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tention in freeing them of decayed leaves; and after frost, the difficulty is still greater; it is, however, indispensably necessary, in order to prevent the milk from being tainted.
I had last year thirty-five tons and a half of cabbages per acre, or 23£2 plants at a distance of four feet and a half from each other, and with but fourteen tons .of manure; some of the cabbages weighed 5.5lb.: the same ground has this year produced sixty Winchesters of barley, for one sown with Mr. M'Dowell's drill.
The last two years, I have not been successful with cabbages, the severity of the winter having destroyed my young plants. Cabbages are a great convenience in case of a long duration of frost, when turnips cannot be procured. The 1000 headed cabbage I have found answer a tolerable purpose, but I have no idea of their repaying the labour of stripping the leaves.
The cabbages planted were the drum-head cabbage. I wish an equal weighty and more hardy kind could be obtained, that would stand the winter better, as the cost of cleaning and stripping the decayed leaves tends greatly to reduce their value.
The common turnip followed; next the Swedish and kohlrabi; and last the coleseed. This latter article of food I found to be most productive of milk, and it has the further advantage of standing till the end of May, and latterly to the middle of June, by which time lucern is fit to cut.
I made a further experiment in feeding milch-cows, by giving oil cake. This novelty encountered still greater prejudice. On trial it soon appeared that the milk was considerably richer, its flavour not afFected, and the quantity also much increased.
An attempt was made to prejudice the public against the Schoose milk. The children (no doubt set upon doing it) followed the cart, crying out, "oil-cake milk." A little experience soon overcame the prejudice, and it is now sought for from its superior richness, in preference to any milk brought to the town.
To this I attribute the uncommon condition of the whole stock so fed. The certificates, which accompany this, will be fully satisfactory upon that point.
My dairy commenced the I st of October, 1804, and continued constantly supplying the town till the 18th of May, 1805. As a part of the heifers were not purchased till late in October, the whole not in milk till the middle of November, I have extended the period thirty days above the two hundred, upon which the calculation of food is founded, to complete that period for the whole stock; and allowance must be made for this small excess.
The time of milking in the morning was between six and seven; immediately afterwards, a feed of cabbageS was given., as long as they lasted. At ten o'clock, previous to turning out, two pounds of oilcake each. In favourable days they had turnips in the pasture, with the tops and tails cut off; on returning to the sheds, they were served with cabbages; between that time and four they were milked: this was followed by a second allowance of two pounds of oil. cake each; afterwards a third feed of cabbages; and
at at six o'clock a foddering of straw from six to eight pounds.
The labour of cutting off the tops and tails of the turnips was amply compensated by the advantage o* feeding the wintering Highland cattle with them in preference to straw.
The expense of green food does not stand the farmer in one halfpenny per stone; the tops and tails of the tuinip must be considered of still less value, whilst etraw cannot be estimated under two-pence. I have with some difficulty introduced the purchasing of straw by the stone. The price has been advanced to 2 J- per slone. By weight the purchaser knows what he gets; •whilst sold by the wisp, it depended on the character and feelings of the seller, and was cheap or dear accordingly. Notwithstanding the disparity of cost, there is still a greater difference in their nutrition. What I wintered as above, upon the refuse of green food, were in condition for killing two months earlier* and exceeded any of the same kind I ever had, both in weight of carcase and tallow, and brought from two to three pounds per head more than I had ever obtained for the like stock at any former period.
The plan 'I followed in estimating the profits upon the experiment, was, in the first instance, to put a va-. lue on the green crop, supposing it to be sold by the farmer to the milkman; and afterwards to unite together the two profits. I may be supposed to have over-rated the cost as well as the value of the green crops; this, however, is matter of opinion, and must depend in a great measure upon situation. An acre
of turnips in Northumberland or Durham Is often sold from eight to ten guineas, to be eaten off the ground. The cost of cleaning drilled turnips much exceeds the broadcast, yet I have no doubt whatever, the weight will amply compensate for the expcncc, and put the land in much superior condition for future crops; and, when the drill husbandry is properly attended to, will greatly exceed the general estimate of fifteen tons per acre. I shall endeavour to ascertain this fact against another year.
The resulting profit upon the milk falls short of what I expected, and what I am confident it might and ought to have been, under proper management. It is sufficient, however, to encourage the. hopes at first entertained, of the practicability of the measure, and to determine me to proceed with the experiment. Some facts which have since come to my knowledge, have proved I was justified in the opinions I enter* tained, that the profits ought to have been much larger.
With the experience I have gained, I have no doubt I shall exhibit a very different result of profits in the next year's trial.
Value of the Green Crop, upon a supposition of Its
being sold to the cow-keeper. Twenty-two acres of green crop, at 10/. gg * s.
per acre - - 220 0
Carry over 220 O
Brought forward 2120 0
Estimate of expense attending the raising
Four acres of cabbages, at £ s.
at 4/. per acre - 24 0
One of kohlrabi - 5 0
per acre - 31 10
Gain on the crops - 10) 10
The improvements in the land and value of succeeding crops is supposed to be adequate to the rent and taxes. Value of the land, 40s. per acre.
Poor cess, under Is. 6d. in the pound.
Expense of feeding Twenty-two Milch-cows for 200
Each acre is supposed to produce 15 tons, or 2400
Allowing four stones of green food, to each cow per day, for 200 days, would require seven acres.