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ELEMENTS

MODERN GEOGRAPHY

REV. ALEX. MACKAY, LL.D. F.R.G.3.

AUTHOR OF

'FACTS AND DATES;' * MANUAL OF MODERN GEOGRAPHY, MATHEMATICAL,

PHYSICAL, AND POLITICAL;' 'OUTLINES OF MODERN GEOGRAPHY;*

* FIRST STEPS IN GEOGRAPHY,' ETc.

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WILLIAM frfc&CWOOD AND SONS

EDINBURGH AND LONDON

MDCCCLXXII

201. &' /2!d.

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PEEFACE TO. NINTH EDITION.

In this edition of the 'Elements,' the newly - constituted German Empire (including the territory acquired from France), finds its proper place; the Kingdom of Italy, now embracing the late Papal States, is exhibited for the first time in its integrity; while as regards the British Isles, the results of the Census of 1871, so far as hitherto published, are in every instance adhibited. With respect to other countries, more especially our own Foreign Possessions, numerous slight alterations and corrections will be found on almost every page, thus putting the 'Elements' fairly abreast of the new and improved edition of the Author's 'Manual of Modern Geography,' issued a few months ago. At the same time, however, and in order to obviate all inconvenience to Teachers possessing copies of former editions, the greatest care has been taken to preserve the identity of the 'Elements' in every section and paragraph.

Hatton Place, Edinburgh,
September 20, 1871.

PEEFACE TO FIFTH EDITION.

The Author has thoroughly revised the Fifth Edition, and introduced such changes as the progress of the science rendered necessary. Recent investigations have materially modified the conclusions of Astronomers regarding the Sun's distance from the Earth and from the other members of the Solar System, while ten new Minor Planets have been discovered. These, with numerous other corrections and additions, will be found detailed in the article on Mathematical Geography, to which is now appended a brief paragraph explanatory of the Tides. In Political Geography, the article on British India has been entirely rewritten, and the new orthography, so earnestly recommended by the Royal Asiatic Society and by all Educationists in that country, has been adopted. In case Teachers in this country should experience any inconvenience from this change, the former spelling, when widely different from the new, is invariably placed beside the latter in the "Notes on Towns" (p. 171-174). Such political changes as have taken place in Abyssinia, the West Indies, in Russian and British America, have been carefully noted, and numerous corrections made on other parts of the work. .

Edinburgh, October 1868.

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