you will bestow your emphasis in a manner the best fitted to bring out that mean. ing and spirit.
Stu. I readily comprehend the importance of that rule. If I ask you for the loan of your pencil, and you hand me your penknife, and I say,“ No, it is your pencil I want," — it is easy to see that I should lay the principal stress on the word pencil.
Pro. Even so in reading; if you understand the lan. guage, you will be likely to lay the right stress upon the right words.
Stu. I have been reading what Walker says on the modulation of the voice.
- Pro. Walker is good authority. What does he say? How does he define the word ?
* For Part I. see page 91.
Stu. He says that modulation in speaking signifies that agreeable variety of changes through which the voice may be made to pass. The Latin word mod'u-lor simply means to measure off properly; to regulate.
Pro. Yes, the voice is capable of assuming three keys, or pitches, — the high, the middle, and the low. We use the high pitch in calling to a person at a distance; the middle, in ordinary conversation, like that we are now having; the low, when we wish no one to hear except the person to whom we speak, or when we would say something solemn or impressive to an audience.
Stu. Walker cautions us, however, that the difference between loud and high, and low and soft tones, ought to be well understood. We can speak louder or softer, and still continue the same pitch, or key; but we can not speak higher or lower without shifting the key.
Pro. Let it be borne also in mind that it is not bu who speaks the loudest who can be heard the furtheste Very loud speakers are seldom heard to advantage. Burke's voice is said to have been a sort of shrill cry, which marred the effect of what he uttered. Lord Chat'ham's lowest whisper was distinctly heard; and his middle tones were sweet, rich, and beautifully varied.
Stu. I have seen it stated that musical notes will be heard to a much greater distance than mere noises however loud.
Pro. We will devote the rest of this conversation to the consideration of EXERCISES IN HIGH PITCH, quoting our illustrations from Shakspeare. High Pitch, though uncommon in level speaking or reading, is appropriate to the delivery of passages where great excitement, anger, or indignation, is to be conveyed; as in the following address of Richard the Third to his troops :
o Fight, gentlemen of England ! fight, bold yeomen!
Draw, archers, draw your arrows to the head :
Upon them! Victory sits on our helms."
Pro. Yes; it should be uttered in a high, but not in a very loud, key. Intense passion may sometimes be better expressed by suppressed tones than by a loud, voluble enunciation.
Stu. That agrees with what Walker says: “The tones which mark the passions and emotions of the speaker are entirely independent of the modulation of the voice, though often confounded with it; for modulation relates only to speaking either loudly or softly, in a high or a low key; while the tones of the passions or emotions mean only that quality of sound that indi. cates the feelings of the speaker, without any reference to the pitch or loudness of his voice.” But how are we to acquire that peculiar quality of sound that indi cates the passions we wish to express ?
Pro. The answer is easy: by feeling the passion which expresses itself by that peculiar quality of bound.
Stu. But how are we to acquire a feeling of the passion?
Pro. The advice of Cicero is this: “Represent to your imagination, in the most lively manner possible, all the most striking circumstances of the transaction you describe, or of the passion you wish to feel." What are the circumstances in Romeo's case ?