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Let us suppose thirty-three head of cattle to have been fed on hay, and that each consumed two stone per day; estimating the produce of an acre of hay at one hundred and sixty stone; at this rate it would have required eighty-two acres to have fed them for 200 days, admitting the after-grass to have been adequate to the support of thiity-five head of Highland heifers, and sixty sheep for the like space of time. If I am correct in this calculation, there will be found a clear gain to the public of sixty acres of land in the feeding of this trifling stock.

A moderate acre of green food is supposed to produce 15 tons, or 24OO stone; but with the drill husbandry, I conceive the weight will be considerably greater.

I have not thought proper to make any alteration in the preceding statement of the supposed weight of green crop, but suffered it to remain as an example of the danger of arguing from any thing but actual experience. Fortunately for the position I maintained, the green crops under my own inspection (obtained with coal ashes) greatly exceed the data upon which I calculated. Subsequent information obtained of the weight of turnip crops in Durham and Northumberland, offers a further confirmation of the value. of green crops. I am much indebted to my ingenious and intelligent friend, Mr. G. Taylor, of St. Helen's, Auckland, for the following valuable communication of an experiment made by the Durham Society for Agricultural Experiments, and for the permission granted me by the Society to make use of them.."


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Report of the Result of an Experiment on Turnips, 1808.

Kinds of Turnip, and
mode of Culture.

Yellow Bullock,
Broad Cast.

Ditto Drilled
at 31| Inches.

Broad Cast.

Ditto, Drilled
at31f Inches.

Norfolk White;
Broad Cast.

Ditto, Drillrd
at 3fji Inches.

Weight, per acre, computed from actual weight on eight square yards. Broad Cast, and ab't forty-six Drilled.

32 14 1 0

Ol Tops.

r/ons. Cwt. St. lb.
6 9 5 1

4 5 3 5

3 15 4 13

2 13 6.11

4 1 7 5

8 5 2 3

41 15' 2 1

Proportion of Bulb

in the

weight of both.






Reduced proportion
of the

weight of Bulbs.



REMARKS.—The soil a sandy loam, all manured alike, and sown at the same time. The yellow bullock, broad cast,
supposed to owe its suprriority to the drilled, being hoed at the usual distancr; whereas the top being very small, the distance
ought to have beea less, a circumstance not known then, but which showed itself, and was allowed for in the broad cast —
The yellow bullock found not to stand the frost.

Nov. 30ih, i<io3. _ MAS,, Eie,enere 3 -ow.n a. n T.8n 3innn.


REMARKS—The soil was a rich sandy loam, manure the same to all. The superiority of weight in the broad cast yellow bullock and Swedish, is supposed to havfc arisen.from the smallness of top in these kinds, which was allowed for in heeing the broad cast, but could not be equally allowed for in the drilled, because the latter are "set out," or hoed, for the first time, at an earlier period, when the difference of top is not obvious, nor had this difference been adverted to in regulating the stitches, In the Norfolk white, to which the labourers had been accustomed, the drilled appear with their usual superiority.

1 3 3AeA, aA 133 AAA, AAiA 6 3 1Ae, e6c.mnmr,

Weight of Turnips and other Green 'Crotts at the Schoose, 1807.


I have yra to prove how far the 1140 headed cabbage will pay the expense of gathering ;should it do
so, it will be a most valuable plant;the leaves are not so subject to decay as the cabbage.

In contrasting the above with the Durham crops of turnips, it will appear that the weight of top, in
the broad cast, greatly exceeds1 those in tha drill;I am strongly inclined to believe, by continuing the
working with the plough and harrow for a greater length of time, an equally heavy crop might be.obtainfd
on the four-foot stitches. The red turnip is not esteemed, irr consequence of its weight of top. The
yellow will not stand the weather. The.soil a strong loam, inclinable to clay. The turnips after, wheat,
which followed potatoes.

I have been favoured with the following account of the weight of an acre of turnips, the property of Mr.
Jobbings, for which he received the premium, at theOvingham Agricunural Meraing, in Oct- I8Q7.

Tons. Cwts.' lbs.

Weight of Bulbs - 45 6 66

Tops - 11 1 66

Roots - 1 17 46

Total 57 5 , WEIGHT OF GREEN CROPS, (PER ACRE,) 1808.



Winscales white globe turnips 48

Hunday white globe turnips 33

Cole, broadcast, sown Oct. 17, 14 96

Do transplanted, which bad failed.... 9

Swedes, sown in drills, Nov. 9 34

Do transplanted 40

The worst transplanted lf;£

1 he worst in drills 115

Hundred-headed cabbages 18

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Mr. Bates's (of Halton Castle) white

globe turnips , 56

Mr. Mason's (6f Chilton) Swedes 27

Mr. Atkinson's (of Staingills Swedes, which got the premium. Stitches,

24 inches 48

*„* Weighed in November.
Mr. Bates's crop obtained the premium at Ovingham.

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After the rate of four stone per day, an acre would supply food for one beast for 600 days. At the rate of two stone of hay per day, it would require seven acres and a half; but say seven, allowing the half acre for the straw likewise given. We ought, in striking the balance in favour of green crops, to take into the account its impoverishment of the ground by hav, and the improvement by green crops. The drill husbandry, under judicious management, is the best mode of improvement, and might be alternately practised with green crops till the end of time.

I assume,

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