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advantage: even where there is a pasture adjoining for the sheep to lie, the constant passing through the mire injures them so much as to prevent their fattening; at least I have found it so after many trials; but I speak of mountain sheep, - having no experience of any 'other. The Swedish turnips were very good. The kohlrabi got to about five pounds each; the white were the largest, the purple the hardiest. Cattle and


sheep are particularly fond of them; but I see no advantage they have over the Swedish, except that they may be got at in frost. The cole-seed was delayed sowing from the wet; and very cold weather succeeding, prevented its making much progress. It may advance in spring, but to those who want it sooner, it is a failing crop. My stock consists of 22 heifers, 8 'cows, which were in milk during summer, and give but little milk in October, 4 spring calvers, 10 head of young cattle, and 3 bulls, and 4 fattening; total shedded 51; 50 Highland heifers, -and 150. sheep; part of (he Highland heifers and sheep I have disposed of, which reduced my stock, at the commencement of the year, to 40 Highlanders, and 120 sheep.

The cows were not in general milk till the beginning of November, when the milk obtained exceeded 50 gallons per day ;. SO and upwards in the morning, and 20 in the evening. 160 quarts of new milk, and 40 of skimmed, were regularly .sold to the town, and required less than two hours to dispose of it at each part of the day.

The plan of feeding was considerably varied from the former year. Immediately after morning's milking

a stone

a stdne of steamed chaff, which had been prepared the night before, and was become sufficiently cold, was given to each cow. After this followed three pounds of oil-cake. They were then turned out to water; on returning to their sheds, they had green food. Previous to evening's milking, a second feed of chaff, and after it a further feed of green food, and at 6 o'clock a foddering of 6 or 8lb. of straw.

Calculation of expense.—In estimating the <;ost of feeding, I shall take the whole at 6d. per day.

Stone. 15. d.

2 0 Of green food - - 0\

2 0 Of chaff, &c. 2

0 3 Of oil-cake 3

0 8 Of straw 1

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Cows which gave but little milk, and had no prospect

of being improved:


3 Stone of green food - . - Of

2 Stone of chaff - - 2

Straw, Sib. - - - 1


As soon as I can accomplish bruising the oil-cake, I expect a pound and half, or two pounds at most, will

i be be amply sufficient, which will reduce the expense to 5d. per day. Upon an average I had, in milk, about 28 cows. They gave, with the exception of those which had been in milk during the summer) above eight quarts, wine measure, per day. The state of the atmosphere produced a very considerable alteration in their milking, I have known it vary two gallons a meal. I estimate the profit which might fairly be expected from each cow, as follows:

£ i d. £ s. d.


Supposing that, instead of heifers, the dairy was. stocked with cows of the second and third calf, and the expense of keeping were estimated at sixpence each, I think ten wine quarts might reasonably be expected for 220 days, at the two meals.


1 conceive this profit not to be over-estimated, but such as may fairly be looked for. The quantity of straw consumed for fodder, &c has so far exhausted my stock, as to oblige ule to adopt expedients for bedding both cattle and horses. The substitute I have had recourse to is sea sand, which I can obtain within a mile. I use it so as to absorb all the urine, and expect it will be a very valuable manure for strong ground. I scatter a thin covering of straw over it for horses.

The expense of steaming chaff for a week, is as follows:

A woman, who attends the fires and sells the

milk, at 12d, per day, supposing her labour s. d.

to be divided between the two - 36

Half a hundred weight of coals per day, 3d. 1 9

Expenses - - - .- 53

100 stone per day, id. per stone - 84

Clear gain 3 1

1 have obtained an account of an experiment made last year by a very accurate friend of mine, of the feeding of four milch cows for 201 days, where hay in part was given:

f 2 896 stone

'••>'. .

896 stone of hay consumed by the four milch cows in £ s. d.

in 240 days, cost, at 6d. per stone - 22 8 0

10 Winchester bushels of ground oats, at 4s. - 2 0 0

64 bushels of bran, at 13d. - - - - 308

43 stone of carrots, at 6d. per stone - - 1 4 0

Half an acre of cole-seed - - - - 2 10 0

Attendance - - - - 8 0 0

£ s. 39 8 8

By milk &c. sold 54 8 •

Manure - 50 Piofit by milch cows 27 1Q 5

'Four Calves 8 0 Risk and depreciation in value

31. per head - 12 0 0

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This gives a profit, within a fraction, of 41 each. Each cow appears to have given eight quarts of milk per day, wine measure.

Cost of feeding, without attendance, is 9^d. per day.

The quantity of food given to each beast,, was:

Stone. 16.
Hay - - - 16

Green food - *•- 2 0

Ground oats - * 04

3 10

Experiments in making of Butter* from the above Milch Cows:

48| quarts wine measure, taken from the produce

* I Lave found from experience, that all disagreeable taste in


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